Economic and culture between timor leste and thailand

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Economic and culture between timor leste and thailand

  1. 1. 1 TOPIC ECONOMIC AND CULTURE BETWEEN TIMOR LESTE AND THAILAND REPORT Name : Silveiro Aparicio ID. Student : 5606122 Date : 27th of July, 2013 Subject : Integrated Social Science
  2. 2. 2 Contents………………………………………………………………………………………...…… 2 Acknowledgments.................................................................................................................... 3 Chapter : I Introduction........................................................................................................ 4 A. Background....................................................................................................... 4 I. Timor - Leste......................................................................................... 4 II. Thailand................................................................................................. 4 B. Purpose.............................................................................................................. 5 Chapter : II Economic and Culture Between Timor Leste And Thailand…………………. 6 A. Economy............................................................................................................ 6 B. Culture............................................................................................................... 8 C. How To Contrast Economic and Culture Between Timor-Leste And Thailand...............................................................................10 D. Problem............................................................................................................10 Chapter : III Conclusion And Suggestion...........................................................................11 A. Conclusion........................................................................................................11 B. Suggestion……………………………………………………………………11 References………………………………………......…………….………………………….12
  3. 3. 3 Acknowledgments It is with particular pleasure that I express my gratitude to thanks to the presence of the Almighty God, for the blessings and graces, without whose contribution and assistance this report would be far from finished. I am indebted to my colleagues and friends for their practical suggestions and detailed comments. Finally, my thanks to my family, classmate, and all the people for their unfailing support in all of my report.
  4. 4. 4 Chapter : I INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND I. East Timor East Timor has a market economy that used to depend upon exports of a few commodities such as coffee, marble, oil and sandalwood. East Timor's economy grew by about 10% in 2011, and at a similar rate in 2012. It is placed 158th by Human Development Index, indicating a low level of human development.. 20% of the population are unemployed, and 52.9% live on less than US $1.25 a day. About half of the population is illiterate. The country continues to suffer the after effects of a decade-long independence struggle against Indonesia, which damaged infrastructure and displaced thousands of civilians. In 2007, a bad harvest led to deaths in several parts of Timor-Leste. In November 2007, eleven subdistricts still needed food supplied by international aid. There are no patent laws in East Timor. II. Thailand Thailand is a newly industrialized country. Its economy is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of its gross domestic product (GDP). In 2012, according to the Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board, Thailand had a GDP of THB11.375 trillion (US$366 billion). The Thai economy grew by 6.5 percent, with a headline inflation rate of 3.02 percent and an account surplus of 0.7 percent of the country's GDP. Thailand's agricultural sector produces 8.4 percent of the GDP – lower than the trade and logistics and communication sectors, which account for 13.4 percent and 9.8 percent of GDP respectively. Thailand is the second-largest economy in Southeast Asia, after Indonesia; however, its per-capita GDP in 2012 was relatively low ($5,390). On 12 July 2013 Thailand held $170.6 billion in international reserves, the second-largest in Southeast Asia (after Singapore). The nation is recognized by the World Bank as “one of the great development success stories” in social and development indicators. Despite a low per-capita
  5. 5. 5 gross national income (GNI) of $5,210 and ranking 103rd in the Human Development Index (HDI) the percentage of people below the national poverty line decreased from 65.26 percent in 1988 to 13.15 percent in 2011, according to the NESDB's new poverty baseline. B. PURPOSE To know the differences economy and culture between Timor Leste and Thailand. The aim of my work generally is to develop more inclusive and equitable approaches to economic development, which emphasize full employment, poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. A complete understanding of Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) allows one to see the agenda of the multilateral organizations in a clear light So while has a major struggle ahead to achieve its strategic goals of becoming a middle-income nation in forward, it would be advised to scrap its present currency arrangements and use its massive wealth to introduce unconditional and universal job guarantees as the starting point for a more coherent and inclusive development path. Thailand's relative shortage of engineers and skilled technical personnel may limit its future technological creativity and productivity, even as the government is pushing for an increase in the proportion that creative industries contribute to GDP from 12% to 20% by 2015.
