Marty: Welcome! Please relax and enjoy your coffee. LEDucation will make this seminar available to you electronically, so there is no need to take notes. But there will be a quiz at the end! The seminar will end as scheduled by 11 am, but Anne and I will stay to answer questions as long as you keep asking them. Please feel free to leave if you are on a tight schedule. We’d like to know who we are talking to. By a show of hands, are you a manufacturer (pause) sales rep (pause) distributor (pause) lighting designer (pause) engineer (pause) or architect (pause)? Thanks for joining us. Anne will now enlighten you about codes, standards and criteria. Talk from 10:00AM-11:00AM10:00-10:05 Intro (Wendy)10:05-10:50AM talk10:50-11:00AM Q&A
Marty and I are going to map out various lighting codes and standards that we need to follow on projects – those rules that create the boundaries we have to design within. We will show you some of the places there is flexibility to allow your design to grow. Having a holistic understanding of the rules can empower you in the design processand help the manufacturer and sales people in the audience help us better.
Lighting codes, standards and criteria are all interrelated. Codes reference standards and other codes, and client criteria reference standards but maybe different versions than code is requiring - It is easy to get them muddled up and miss ones that relate to a design. To help create clarity, we are going to highlight the most common types of each that we look for on every project to define the basis of design.
Lighting Codes are created by government agencies using existing standards with changes madebased on the locality and politics.There are two basic types of lighting related codes – Construction and Energy Conservation1. Construction codes have been around for a long time and are usually created in response to a failure that caused death. For electric lighting, we have local codes dating back to when Edison was wiring up buildings in the greater NYC area and we started having electrical fires. Local codes were unified into a national electrical code in 1896.And more recently we have, Energy conservation codes passed for future safety & fiscal reasons. The genesis of Energy Conservation codes is the 1973 Oil embargo, which caused our oil prices to skyrocket and our stock market to crash. The US (and the rest of the world) started looking at using less fuel in cars and at how little energy building systems could consume. ASHRAE put together the 90.1 committee to create energy use standards in construction. As soon as we had standards for energy usage, codes were passed.
We can further divide lighting codes into the following sub-categories: Energy, building, electrical, safety and health.
Energy Conservation Codes are energy usage Codes. They set limits to the amount of energy you can use in different building and space types.You will notice a pattern for codes for the United States:An international Code – the IECCA state code that adopts the international code or uses it as a model ordinance (in the case of energy codes, some states adopt ASHRAE 90.1 instead)And then you have local codes which reference state code with some amendments (as in NYC). If there is a state code, then the local code cannot be less stringent than the state code.
For building codes we have the IBC, state codes adopting the international code and local codes referencing the state code.Building Codes have lighting criteria at egress paths for normal and emergency conditions. The IBC also requires an average light level of 10fc at 30” above floor level in every space intended for human occupancy.
Electrical codes are a little different in that we have our own National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, that state and local codes adopt or use as a model ordinance. State and local codes cannot be less stringent than the national code, and local codes cannot be less stringent then the state code if there is one. If a local code looks like it is more lenient than the state or national code, assume the code is poorly written and follow the more stringent standard or, call the local building inspector and ask them to explain that part of the local code to you.The NEC has lighting requirements at utility hookups, lighting restrictions in closets, and many other lighting provisions.
Beyond NFPA 70, some of you will be familiar with theNFPA 101 – the Life Safety Code. Building codes reference the life safety code criteria for emergency lighting.The National Fire Protection Association has other code books with lighting standards that you should be aware of. NFPA 130 relates to transportation facilities and has emergency light level criteria specific to these spaces. And NFPA 99, the Health Care Facilities Code, has lighting criteria for many room types found in hospitals, and for emergency task lighting.Less well known to us is the American Society for Mechanical Engineers, ASME which has a Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators that includes lighting requirements for inside elevator cabs.
Health codes cover lighting at food service, food prep, pool and spa areas to allow for hygienic practices, and safe use of these areas.At the federal level we have The FDA Food Code which statesadopt at different rates.There are many state and local health codes. If any of you have lit a swimming pool in NYC, you will be familiar with our local health code Article 165 for Bathing Establishments and its high light level requirements.
Lighting Standards are developed over time based on experience and research. They are created by practitioners of lighting design and lighting engineering.This is the good stuff that we aspire to follow to be responsible practitioners of our craft, and that we are judged on if something goes wrong at a space we designed.
For Energy Usage Standards, in the US we haveThe ASHRAE 90.1 Energy Standard for Buildings Except for low rise residential buildings that was created to see what the maximum amount of energy we should use per building system. Basically it outlines what is the least efficient building you should ever build and encourage you to do better. This Standard is sometimes adopted as code or used as a model ordinance. It is referenced in the IECC and in lighting criteria from many sources.
Lighting Design Standards and Recommended Practices are created by a number of professional organizations.In America we haveThe IES– Illuminating Engineering Societywith The Lighting HandbookAnd various Recommended Practices publicationsThe IDA – International Dark Sky Association that created the model lighting ordinance with the IES to help promote Dark Sky codesAnd In Europe:The CIE - International Commission on Illumination with the CIE color space chromaticity diagram and the Color Rendering IndexAnd the CEN – European Committee for Standardizationthat has published many recommended practices and other lighting related standards – they are kind of like ASHRAE, the IES and UL rolled into one.
Lighting System Standards are created in this country by the UL for lighting systems safety By NEMA, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association for Flood light beam types, electrical enclosure types, and recessed lighting ceiling compatibilityAnd by NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Testing which creates standards for photometry, and for the measurement color and appearance of light (a major issue for LEDs)…
Lighting Criteria are a collection of rules created by private and public organizations or individuals, based on standards, codes and experience Criteria are not law, but may be part of your contract which you are bound by law to follow. You have an opportunity and some would say a responsibility to advise your Client when a criterion is not in their best interest.
There are two basic types of design criteria: Proscriptive and Prescriptive Proscriptive criteria are usually adopted standards like light levels to achieve based on IES recommendations, or energy usage not to exceed based on ASHRAE 90.1. These types of rules allow for creativity to design within the boundaries of good professional practice.Prescriptive criteria (which are restrictive)– are lighting design directions: lighting layout pattern, specific fixtures to use, lighting control type/location…this is cookie cutter designPrescriptive lighting criteria can be a good thing for store and restaurant roll outs to help maintain corporate branding, allow bulk purchasing which keeps costs down and ensures fixtures are ready to ship when needed, and allows for architects to layout the lighting which saves on design fees and speeds up the process. Prescriptive criteria for government projects can be a horrible thing. These projects must be bid out by law, so there is no cost or time savings by limiting fixture choice, and almost always have a lighting professional working on the projectso there is no reason to give ridged design directions which stifle creativity and innovation.
We have lighting directions provided to us by many types of Clients from the public and private sectors. Most government agencies in this country have construction design guidelines that usually include lighting standards. Many corporations and professional organizations also have specific lighting requirements.When your Client gives you a design criteria document, read the whole design guide, not just the “lighting section” because Clients will randomly insert lighting and other design directions you need to follow throughout the document.
When designing projects for federal and state agencies, be aware that you will have different codes to follow than on other projects. When you are on federal property, only federal code applies, andon state property, only state code applies. However, these agencies often have design standards that are stricter than local code to show that they are responsibly using your tax dollars.At the city level of government you might have a local law that is more stringent for city funded projects.For the category of “Other” government agencies are organizations like thePort Authority of New York and New Jersey that only have to comply with federal law and federal code. Port Authorities were created in the US and other countries to prevent local corruption which can slow down commerce and hurt our economy. Examples of some government design directions that lighting designers have to follow include:TheGSAhas Metric Criteria for all construction – that means lux, and metric sized luminaires.And the Department of Homeland Security has CAD Standards with limitations about what is allowed to be shown on drawings. Yes, the government is telling you how to draw, and what to name and number your drawing sheets…who would have guessed.
For Private lighting criteria we have 1. Corporate lighting standardsThere are a lot of corporate design standards out there that are ever multiplying and changing. Corporate Clients tend to have criteria that evolve over time - unlike Government lighting criteria which usually have small incremental updates.2. And we have Sports Organizations with lighting criteria for the playing field with lighting requirements for broadcast.Note that Professional sporting areas are an exception to energy code
And then we get to the new kid on the block, Green criteria, standards and codes. An oddball because green criteria predate unified standards and codes. We started out with - Green Building Rating Systems which group together existing green building standards (from many professional organizations) in a rating system format – the more points you have, the more green your project is. These rating systems are sometimes adopted as project criteria without registering for the program – often on government projects. We are all familiar with the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or LEED rating system that was first published in 1998, but the Green Globes rating system published in the US in 2010 has recently been recognized by the GSA as an alternative to LEED. And in Europe they have the BREEAM rating system.Green Construction Codes & Standards seem to have been driven by the popularity of the LEED rating system.ASHRAE 189.1 published its first Standard for the Design of High-Performance, Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings in January of 2010And the International Code Council published the first International Green Construction Codein 2012.
How do we figure out what codes, standards and criteria apply to a project, and get the project team to agree? We have to start out by doing some detective work.
