Eccless sees competence purely as a ones own beliefs. Quite like self-efficacy but in more comprehensive way like ” im good at maths”. For example when participatindg in negotioation of a math problem child can be
As a consequence, whether or not a student is deemed to be “competent” is no longer seen as a trait of that student, but rather an interaction between the opportunities that a student has to participate competently and the ways that individual takes up those opportunities. For example if teacher continuously regards child´s actions as competent in particular tasks it will affect positively on childs self-efficacy. Because competence gets constructed in particular situation and in particular classroom, what counts as being competent can vary from classroom to classroom
Because we believe that social behavior has vast impact to compente we decided to use MASCS which provides coherent frame to assess the activities of individual.
The question pattern aimed to grasp a comprehensive view about how child interpreted the situation in the clip. Questions concerning task it self and child self-efficacy emerged to be most interesting question. INSTRUC THE CLIP There are two different situations and interview. But they are samekind of situations where teacher encourages and prompts child after succesful action.
In data analysis the emphasis can be also on children´s views as well as on researchers view.
Arttu mykkänen Jure 2011
How children display and construct competence in learning contexts Arttu Mykkänen & Sanna Järvelä The Department of Educational Sciences and Teacher Education Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit (LET) University of Oulu
Introduction <ul><li>To strengthen children´s competence, they need to be framed as accountable authors of their own learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this study is to find out how children display and construct competence in different kind of social contexts that occur in their everyday classroom interaction, especially in learning situations. </li></ul><ul><li>The assumption has been that competencies assumption that competencies are simply attributes of individuals (cf. Eccles & Wigfield, 2002). </li></ul>
Theoretical background <ul><li>The concept of competence refers to action where child is adapting in social situation and consequently constructing own competence. Competence gets constructed as a participation to social context; context where child is accountable to someone (e.g., teacher), accountable for something (e.g., task) and how child is acting in the situation (Gresalfi et. al., 2009; Cobb et. al., 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>In the context of learning, competence is assumed to affect positively to child´s efficacy beliefs (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002) for example through mastery experience. </li></ul>
AIMS <ul><li>Demonstrate how empirically investigate how competence is constructed in classroom situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce a case example from the data. </li></ul>
Data collection and methods <ul><li>Altogether (N=71) children from pre school to the second graded participated to this study. The children ages varied from six to eight. </li></ul><ul><li>These children were followed up for 7 weeks during their everyday classroom interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Six children were selected from each classrooms, resulting altogether 24 case-children. </li></ul>
Selecting case-children <ul><ul><li>The purpose was to select three high socially competent and three socially low competent children. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case-children were selected with the Multisource assessment of children’s social competence scale MASCS ( Kaukiainen, Junttila, Kinnunen & Vauras, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Multisource assessment of children’s social competence scale provides a coherent frame to assess the activities of the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment includes questionnaires for teachers, peers or parents and for children themselves. </li></ul>
Video data <ul><li>Four researchers worked as pairs in two classrooms during a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Each researcher followed one previously selected case child at a time during one to two hours (lessons). This constituted 59 videotaped lessons (44 hours), 58 clips (40 minutes). </li></ul><ul><li>From each videotaped sessions researchers negotiated appropriate clips. These clips were selected by two researchers. The clips were selected to present a moment where children expressed joy or success. These moments were related for example to group work, answering correctly to the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of the video data is to provide clips for stimulated interview. </li></ul>
Stimulated recall interview <ul><li>Interview procedure began by viewing the clip. After that interviewer asked questions from children. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of the questions </li></ul>1. What happened in the clip/video? 1.1 What did you do in the clip? 1.2 What happened before this situation? 2. What did you think in the situation? Why? 3. How did you feel in the situation? Why? 4. How confident you were for succeeding in the situation? Why? 5. How did you succeeded? Why? 5.1 Did the way you felt in the situation affect how you performed in the situation? 5.2 How could you have helped yourself? (if failed) 5.3 How would you advice a friend if he/she would ask you to help in same kind of a situation? 6. Did you get any help in the situation? What kind? 7. What happened after the situation?
In sum <ul><li>In both exerpt, teacher clearly encouraged the students. </li></ul><ul><li>In the first exerpt student was explaining purely what he did and how he proceeded in the task. </li></ul><ul><li>In the second exerpt, student was reflecting he´s actions in a relation to what teacher did. </li></ul>
Discussion <ul><li>Methodologically advantage of this data collection is that it aims to view situations comprehensively. That is, both video observation data and stimulated recall interview data can be analysed emphasizing both child´s and researcher´s view. (Morgan, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Data clip underpins the view that competence can look very different from setting to setting and from classroom to classroom (Gresalfi et al., 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>There is still need to further investigate the most appropriate method to study competence. For example does the method of interview have any advantages compared to questionnaires (cf. Vandenplas-Holper, Roskam & Fontaine, 2010). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul>