Session 1 - Using LED in Traditional Sourced Applications. Presented by John Selander, The Lighting Quotient


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  • This program is an AIA accredited presentation for Health Safety and Welfare requirements. If you need any certificates, CEU’s LEUs, ASID, or Professional Development hours, please be sure to sign the sheet that is going around. Be sure and neatly write your email address and name.
  • These are the AIA learning objectives. (Read)
  • Applications across architecture can be broken down easily into 4 categories:IndoorOutdoorSpecial areasSecurity and life safetyThere are many application areas where a designer can and should exercise their influence. Not only interior spaces but wherever people live and work. (Read) Security and life safety are code related issues, have a unique set of requirements, and can seriously impact your career if done incorrectly. That is why we hire engineers to make sure the equipment matches the math.
  • Here is an interior design for a university library that earned LEED certification at the Silver level. We see evenly illuminated vertical faces on the books from the top shelf to the bottom.
  • A designer should always be involved with the lighting performance for outdoor residences, even if the residence is a bit grander than normal.
  • Here is an airport project where the lighting helps transform the space
  • Here is an example of a well-lighted intermodal area that feels safe to bus patrons.
  • (Read)
  • (Read architectural techniques and bullets)
  • Looking at some architectural techniques in some specific applications, here we have a low glare, indirect lighting system that makes for an optimal indoor tennis playing experience
  • An evenly lighted wall is a thing of elegance. Compare the right side to the original track lighting system. Neither is inappropriate. It is up to the designer to determine the effect desired.
  • On the other hand, uneven lighting where the architecture doesn’t require it can be considered to compete or clash with the architecture.
  • Glare occurs when an object within someone’s field of view is overly bright in relation to its surrounding environment, creating visual discomfort and reducing our ability to see other objects nearby. Why is it bad to see into the source of light?(Read rest of list)
  • Some of these “upgrades” are not necessarily an improvement. When in doubt, consult a lighting professional for a second opinion.
  • You’ll have to forgive me. As a lighting geek, I can overlook the chaotic foreground and those absurd power drop cables. Just look at that gorgeous wall!
  • Other changes in the world of lighting have been through the rapid acceptance of new LED sources, supplanting the use of traditional sources. (Read)
  • Each have their advantages and disadvantages. Incandescent and tungsten halogen offer instant on, great color and are easily dimmed but have short lamp life and are very inefficient. Fluorescent provides long lamp life, and good efficiency but require a dimming ballast and will suffer shortened lamp life when turned on and off frequently. Metal halide has long life and good efficiency but are not readily dimmable, have a lot of U.V. in the beam and take a long time to warm up.
  • This summary shows that an effectively designed LED wall washer can outperform traditional source wall washers not only in efficacy but in light levels and uniformity as well.When compared to tungsten halogen the LED delivers more light, better uniformity, using 82% less energy and lasts 27 times longer.Even compared to CFL and CMH the LED delivers more light, better uniformity, using 25% less energy and lasts 4 times longer.
  • Before I start, I was asked by the LEDucation Program Committee to be the first presenter to address the specific interests of Interior Designers. Can I ask you, ‘How many of you are NOT Designers?’ (Raise my hand). OK most of you. I better not be heckled by those of you who are engineers, lighting designers, etc. There are many more technical presentations that you can attend today and tomorrow, but as this audience is solely comprised of Interior Designers, I was asked to make this an interesting look at Solid State Lighting, specifically, How has lighting and luminaire design changed with the advent of the LED? There are any number of ways that a lighting system can be evaluated. I have selected the big five, in my opinion that are the most important. (Read)
  • The greatest LED improvements have come in the last two or three years with respect to all of these basic attributes of light, and only now are they starting to offer the right amount of power at the right color, with adequate life, at a not-too-crazy price.
  • Quite simply, this has been the most disruptive time in the history of lighting. Even Edison’s lamp took over thirty years to replace coal gas streetlamps. We are seeing the same conversion rate with LEDs to take about 7 years (need source to cite for this).
  • The US Department of Energy is dramatically non-neutral on solid state lighting. They have a huge department headed up by this man here, Jim Broderick, who has a large budget dedicated to promoting this new source. Did the DOE do this for fluorescent or say ceramic metal halide? No. the market had to be convinced that these lamps were an improvement over incandescent and mercury vapor lights. Here are just a few of the DOE programs and organizations, paid for by your tax dollars and mine, designed to stimulate rapid growth and acceptance of LEDs and Organic LEDs.
  • There never has been a more challenging time to be a lighting professional. IES recommended practices for illuminances, conflicting with energy codes, lighting power densities and voluntary standards such as LEED and having to evaluate all kinds of new lighting products. It is a very challenging time.
  • These are the most important standards writing organizations. The IES for all of the consensus lighting standards in North America and recommended practices for every conceivable task. CIE is mainly more important in the rest of the world, very closely allied with the IES. ASHRAE and IECC are at the core of the US Energy Policy which has been adopted by nearly every state. These documents change every three years and it is advisable to work with a consulting engineer or lighting design practice that knows the details of these codes and standards.
  • As we just discussed, knowing where the light is going is a very important consideration for the designer. These numbers are a little more complicated but certainly understandable and obtainable. Point-by-point calculations, now done easily with computers can give a graphic ‘picture’ of what the lighting effect will be from a specific luminaire. (Read briefly)(Explain asymmetric distribution)There are many ways, and all have different characteristics (wall washing, grazing, etc.)
  • What is your definition of “cove lighting?” A little glow coming out about a foot or two hardly illuminates these ceilings, but there are hundreds of LED products that can do this. Even LED strips and LED tape. None of these will ever win a design award, in my opinion.
  • In addition to color, another useful metric is called efficacy. What are the lumens per watt? It is a good measurement, but a designer should also be aware that often LPW doesn’t tell the whole story. In this example of several so-called LED cove products, we see that this big round purple product has an Efficacy of 61 lumens per watt. But it also has an omni-directional distribution. If you want more than just a little glow coming out of the cove more than a couple feet, you might want to go with this blue distribution. An asymmetrical distribution as seen on this photometric plot would be very effective in evenly lighting the ceiling plane. We will see some example of this in a little while.(Compare and contrast efficacy and efficiency (most important))Luminaires must be observed side-by-side.Ask for help understanding photometric data.
  • The lifetime of an LED system is obviously quite important too. (Read)
  • (image build for previous slide)(Explain why LEDs fail)Heat is the enemy, they cause LEDs to fail.Drivers also fail.
  • (image build for previous slide)(Explain L70 and TM-21)• There are better warranties on LED luminaires ...• Manufacturers of LEDs make false claims of 100,000 hours already …• 6X the actual tested lifespan is the rule …
  • Most manufacturers would probably not include the factor of cost in any discussion of lighting basics, but the reality of it is, costs are always a consideration, usually not number one, but important, nonetheless. LEDs will almost always cost a little more, but there should always be a reason to select them. A decision to use LEDs should make sense.Items to mention:DLCLighting Facts LabelsUL or CSAQuality of materialEase of installationServiceabilityMade in America (personal favorite)
  • (Read)
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  • We have seen an evolution in the development of quality lighting in the office (Read)
  • An obviously old photograph of an early office lighted with incandescent. This all-male office became much more productive when they were able to work until 8 pm with the new electric lights
  • The next big thing in office lighting was with the widespread use of the fluorescent lamp, invented in 1938. These lensed troffers blasted light in all directions quite effectively.
  • The enhanced fluorescent troffer was an enhancement to the popular parabolic louvered type and once again gave back the light on the wall, opened up the space without worrying about glare on the old glass CRTs.
  • For a couple of decades, linear indirect / direct pendants have been the best way to light both offices and schools. Low contrast, no glare, and high architectural style made them a favorite of a majority of building occupants.
  • These are some of the current trends in the modern open office (Read)
  • This Gensler office does not have furniture mounted lighting but the task / ambient lighting is mounted on shared stands allowing collaboration between teammates on both sides of the table.
  • Another trend in the development of offices that rely on knowledge workers is through the use of monitor arms. Each worker may have two or more flat panel computer monitors mounted to a post. The task ambient luminaire is attached above the monitors, again with individual dimming control.
  • You can see in this photo that the lighting is at about eye level to a seated worker. Note the clean ceiling with no lighting installed.
  • Here is another project at Syska Hennessy in California. Lighting is entirely from two luminaires per workstation.