FIRST, You need to find out:Whois your Client? Private Developer, Government agency, CorporationWhat type of project is it? Park, School, Restaurant, Court HouseWhereis the project?Country, State, City, exact address (your building could be landmarked or in a registered historic district)ANDIs it on Public or Private property?When is the drawing set getting filed? This is critical to knowing which version of the codes applies.
How do we collect possible codes, standards and criteria?You may have previous experience with this type of project and be familiar with those IES standards, or have worked on a project in the same location and have information about the local codes.For research online, you can check out:Government web sites at country, state, and local levels that have codes and design criteria posted ANDOrganizations like the International Code Council, NFPA and ASME which track adoption of their standardsAnd ask advice of coworkers and other reliable sources like designers or engineers with code interpretation experience whom you became friends with working on another project or maybe someone you met at a DLF or IES event (look around you, your future best resource may be sitting next to you).
The next step is figuring out who on your project team is going to sign off on code compliance for the lighting design. You want to direct the discussion to them, but also bring in the experience and knowledge of the whole team.
A project kickoff meeting can be your opportunity to discuss what lighting standards, codes and criteria may apply to a project.Ask the Electrical Engineer if you are referencing the correct energy code compliance path – the lead Architect and Client can advise when the filing date is going to happen to confirmthe version of codes to follow. Ask the Client what lighting criteria they have that you need to use. And you can ask the other designers and engineers at the meeting if there are any other codes you should comply with.If you have a difference of opinion about which code to follow or an interpretation of a code, a design meeting is a good forum to defend your opinion and see if you can win consensus or have clear direction to follow another path. Trying to do this by way of emails can be a time waster and at worst a way to lose your argument.
If you can get the design team to start discussing codes for the project and suggest code types other than Energy Code that could relate to lighting, then you may be surprised how cooperative the team is and the hidden gems of information that will reveal themselves. My experience is that architects and engineers love to talk about codes, especially about code discoveries that they made and can share with the project you are working on.
After the group discussionConfirm full list of codes with Design TeamConfirm lighting criteria with ClientCollect copies of codes and criteriaAnd then Publish a list of lighting assumptions based on discussions you hadThe most immediate way to do this is to Publish meeting minutes in an email that you copy to the Client and TeamOr you can publish assumptions in a Narrative in a Schematic Design SubmissionOr Include in notes in specification documentation
Marty will now review lighting criteria in ASHRAE 90.1 2010 and the IECC 2012 which are currently getting adopted in the USA.
Thanks, Anne. I want to start by showing you the code adoption status map. Only 8 states have adopted a code that isequivalent to IECC 2012 or ASHRAE 90.1 -2010 or more stringent. That’s only 4 more states over the course of the past year.
This is a side by side comparison of the adoption status map from three years ago.Those of us working on code development have been tracking the adoption process. At a similar point in 2011, 21 states had adopted the most recent code,IECC 2009 or ASHRAE 90.1-2007. Why is adoption lagging so far behind? Per NYS, the delay on their part is due to the fact that IECC 2012 does not appear to save as much energy as ASHRAE 90.1-2010, for the whole building, not necessarily the lighting portion, so they are writing state supplements to IECC to make it more stringent. Based on my recent conversations with the New York State Energy Services division, the timetable for adoption is complicated; Commercial and Residential codes may be split. The commercial code update is now scheduled to occur over the summer, in July or August. That means there will be a 60 day public comment period soon, perhaps in April or May. The tip I got from NYS is, if you are planning on using a new code before it is adopted in New York, use the ASHRAE compliance path. The NYSsupplementwill be more stringent than IECC, so you risk having to redesign if you use IECC 2012 now.
One place where ASHRAE 90.1-2010 is the standard, is the newest version of LEED, version 4. Often, LEED projects are the first ones where we have to use the most recently published standard. The interesting thing about LEED v4 is that it has a very lengthy roll in time frame. Just because it has been published, doesn’t mean you need to use it yet.
The energy compliance path I use most is ASHRAE 90.1, so let’s look more closely at the major changes in the 2010 standard.The Department of Energy has determined that ASHRAE 2010 is 18% more efficient than 2007 [verified-MS]. States were supposed to report on how they were going to achieve compliance by Oct. 2013, but, as we saw in the Adoption Status map, many states are behind schedule.
Previously, only LEED projects and some local codes, like NYC, referencedExterior Lighting zones. Now all exterior projects will have to comply with the allowance for a particular zone.The 5% bonus wattage allowance has been changed to a fixed adder, called the Base Site Allowance. The base can be used anywhere, tradable or non-tradable exterior areas.
