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Lecture jarvela 200913


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Lecture jarvela 200913

  1. 1. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT Introduction to technology enhanced learning Prof. Sanna Järvelä Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit Department of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education University of Oulu, Finland
  2. 2. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT Learning is ”a hot topic” today! 1) There is a transformation of industrial economy to knowledge economy and creative economy. The knowledge economy is based on “the production and distribution of knowledge and information, rather than the production and distribution of things” (Drucker, 1993, p. 182). 2) Knowledge economy is also a learning society. 3) It is no longer possible to imagine that education ends by a certain age, after which learning is no longer necessary.
  3. 3. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT What is Learning Sciences? (Saywer, 2006) • Is an interdisciplinary field that studies teaching and learning. The sciences of learning include cognitive science, educational psychology, computer science, sociology, neuroscience and other fields. • Educators can use the learning science to design more effective learning environments, including schools, classrooms and informal settings.
  4. 4. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT Why do we need learning science? • Because, the Standard Model of Schooling – Has been based on common-sense assumptions that had never been tested scientifically. – Knowledge is a collection of facts about the world and procedures for how to solve problems. – The goal of schooling is to get these facts and procedures into the student’s head. – Teachers know these facts and procedures, and their job is to transmit them to students. • The schools don’t teach the deep knowledge that underlies knowledge work.
  5. 5. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT Key finding from the Learning Sciences (Saywer, 2006) The importance of • learning deeper conceptual understanding, rather than superficial facts and procedures. • learning connected and coherent knowledge, rather than bits of knowledge. • learning authentic knowledge in its context of use, rather than decontextualized classroom exercises. • learning in collaboratively, rather than in isolation.
  6. 6. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT Developing Future Education: Deep learning instead of transfer of facts
  7. 7. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT Technology for deep learning (Dillenbourg, Järvelä & Fischer, 2009; Brandsford, et al.,2000) • Computers can represent abstract knowledge in concrete form. • Computer tools can allow learners to articulate their developing knowledge in a visual and verbal way. • Virtual forums offer opportunities for sharing and building knowledge together. • Social interactions will be enriched.
  8. 8. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT What is collaborative learning? (Dillenbourg, 1999; Baker et al., 1999; Fischer et al., 2007; Roschelle & Teasley, 1995, Stahl, 2006 ) ”A coordinated synchronous activity that is the result of of continued attempt to construct and maintain a shared conception of a problem” Collaboration >< Co-operation (Roschelle & Teasley, 1995) (Webb, Nemer & Ing, 2006)
  9. 9. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT Why collaboration is effective for learning? Learning does not emerge because of a group of people, but because collaboration stimulates and activates knowledge acquisition mechanisms in individual learners! Asking questions, clarifying, explaining, constructing arguments, comparing opinions, creating new ideas…..
  10. 10. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT Collaborative learning is not a recipe • Collaborative learning often leads to better results than learning individually (Johnson & Johnson, 1999), but not systematically. • Asking students to work together is not enough (Järvelä & Häkkinen, 2001). • Collaboration per se does not produce learning outcomes; its results depend upon the extent to which groups actually engaged in productive interactions. 10
  11. 11. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT 11 Computer Supported Collaborative Learning ”Learning scientists have discovered that deep learning is more likely to occur in complex social and technological environments” (Brandsford et al. 2000)
  12. 12. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT 12 Collaboration among peers can be designed and teachers can create conditions in which effective group interactions are expected to occur.
  13. 13. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT Our approach has been to consider self-regulated learning as a framework for “innovations in learning design” – developing opportunities for collaboration and creating competence tools.
  14. 14. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGYESEARCH UNIT Media effectiveness is still a myth – this is why we need learning sciences • Each time a new media enters the educational sphere, it generates over-expectations with respect to its intrinsic effects on learning. • New artefacts (iPads, mobile phones) or new tools (WIKIS, Blogs, clouds…) emerge. Spesific arguments for the choose and use of tools are needed Technology alone does very little to aid learning, but students social and cognitive activities are critical. Learning Sciences help 14