  • This is a new system where benching is being used. Two knowledge workers sit opposite each other with the luminaire between them. Each person has individual control of their own light through the use of a dimmer switch.
  • When we talk about lighting for people, these are the areas we are primarily interested in.
  • LED products used in an award winning, LEED Platinum Certified project.
  • Thisaccent lighting is an integral part of the memorial’s design.
  • Here is a recent IES Illumination Award winning project where the luminaires are hidden in wells and out of the direct view of the visitors
  • Here is a residence that is lighted with just eight LEDluminaires, mounted on the ground on stanchions close to the building.
  • LED lighting: four LED fixtures replace four 100W halogen fixtures to save 80% in energy used and increase anticipated service life from 2K to 50K hours.
  • This is nice welcoming building entrance. The lighting reinforces the architecture and defines the entry. For patient drop off and pick up, the lighting is sufficient to meet IES recommended practice and promote safety.
  • Activities involving people interacting with the architecture requires a special lighting system. In this case, the illumination comes from within the translucent building skin.
  • (Read)Everything must be quality or it will never look right or last. Bad lighting can make the whole design bad.
  • (final slide repeats title slide)
  • Session 1 - Using LED in Traditional Sourced Applications. Presented by John Selander, The Lighting Quotient

    1. 1. John Selander, LC, IES, LEED AP Northeast Regional Sales Manager The Lighting Quotient, West Haven, CT
    2. 2. Credit(s) earned on completion of this course will be reported to AIA CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This course is registered with AIA CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. No use of this course material without permission of the author.
    3. 3. Learning Objectives 1. Learn several practical ways in which applying LED lighting can enhance interior and exterior spaces 2. Understand five attributes of LED lighting and how to compare them to alternative sources 3. Observe examples of excellent lighting projects 4. Explore what‘s next, and what the advantages that newer LED systems will offer the designer 5. Differentiate between effective and ineffective lighting upgrades At the conclusion of the presentation, the attendee will:
    4. 4.  Indoor  Outdoor  Special areas  Security and life safety Applications Across Architecture
    5. 5. Applications — Indoor Community College of Baltimore County, Catonsville, MD Gadreau, Inc.; RMF Engineering RONSOLOMON
    6. 6. Applications — Outdoor The White House
    7. 7. Applications — Special Areas Terminal E, Logan International Airport, Boston, MA Skidmore, Owings & Merrill; LAM Partners DOUGSALIN
    8. 8. Applications — Security and Life Safety Middle Street Intermodal Center, Honolulu, HI Urban Works, Inc.; Nakamura Oyama & Associates AUGIESALBOSA
    9. 9. How to Light a Space — General Theatrical Lighting Techniques: Key, Fill, Backlight, High Contrast to Create Drama The New York Times
    10. 10. Architectural techniques  Indirect illumination  Lighting walls  Accent lighting  Coves  Lighting the ceiling How to Light a Space — General Theatrical Lighting Techniques: Key, Fill, Backlight, High Contrast to Create Drama The New York Times
    11. 11. Architectural Techniques — Indirect Illumination City of Auburn/Auburn University Yarbrough Tennis Center, Auburn, AL Whitmire & Associates TODDVANEMST
    12. 12. Architectural Techniques — Lighting Walls Guggenheim Museum Soho, New York, NY Fisher Marantz Renfro Stone LEEB.EWING,SOLOMONR.GUGGENHEIMFOUNDATION
    13. 13. Scallops on the Wall from Narrow Downlights — Not Wall Washing
    14. 14.  Glare  Non-efficacious sources  Wasted light – Light leaving the building through windows – Hours of use – Light that is not needed or used  Inadequately lighted spaces relative to the task What to Avoid
    15. 15. Confusing Lighting that Doesn’t Reinforce the Design Concept of the Space Glary lighting for stairways that confuses the user What is being lighted in this space?
    16. 16. MANGINELLIPRODUCTIONS Miller Nichols Library, University of Missouri – Kansas City, Kansas City, MO Sasaki Associates; PGAV Architects; BGR Consulting Engineers
    17. 17.  Traditional light sources Changes in Electric Lighting Tungsten Halogen Fluorescent Metal Halide
    18. 18. Source Efficacy: Lumens per Watt Life Hours CCT CRI Dimmable Incandescent 10-15 750 2700 100 Yes Tungsten Halogen 20-35 2000 3000 99 Yes Compact Fluorescent 69-86 12,000-20,000 2700 3000 3500 4100 82-85 5% Linear Fluorescent 83-103 25,000-46,000 3000 3500 4100 82 1% Quartz Metal Halide 88-94 12,000-20,000 3000 4200 65-72 50% Ceramic Metal Halide 82-120 12,000-20,000 3000 4200 81-90 50% F-TECH-0002S Traditional Light Sources
    19. 19. Traditional Light Sources 20'x30'x8'H Room 18 Luminaires 2.5ft setback from walls Lumensperfixture (lm) InputPower(W) Luminaireefficacy (lm/W) AverageWall Illuminance(fc) Uniformity(max/min) Applicationefficiency Applicationefficacy (lm/W) 100W Halogen Surface Mount 668 100 7 18 3.9 83% 6 26W Quad Surface Mount 632 29 22 16 4.5 76% 17 20W CMH Surface Mount 710 24 30 18 2.9 78% 23 LED Surface Mount 700mA 815 18 46 20 2.8 78% 36 Ceiling Mounted Wall Washer Comparison
    20. 20.  Color  Efficacy  Life  Distribution (photometrics)  Cost (including owning and operating costs) Basics of LED Light
    21. 21.  Why the hype over LEDs, and when was ‗Metal Halide-ucation‘? A Brief History
    22. 22.  Why the hype over LEDs, and when was ‗Metal Halide-ucation‘? A simple answer: the U.S. DOE A Brief History
    23. 23.  Codes for energy – ASHRAE/IES 90.1 Joint Standard, California Title 24  Controllability, wired and wireless controls  Culture shift in young and old consumers  The cool factor: ―I want my LED‖  Outdoor Security lighting – IES G-1  IES Outdoor Environmental Lighting Zones 0-4  International Dark Sky Association and the Model Lighting Ordinance Trends in Lighting Today
    24. 24. Challenges Facing the Lighting Professional
    25. 25.  IES  CIE  ASHRAE/IES 90.1 Joint Standard and IECC, CA Title 24 Standards Writing and Governing Bodies
    26. 26. 27 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 625 650 675 700 725 750 Chromaticity Diagram (Spectral Power Distribution SPD) RGB Blue LED + Yellow Phosphor Blue LED Yellow Phosphor Basics of LED Light — Color
    27. 27. LED Challenges – Color Consistency Courtesy of Lumileds 28
    28. 28.  The distribution of the illuminance is critical on most well-designed projects  What are you trying to light?  What is the required illuminance level for the task?  How can I meet that without wasting light?  What is my desired visual effect? Basics of LED Light — Distribution asymmetric distribution shown
    29. 29. Where Does the Light Go? HPLED13 F-COVE-0005Bd)
    30. 30. Basics of LED Light — Efficacy, Efficiency, and Effectiveness a b C d e f  LPW is like MPG  Not the only measure of a luminaire a b C d e f
    31. 31.  LED lifetimes are measured in L70, the time when illuminance falls to 70% of initial illuminance (or a loss of 30%)  L70 can be a LOOOONG time if the luminaire is well constructed and reliable components are used in construction Basics of LED Light — Life
    32. 32.  LED lifetimes are measured in L70, the time when illuminance falls to 70% of initial illuminance (or a loss of 30%)  L70 can be a LOOOONG time if the luminaire is well constructed and reliable components are used in construction Basics of LED Light — Life
    33. 33.  LED lifetimes are measured in L70, the time when illuminance falls to 70% of initial illuminance (or a loss of 30%)  L70 can be a LOOOONG time if the luminaire is well constructed and reliable components are used in construction Basics of LED Light — Life
    34. 34.  Initial Costs should be balanced with the Total Cost of Ownership and a Life-Cycle Cost Benefit Analysis  Often the more expensive luminaire may be less expensive after energy costs, maintenance labor costs and overall quality and warranty are considered Basics of LED Light — Cost