Is there anyone here who has not previously designed a project with exterior lighting zones? You will notice that the definitions provided in IECC and ASHRAE do not match the IES definitions. ASHRAE and IECC rewrote them into code enforceable language.
Lighting Zone 4 is intended for limited usage, so even in the NYC area, not all of the city is considered the same zone. You really wouldn’t want the same wattage allowance in a quiet residential street as at a sports arena. Times Square has it’s own special district, and almost all of this lighting is considered signage, which is not included in the energy code.
Why were there reductions in the LPDs for the Building area method? Because there were reductions in the LPDs in the models of the spaces that make a whole building. The table included here shows both the previous (2007) LPDs and the new 2010.
I’m going to show you why the LPDs changed and highlight other important alterations, but I want to ask you to remember the new column on this table, the RCR Threshold column, which I will explain later.So, why were there changes in the LPDs for many of the space types?
First there was a technology update where we reviewed the fixtures, lamps and ballasts used in the space type models. Note: No LED fixtures were included in the technology update. This work started in late 2007, which is ancient history for LED technology.Then we evaluated why some space types seemed to be chronically short on the allowance. The models are based on zonal cavity calculations, which assume an empty room. Rooms with partitions, like toilet rooms and library stacks,suffer. These problems were corrected.
The models for lobbies still included decorative light fixtures. There is a separate, additional allowance for decorative lighting. When the recommended light levels were achieved using more efficient ambient light fixtures, the LPD decreased.You will find some new space type categories, such as Medical/Industrial Research lab. When we evaluated the model for labs, we determined that it was based on the light levels required for an open classroom type lab, not the higher light levels required on a research lab bench, a space filled with high shelves dividing the benches.
Previously the atrium allowance was pegged to the first three stories. Looking at these atria and their height difference, its easy to see why the old method didn’t work.There is a new Atrium Allowance calculation method based on the actual height of the space, not on the number of stories.
The language for the decorative allowance was cleaned up to allow more flexibility, so that not just chandeliers and sconces can be counted, but coves and other architectural applications of light more typically found in contemporary architecture.
The RCR adjustment was restored because of a perceived need to provide design flexibility. The RCR threshold is listed on the Space-by-Space table. It will be possible to claim a 20% adder if the RCR of the space being designed exceeds the threshold. The question is, will anybody ever use it, or is it too much additional work to be worth the bonus watts? It’s an important question, because the answer will impact the 2016 standard, so I would love to receive your feedback. We are in an unusual position. The 2013 standard is already published, but so few states have adopted 2010, we have no feedback on the functionality.
The 2010 standard provides LPD incentives for using advanced controls. This was born out of the fact that projects pay a wattage penalty for using a good dimming ballast. Since dimming saves energy, the thought was to give back a portion of the savings to offset the wattage penalty of the ballasts. Again, I’m looking for your input. Will you ever use this incentive? Is it too much work? Do you not need it? Please note that many of the good dimming drivers for LEDs still have a similar wattage penalty.
The next few slides are a tutorial on how to find these adders in COMCheck. I’m using a Retail Sales Area as the example, a 5,000 square foot space with a base allowance of 1.68 watts per square foot.
When the Interior Lighting tab is opened, ComCheck has calculated the base LPD as 8400 watts.
Select the options tab on the top of the page and then select “Interior Lighting Exemptions and Allowances”
A new column appears on the far right-hand side of the table, labeled Exemption Allowance, with drop down tabs for these allowances.
When you select the RCR adder, a new screen will pop up, where you enter the room cavity information.
COMCheck will automatically adjust the LPD for the space if it qualifies for the RCR adder. Now, with the 20% RCR adder, the allowance is 10,080 watts
Add the base lighting in the space. I did not max out the allowance. The Retail Display, Decorative and Advanced Controls Allowances are all on the same drop down menu under “Allowance.” Please note that Exemptions have their own tab here.
The control incentive allowance is applied to the base fixtures. I think there is a gap in the code. If a programmable multi-level system is used, all the fixtures in the space would usually be on the system, not just the base fixtures. COMCheck only allows one adder per fixture type, so currently, the control incentive can only be added to the base.
Note that the lighting control incentive has been added to the LPD, for this design, it is now 11,004 watts. I’ve already added the retail display fixtures, and again selected the “allowance tab”. This time, its for display lighting. For this example, I chose “furniture, clothing, etc.” with an allowance of 1.4 watts per square foot.
After the type of merchandise is selected, a new drop down menu will appear. Fill in the square footage of the space illuminated by the retail display fixtures.