  6. 6. 6 Chapter : II ECONOMIC AND CULTURE BETWEEN TIMOR LESTE AND THAILAND A. ECONOMY I. Timor Leste East Timor has a market economy that used to depend upon exports of a few commodities such as coffee, marble, oil and sandalwood. East Timor's economy grew by about 10% in 2011, and at a similar rate in 2012. Timor now has revenue from offshore oil and gas reserves, but little of it has gone to develop villages, which still rely on subsistence farming. The Timor-Leste Petroleum Fund was established in 2005, and by 2011 it had reached a worth of US$8. 7 billion. East Timor is labelled by the International Monetary Fund as the "most oil-dependent economy in the world". The Petroleum Fund pays for nearly all of the government's annual budget, which has increased from $70 million in 2004 to $1.3 billion in 2011, with a $1.8 billion proposal for 2012. The economy is dependent on government spending and, to a lesser extent, assistance from international donors. Private sector development has lagged due to human capital shortages, infrastructure weakness, an incomplete legal system, and an inefficient regulatory environment. After petroleum, the second largest export is coffee, which generates about $10 million a year. According to data gathered in the 2010 census, 87.7% of urban and 18.9% of rural households have electricity, for an overall average of 36.7%. The agriculture sector employs 80% of the active population. In 2009, about 67,000 households grew coffee in East Timor, with a large proportion being poor. Currently, the gross margins are about $120 per hectare, with returns per labor-day of about $3.70. There are 11,000 households growing mung beans as of 2009, most of them subsistence farmers. The country was ranked 169th overall and last in the East Asia and Pacific region by the Doing Business 2013 report by the World Bank. The country fared particularly poorly in
  7. 7. 7 the 'registering property', 'enforcing contracts' and 'resolving insolvency' categories, ranking last worldwide in all three. II. Thailand Thailand's economy started to recover in 1999, expanding 4.2% and 4.4% in 2000, thanks largely to strong exports. Growth (2.2%) was dampened by the softening of the global economy in 2001, but picked up in the subsequent years owing to strong growth in Asia, a relatively weak Baht encouraging exports and increasing domestic spending as a result of several mega projects and incentives of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, known as Thaksinomics. Growth in 2002, 2003 and 2004 was 5–7% annually. Growth in 2005, 2006 and 2007 hovered around 4–5%. Due both to the weakening of the US dollar and an increasingly strong Thai currency, by March 2008, the dollar was hovering around the 33 Baht mark. Thailand exports an increasing value of over $105 billion worth of goods and services annually. Major exports include Thai rice, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubber, jewelry, cars, computers and electrical appliances. Thailand is the world's no.1 exporter of rice, exporting more than 6.5 million tons of milled rice annually. The economy of Thailand is an emerging economy which is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two thirds of gross domestic product (GDP) The exchange rate is Baht 30.90/USD as of 26 April 2012. Thailand has a GDP worth US$602 billion (on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis). This classifies Thailand as the 2nd largest economy in Southeast Asia, after Indonesia. orty-nine percent of Thailand's labor force is employed in agriculture, however this is less than the 70% employed in 1980. Agriculture has been experiencing a transition from labor intensive and transitional methods into a more industrialized and competitive sector. The IMF has predicted that the Thai economy will rebound strongly from the low 0.1% GDP growth in 2011 to 5.5% in 2012, 7.5% in 2013 thanks to the accommodative monetary policy of the Bank of Thailand and a package of fiscal stimulus measures by the incumbent Yingluck Shinawatra government. Thailand generally uses the metric system but traditional units of measurement for land area are used, and imperial measure (feet, inches etc.) is occasionally used in building materials such as wood and plumbing sizes. Years are numbered as B.E. (Buddhist Era) in
  8. 8. 8 education, the civil service, government, and on contracts and newspaper datelines; in banking, however, and increasingly in industry and commerce, standard Western year (Christian or Common Era) counting prevails. B. CULTURE I. Timor Leste The culture of East Timor reflects numerous cultural influences, including Portuguese, Roman Catholic and Malay, on the indigenous Austronesian cultures of Timor. Legend tells that a giant crocodile was transformed into the island of Timor, or Crocodile Island, as it is often called. Like Indonesia, the culture of East Timor has been heavily influenced by Austronesian legends, although the Catholic influence is stronger, the population being mainly Roman Catholic. Illiteracy is still widespread, but there is a strong tradition of poetry. As for architecture, some Portuguese-style buildings can be found, although the traditional totem houses of the