    35. 35.  Point source or linear  Small  Instant on  Switchable  Dimmable  Color tunable  Color changing (16.6 million colors with proper controls)  Creating different form factors for designers to use (non-traditional shapes) What LEDs Are Particularly Good At
    36. 36.  Higher lumen packages (heat management)  Continuous improvement in efficacy  Ultimate controllability with wired and wireless controls  Better color management over time – eliminate color shift What’s Coming
    37. 37. Continual Progress in the Evolution of Technology  Since 1962: – Costs going down (average 20% per year) – Efficacies going up (average of 33% per year) – Now, higher lumen sources can replace traditional sources
    38. 38. 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Red Flux Red $/Lumen White Flux White $/Lumen Expon. (Red Flux) Expon. (Red $/Lumen) Flux/Package & Cost/LumenFlux/Package & Cost/Lumen Source: Haitz & Lumileds 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Red Flux Red $/Lumen White Flux White $/Lumen Expon. (Red Flux) Expon. (Red $/Lumen) Flux/Package & Cost/LumenFlux/Package & Cost/Lumen LightOutput/Package(lumens) -20% CAGR 20x Increase/Decade +35% CAGR10x Decrease/Decade Cost/Lumen($/lumen) The Future of LED Lighting…
    39. 39.  Incandescent  Fluorescent industrials  Lensed troffers  Volumetric troffers  Linear indirect and I/D – Don‘t need as much illuminance – Contrast is reduced Lighting the Office — an Evolution
    40. 40. Incandescent
    41. 41. Fluorescent
    42. 42. Volumetric Fluorescent and LED
    43. 43. Linear Indirect Lighting Open Office, Chicago, IL PGAI Design Partners LLC CHARLESMAYERPHOTOGRAPHY
    44. 44.  Lower panel heights, 48"-54" or lower  No binder bins  Collaboration over panels encouraged, as well as ―benching systems‖  Access to windows and daylight, private offices and conference rooms located in the interior of the floor  Hotelling and ―touchdown‖ spaces may be shared among staff Current Trends in Open Plan Offices Gensler, Los Angeles, CA Gensler; Lighting Design: Carlos Inclán, Glumac RMAARCHITECTURALPHOTOGRAPHY
    45. 45. Gensler, Los Angeles, CA Gensler; Lighting Design: Carlos Inclán, Glumac RMAARCHITECTURALPHOTOGRAPHY
    46. 46. Boston Light Source, Boston, MA Key Office Interiors MICHAELCHABOT
    47. 47. Golub Corporation, Schenectady, NY Facilities Design Group; Golub
    48. 48. RMAARCHITECTURALPHOTOGRAPHY Syska Hennessy Group, Inc., Culver City, CA Syska Hennessy Group, Inc.
    49. 49. Shlemmer Algaze Associates, Los Angeles, CA Shlemmer Algaze Associates JAMESWONG
    50. 50.  Activities  Dining  Walking  Path of egress Outdoor Lighting — Lighting for People AKER/ZVONKOVICPHOTOGRAPHY The Mural Pavilion, Harlem Hospital Center, New York, NY HOK; SBLD Studio; Lakhani & Jordan Engineers, P.C.
    51. 51. AM Residence, Bloomfield Hills, MI — Young & Young Architects; Resource Lighting Group JAMESHAEFNER
    52. 52. Outdoor Lighting — Lighting Objects Oklahoma City Symbolic Memorial, Oklahoma City, OK Butzer Gardner Architects; Sasaki Associates, Inc. B-KLIGHTING
    53. 53. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial, Washington, DC Roma Design Group; Randy Burkett Lighting Design; et al. RONSOLOMON
    54. 54. Connecticut Residence Douglas Orr original architect; SRSA
    55. 55. Bon Secours Cancer Institute, St. Francis Medical Center, Richmond, VA Odell Associates, Inc. JOEHILLIARD
    56. 56. The Bloch Building, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO Steven Holl Architects with BNIM; Renfro Design Group, Inc. ROLANDHALBEFOTOGRAPHIE
    57. 57.  Designers specify  Engineers can make the numbers work out with layouts, point-by-points, analysis tools, software  But the LOOK is the designer‘s! Tell us the look desired and the lighting rep or factory applications department can solve most lighting problems. Questions? Summary
    58. 58. John Selander, LC, IES, LEED AP Northeast Regional Sales Manager The Lighting Quotient, West Haven, CT