I used an arbitrary number of accent lights. Based on the quantity I chose, the allowance has been adjusted to 14,844 watts. This is a use it or lose it allowance, the maximum allowed for this design could be 19,004 watts.
If your design maxed out the base allowance of 8400 watts, the RCR adder of 20 percent, Control Incentive of 10% (on base fixtures only), Retail Display 1000 watt base plus the 1.4 watts per square foot allowance and the Decorative allowance of 1.0 watts per square foot, it is possible to have a final allowance of 24,089 watts for this space, almost three times the base. Without the RCR and Control Incentive Adders, the maximum allowance for this space could be 21,400 watts. So, again I ask the question, will you do the work to get the extra 2700 watts?
Most of the remaining changes relate to controls, including mandatory controls for some daylight areas. Many of us on the committee believe that turning lights off saves more energy than reducing LPDs, while retaining flexibility for quality lighting design.
One important way that IECC differs from ASHRAE is that low-rise Residential and Commercial buildings are covered in the same code. IECC revised the residential portion of the code. Now 75% of lamps in a residence have to be high efficacy, but low-voltage lighting is exempt.
The promise of LED technology is improved source efficacy over other energy efficient sources. The higher lumens per watt of LEDs may allow the designer to beat the energy code power allowances.As the industry makes the transition from legacy technologies to SSL, it helps to have the perspective of history. In every transition there has been a period of trial and error. David DiLauria gives a great lecture on the evolution of lighting and its impact on society.
The challenge with LEDs is that the technology has the potential to replace most of the existing light sources, where previous new technologies, in our lifetime anyway, only added, replaced or improved on one existing technology at a time. Think of the transition from T12 to T8 fluorescent, MR16 lamps, Compact Fluorescent lamps, the introduction of T5, and ceramic metal halide.We think of all the lessons learned with each of those technologies, when they were introduced, and want to be sure that those problems don’t re-occur with LEDs. Then, of course, there are new lessons to be learned. We’ve had to learn new terminology to understand LEDs. Anne’s going to discuss some of the new vocabulary used to evaluate color.
How do we judge color of light and color rendition in this new world of LEDs? We have more color metrics to consider, but no universally accepted standard to compare LEDs to each other or to legacy technologies like fluorescent, and incandescent. We now have:Color Rendering Index that was introduced by the CIE in 1931 andCorrelated Color Temperature which was first described in a physics paper that same yearMacAdam Ellipses chart noticeable color shift between ranges of color. ANSI Standards and the Energy Star program allow for a seven step macadam ellipse variation per listed Color Temperature which is an incredibly low bar, and many manufacturers claim a standard of 3 step macadam ellipse LED binning is “not visible” even though the definition of each step is a visible color change. However, tighter binning comes at a cost that might prevent LEDs from being specified…DU’V’ is the distance above and below the black body radiator curve that explains some unexpected color appearances in relation to the Kelvin scale – I have seen pink, gold, green, blue and purple "3000k" LEDs (that measured +/- 3000k), DUV turns our visual assumptions about color temperature upside-downColor Quality Scale - a newer color rendering scale that NIST has developed may replace CRI Gamut Area, another newer color rendering metric shows promise as being a good illustrative comparison method between light sourcesAnd Empirical Review of sources (point at my eye)Until we have an apples to apples comparison method with thoroughly vetted metrics, empirical review is the most reliable way to compare light sources for now. My design studio does an empirical review of color and color rendering of all lighting systems on every project because day one on that design may have a new generation of LEDs and a different collection of sources grouped together and will have a different pallet of finishes to render. All of this has to be visually verified.
Let’s identify some opportunities to use LEDs to meet or surpass the lighting criteria and energy codes.First I would determine what I’m trying to illuminate and what type of light source I’m trying to replace:Here’s a fixture to consider to replace MR16s and other Halogen accent lights. For a point source, I look for center beam candlepower and beam spread, not just delivered lumens.PROS – Reduced energy usage for fixtures and HVAC. So, theoretically, using this fixture helps beat the energy code allowance. Longer life should mean reduced maintenance costs There should be less heat at the sourceConcerns: Are the beam angles and field angles comparable? Do we want the beam angles and field angles to becomparable? Someapplications require a pinpoint beam and sometimes you may want a softer field. How clean is the beam or is there a lot of hash? What’s the Recessing depth – many housing sizes have become deeper for heat management How do we soften the beam, what does the beam softening lens do to the light source? Does it reduce output or change the color? How does the Circuitry in the system affect dimming? Will the light flicker or the color shift in undesirable ways when it dims?There is a lecture at 12:30about LED dimming and controlsChallenges - Can we get an LED that provides a 100 CRI like halogen? The new frontier of LEDs is fixtures that dim to warm, furtherimitatinghalogen sources. Is the warm glow of dim lights something we will ever be willing to forego? As you walk around the show, you will see this technology and variations that change the color in other ways.