eastern region, known as Uma lulik also survive. Craftsmanship is also widespread, as is the weaving of traditional scarves or tails. Timor Leste clothing comprises of mostly the traditional clothing of the country which are made from home based textiles. The traditional textile of Timor Leste is known as Tais and they are being made in two styles which are called mane and feto. Mane Tais is the piece of Timor Leste clothing which is worn following the style of sarong around the waist of a person. Feto Tais is another piece of Timor Leste Clothing which is sewn into a long tube and the women steps inside it and wears it like a dress. Music : East Timor's music reflects its history under the control of both Portugal and Indonesia, who have imported music like Gamelan and Fado. The most widespread form of native folk music was the likurai dance, performed to by women to welcome home men after the war. They used a small drum and sometimes carried enemy heads in processions through villages; a modern version of the dance is used by women in courtship. Religion: East Timor has been nominally Catholic since early in the Portuguese colonial period. The Catholic faith became a central part of the East Timorese culture during the Indonesian occupation between 1975 and 1999. While under Portuguese rule, the East Timorese had mostly been animist, sometimes integrated with
  9. 9. 9 minimal Catholic ritual, the number of Catholics dramatically increased under Indonesian rule. II. Thailand By traditional culture we mean customs concerning agriculture and human relations, and the art of making daily necessities such as utensils, clothing and basketry. The basis of the Thai customs and traditions lies in the family, whose structure is of bilateral descent. Like the Chinese and some other Asian peoples, the young are taught to pay respect to and follow the admonitions of parents, elders, teachers and Buddhist monks who, in the old days, formed a highly educated class. When speaking about traditional Thai culture, what cannot be left unmentioned is the wat or Buddhist temple and monastery combined. After Buddhism had been spread throughout Thailand for hundreds of years, the primitive animist belief of the Thai people was assimilated by the Buddhist one. The wat became the centre of the village. It was the place where people received an education, attended rites and ceremonies, and observed feasts and festivals all the year round. Thailand is located at the meeting point of the two great cultural systems of Asia, Chinese and Indian. In everyday life, Chinese culture has mixed very well with the Thai, whereas in Thai court culture, which has been based mainly on Buddhism and Brahmanism, India has exerted a strong influence. Thai culture can be divided into 3 aspects: linguistic culture, court culture, and traditional culture.
  10. 10. 10 C. How To Contrast Economic And Culture Between Timor Leste And Thailand Timor now has revenue from offshore oil and gas reserves, but little of it has gone to develop villages, which still rely on subsistence farming. Nearly half the population lives in extreme poverty. The Timor-Leste Petroleum Fund was established in 2005, and by 2011 it had reached a worth of US$8. 7 billion. East Timor is labelled by the International Monetary Fund as the "most oil-dependent economy in the world". The Petroleum Fund pays for nearly all of the government's annual budget, which has increased from $70 million in 2004 to $1.3 billion in 2011, with a $1.8 billion proposal for 2012, But the Thai economy has demonstrated moderate positive growth in recent years, future performance depends on moving up on the value-added ladder away from low-wage industries where regional competition is growing. Key reforms are needed to open the financial sector; improve the foreign investment climate, including updating telecommunications capabilities; and stimulate domestic investment and consumption to balance reliance on exports. Logistics networks and electricity generation increasingly run the risk of bottlenecks and may pose a challenge to growth. D. PROBLEM Today's economic and cultural problems are one very important issue for the supervised Yanga in the country of Timor-Leste and Thailand, due to economic differences can make a country a country that is free from the crisis and at the same time become a force in the country. While culture is the hallmark of the human life in the country and a daily living habits. That's why I created this report to identify the economic and cultural problems that exist in the-two countries, namely Thailand and Timor-Leste.
  11. 11. 11 Chapter : III Conclusion And Suggestion A. CONCLUSION Even East Timor has a market economy that used to depend upon exports of a few commodities such as coffee, marble, oil and sandalwood, but the other hand Thailand is a newly industrialized country. Its economy is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of its gross domestic product (GDP). B. SUGGESTION I hope the author can publish books concerned with the development of the later period.
  12. 12. 12 REFERENCES 1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thailand

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