When looking for a compact fluorescent replacement fixture, some manufacturers publish delivered lumen comparisons, but you have to dig deeper to find that the delivered lumens does not always equate to a comparable beam spread / or Spacing to Mounting Height ratio. I chose this example because the delivered lumens and spacing to mounting height ratios are comparable: CFL at1.23 and LED at 1.17. A 15 watt LED fixture is delivering 980 lumens, basically equivalent to the delivered lumens of a 26 watt CFL. The 21 watt LED fixture will be roughly comparable to a 32 watt CFL. LED updates occur so often that the website literature can’t keep pace.I think smaller apertures are a plus. Many manufacturers don’t even offer a 6” aperture LED, finding that it doesn’t improve the efficiency of the fixture. This fixture has a 4.5” aperture, but greater recessing depth than a CFL.
The range of LED fixtures is expanding to ever higher lumen packages. In these high-bay fixtures, the lumen output depends on the color temperature and the distribution needed. This is similar to smaller LED fixtures, but the differences are more pronounced in larger lumen packages.The challenge here is that these fixtures were designed to be used for warehouse lighting, with 4000 to 5000 kelvin LEDS and a CRI of 70. Warmer color temperatures and better color rendering come with significantly reduced light output. How human beings look was not the first consideration, efficiency and cost were.
The fixtures we looked at were replacements of known form factors. But, now we are seeing fixtures that take advantage of features unique to LEDsI think tunability is one of the most exciting developments in LED. In addition to tunability for color, there is tunability for output, which helps the lighting design work with the architecture and comply with energy code. LEDs can provide punch in a small size and LED products are offering completely new forms
As mentioned earlier, LEDs have the potential to replace almost every legacy light source and form factor. As the 2016 code cycle progresses, these technologies are sure to be evaluated in lighting power allowance models.
The next version of the ASHRAE Standard was published in late 2013. It has not been adopted by any states. Some places, like NYC, NY State, and Massachusetts, have a requirement that publicly-funded projects achieve a higher level of efficiency, sometimes called stretch codes. Instead of using an arbitrary efficiency level, like 10% better than adopted code, stretch codes are starting to reference the next published code, or a green code like IgCC or ASHRAE 189.1. While we were working on this talk, the US went from 6 to 11 states that have adopted Green Construction Codes at the state or local level.One thing very important to note about the 2013 ASHRAE Standard. LED technologies were still not introduced into the space type models. In late 2010 when we started, there still was insufficient industry standardization, and we don’t consider proprietary technologies in the models.
In the 2013 standard, the control requirements were reorganized into the space by space table, so that users can find a space, the LPD and the control requirements for that space on one line and one page.
IECC 2015 has diverged from ASHRAE in some areas, and become more similar in others. The controls section was re-written and is not in the table format. No matter what you see on the internet, or receive as advertising from manufacturers, a code doesn’t apply to the jurisdiction of your project until it is Adopted. Publication and Adoption are two completely separate issues.
Our primary goal in the 2016 code cycle is to make the code simpler to understand and use, if that is at all possible. We welcome your input. LEDucation will make this presentation available to you for your future reference. The last slide includes links to great website resources, including how to propose changes to the ASHRAE standard. Thank you for coming.
Session 5 - LEDucation 8 - Navigating the Shifting Landscape of Lighting Codes and How LEDs can help. Presented by Marty Salzberg and Anne Cheney. from LEDucationNYC
Navigating the Shifting
Landscape of Lighting Codes
and How LEDs Can Help
Anne Cheney, LC, LEED® AP, IES Marty Salzberg, IALD, IES
Senior Designer Senior Associate
Cooley Monato Studio Cline Bettridge Bernstein Lighting
Navigating the Shifting Landscape of Lighting Codes
and How LEDs Can Help
1. Lighting Codes, Standards and
2. Process for determining the basis
3. Energy Code update
4. Challenges of using LED
technology to beat energy code
5. Future energy code
Navigating the Shifting Landscape of Lighting Codes
and How LEDs Can Help
• Classify the
• Green Building
LIGHTING CODES, STANDARDS, AND CRITERIA
•A set of rules that
criteria that must
be met by law.
2. Building Code
3. Electrical Code
4. Safety Code
5. Health Code
• Energy Conservation
[IECC] - Code and
State Energy Codes
City Energy Codes
• Building Codes
• Electrical Codes
Council Electrical Code
Code, National Fire
State Electrical Codes
Local Electrical Codes
• Safety Codes
NFPA 101, Life Safety
NFPA 130, Standard for
Fixed Guideway Transit
and Passenger Rail
NFPA 99, Health Care
ASME 17.1-2013 Safety
Code for Elevators and
• Health Codes
FDA Food Code
State Health Codes
City Health Codes
regarding lighting at
food service and
design and lighting
• Energy Usage
• Lighting Design
• Lighting Systems
• Energy Usage
Green Building Rating Systems &
Green Building Standards/Codes:
• Green Building
• Green Globes
• Green Construction
• ASHRAE 189.1
LIGHTING CODES, STANDARDS, AND CRITERIA:
• Assess which
and criteria apply
to a given project
Collect information from Client and Project Team to
determine relevant lighting codes, standards and criteria:
• Who is your Client?
• What type of project?
• Where is the project?
• Country, State, City
• Public or Private
• When is the drawing
set getting filed?
Collect Research – Try to find out what codes,
standards and criteria apply before asking the Client and
• Research online
• Government web
• Lighting code blogs,
articles, web sites
• Ask advice
Final Determination of Project Codes, Standards and
• Determine who on
your project team is
Confirm with Client
they are contracted
for this task
Direct discussion to
this team member
Final Determination of Project Codes, Standards and
• Build consensus with the
• Ask all team members
which codes they are
aware of that the
lighting design must
• Confirm with person
filing code compliance
documents that they
agree with input
• Defend any difference
of opinion you have
Final Determination of Project Codes, Standards and
• Encourage a relaxed
exchange of ideas and
suggest code types they
might not equate with lighting:
• Are there relevant health
• Was there a local building
code that they discovered on
a similar project?
• Is there a local electrical
code that might have lighting
Final Determination of Project Codes, Standards and
• Confirm full list of
codes with Design
• Confirm lighting criteria
• Collect copies of codes
• Publish list of lighting
assumptions based on
discussions with Client
and Design Team
RECENTLY ADOPTED CODES AND STANDARDS
• Review of
ASHRAE 90.1 2010
and IECC 2012
IECC 2009/ASHRAE 90.1-2007
ADOPTION AS OF MARCH 2011
IECC 2012/ASHRAE 90.1-2010
ADOPTION AS OF JAN. 2014
Major Changes From 2007 Version
Expanded exterior LPD requirements
• Exterior Lighting Zones
Revised/Corrected Interior LPDs
More Required Controls
Lighting Zone 0 should be applied to areas
in which permanent lighting is not expected
– No Ambient Light
Recommended default zone for wilderness areas, parks
and preserves, and undeveloped rural areas.
Includes protected wildlife areas and corridors.
Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
Allowance None 500 W 600 W 750 W 1300 W
Tradable Surfaces Uncovered Parking Areas
drives None 0.04 W/ft
0.06 W/ft2 0.10 W/ft2 0.13 W/ft2
Zonal Exterior Power Allowance SAMPLE CHANGE
Lighting Zone 1 pertains to areas that desire low
ambient lighting levels
Recommended default zone for rural and low density residential
areas. May also include the developed areas in parks and other
Includes residential single or two family; agricultural zone districts; rural residential zone
districts; business parks; open space include preserves in developed areas.
Lighting Zone 2 pertains to areas with moderate
ambient lighting levels
Recommended default zone for light commercial business
districts and high density or mixed use residential districts.
Includes neighborhood business districts; churches, hospitals, schools and
neighborhood recreation facilities; and light industrial zoning with modest
nighttime uses or lighting requirements
Lighting Zone 3 pertains to areas with moderately
high lighting levels.
Recommended default zone for large cities’ business districts
Includes town centers, gas stations, nighttime active exterior retail, business zone
districts; commercial mixed use; and heavy industrial and/or manufacturing zone
Lighting Zone 4 pertains to areas of high
ambient lighting levels and limited to specific
intense night uses within large metropolitan
Not a default zone.
Includes high intensity business or industrial zone districts.
TABLE 9.6.1 Lighting Power Densities Using the Space-by-Space Method
Common Space Typesa
Atrium— First Three
Floors First 40 feet in
0.6 0.03 per ft
Additional Floor Height
Above 40 Feet
0.2 0.02 per ft
1.4 1.24 4
For Penitentiary 1.3
1.3 1.23 6
Corridor/ Transition 0.5 0.66 Width < 8
For Classrooms 1.28 6
Lobby 1.3 0.65 4
For Hotel 1.1
For Performing Arts
3.3 2.00 6
For Motion Picture
1.1 0.52 4
Dressing/ Locker/ Fitting
0.6 0.75 6
Lounge/ Recreation 1.2 0.73 4
For Hospital 0.8
Office—Enclosed 1.1 1.11 8
Office—Open Plan 1.1 0.98 4
Restrooms 0.9 0.98 8
Sales Area [for accent
lighting, see Section
1.7 1.68 6
Stairs – Active Stairway 0.6 0.69 10
Active Storage 0.8 0.63 6
Reductions in LPDs for Most Spaces in the
Space-by-Space Method - SAMPLE
Revised/Corrected Interior LPDs - Examples
Methodology – Reviewed Space Type Models & Technologies
Restrooms - Why ?
STAYED THE SAME
Library Stacks – Why?
offset by partitions
• Lobby – Why ? Model still had decorative lights
• Classroom/Lecture/Training – Why ? Improved Technology
• Laboratory for Medical/Industrial/Research
Room Cavity Ratio Adjustment for unusual spaces
• Available only when using the space-by-space method
• Calculate Room Cavity Ratio (RCR) for a room
• If greater than listed RCR threshold type, a 20% increase is allowed
Control incentives for advanced controls - SAMPLE
Final Retail Space with All Adders on COMCheck
8,400 Watts Base Wattage Allowance
Possible 24,089 Watts using Maximum of ALL Adders
Major Changes From 2007 Version
• Daylighting control requirements and skylights
• Expanded occupancy sensor control
• Exterior after-hours lighting control
• Parking garage daylight and controls
• Stairwell control (unoccupied 50% reduction)
• Receptacle 50% auto shut-off control
• Functional Testing (commissioning)
30 total addenda – most are on controls
Major Reorganization from 2009 Version
75% Residential Efficiency
• Low Voltage Exempt
Space-by-space LPD Tables
• Similar to ASHRAE, but no
Fewer Control Requirements
Section Numbering Changed
LEDs – The Transition from
Legacy Technologies to SSL
Judging color in the world of LEDs –
How do we do it?
• MacAdam Ellipses
• Gamut Area
• Empirical Review
MR16/ PAR Halogen Accent Lights LED
Center Beam Candlepower: 12,500
vs. 14,000 – 11,500 depending on CRI
Watts: 37+transformer vs. 16
Life: 5,000 hrs. vs. 50,000 hrs.
Color: 3,000K vs. 3,000 or 2,700K
CRI: 100 vs. 80+ or 90+
Beam: 10 vs. 10
100% vs. Depends on
Compare: Watts, Delivered
Lumens, Spacing to Mounting
Height Ratios, Recessing Depth
and Aperture Size
15W 21W 28W
Industrial/ Warehouse/Gymnasium High Bays
– replacing 400 Watt MH (460w Connected)
Ranging from 16,000 lumens at 169 watts to 25,230 lumens at 247 watts
What LEDs can do that other sources can’t:
Tunability – color, output and watts,
• May be based on architectural constraints or
energy usage goals
• punch with dimming
Forms – new form factors
CMH PAR LED
Halogen PAR Track LED
Xenon / Fluorescent Coves
and Display Cases LED
2X2s and 1X4s
• Published in late 2013
• Adopted – not yet
• May be adopted as a Stretch Code
• LPD review to correspond with IES
• New Space Types for the Visually Impaired
• Re-organization of Controls Section
• NO LED TECHNOLOGY IN MODELS
• Publication in Spring 2014
• Rewrite of the Controls Section for clarity
• Addition of the Decorative Allowance like
• NOT CODE UNTIL ADOPTED
BY A JURISDICTION
Research areas for the NEXT Code Cycles:
ASHRAE 90.1 - 2016
Make the code simpler
Pressure to Reduce Lighting
Power Allowances based on
Not just Lumen Output vs. Energy Usage
• LIGHTING QUALITY
• COLOR QUALITY
Lighting Code Links
• Energy Code Adoption Map: http://www.energycodes.gov/status-state-energy-code-adoption
• International Code Council Adoption Maps: http://www.iccsafe.org/gr/Pages/adoptions.aspx
• COMCheck and RESCheck download site: http://www.energycodes.gov/resource-center
• ASHRAE – How to submit a Proposal to change the Standard: https://www.ashrae.org/standards-research--
• Federal Agencies Design Guides: http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/browse_lib.php?l=6
• Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP): http://bcap-energy.org/
• BCAP hosted Energy Code Resource: http://energycodesocean.org/
• Construction Code Resource with local contacts: http://www.reedconstructiondata.com/building-codes/
• Another Code Collection Resource: https://law.resource.org/pub/us/code/
• NYC Pool Code: http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/about/healthcode/health-code-article165.pdf