Pedagogy for Today's Professor - New Faculty Orientation


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Dr. Dave Wells – Pedagogy for Today’s Professor
University of Southern Mississippi

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Pedagogy for Today's Professor - New Faculty Orientation

  1. 1. Pedagogy for Today’s Professor David Wells Department of Marine Science USM New Faculty Orientation Monday August 19, 2013 1
  2. 2. Outline Exercise 1 - How do you define “learning”? Five brief “book reviews” How people learn A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing Introduction to Rubrics Benchmarks of Effective Educational Practices Scientific Teaching Lessons learned 2
  3. 3. Learning defined Learning is the process of constructing new personal meaning upon a foundation of prior knowledge and experience. 1 – Learning is a process not a product 2 – Learning involves change in knowledge, beliefs, behaviors or attitudes 3 – Learning is not something done to learners; it is something learners do. from Ambrose et al (2010) How Learning Works: seven research-based principles for smart teaching. Josey-Bass, 336 pages. ISBN 978-0-470-48410-4 3
  4. 4. National Academy Press, 2003 385 pages Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning & Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and education ISBN-13: 978-0-309-07036-2 d_id=9853 Copyright © 2003 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Unlessotherwiseindicated,allmaterialsinthisPDFFilepurchasedfromtheNationalAcademiesPress( copyrightedbytheNationalAcademyofSciences.Distribution,posting,orcopyingisstrictlyprohibitedwithoutwrittenpermission of the NAP. Tracking number: 24117188792364 4
  5. 5. Role of Prior Knowledge in learning Every learner has prior knowledge This can vary widely within a group of learners Prior knowledge may be naïve Replacing naïve understanding with informed understanding requires effort. Learners must convince themselves that the informed understanding is a better model than their prior knowledge. 5
  6. 6. Learning as an active process Learning is done by learners, not instructors Learners must take responsibility for their own learning. Hence learners must take control of their own learning. The degree of learner engagement is highly correlated with successful learning achievements. Active learning is comparable to lectures for content mastery, but superior for developing thinking and communication skills. 6
  7. 7. Learning for Understanding Factual knowledge is necessary but not sufficient “Usable knowledge” requires that facts be connected and organized around concepts; and that contexts under which it is applicable are understood. This conceptual knowledge supports transfer to other contexts Metacognition (understanding how you are learning; what you know and remains to be learned) is an important factor in learning for understanding. 7
  8. 8. Danny Edelson’s “Learning for use” framework Presentation on “Learning Science” at AGU workshop on “Using global datasets in teaching earth processes” 5 December 2002 Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(3), 355-385, 2001 Create demand or Elicit curiosity Construct Motivate Organize Reflect Balance of direct & indirect experience, modeling, instruction, explanation Reflect Practice Apply Reflect 8
  9. 9. Adaptive Expertise Some learners become skilled at the learning process. Some do not. Skilled learners approach assignments flexibly and with curiosity, as opportunities to explore and expand their expertise. Experts are no longer considered as “knowing all the answers”. Rather they are highly metacognitive learners who use what they have learned, but continually question their current expertise, seeking to move beyond their current limitations. Skilled learners become life-long learners. 9
  10. 10. Addison Wesley Longman, 2001 302 pages ISBN: 0-8013-1903-X 10
  11. 11. Cognitive process categories Remember retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory recognize, recall Understand construct meaning from oral, written, graphic communication interpret, classify, summarize, infer, compare, explain Apply carry out or use an appropriate procedure execute, implement Analyze identify constituent parts, relate these to overall structure differentiate, organize, attribute Evaluate make judgments based on criteria and standards check, determine, critique, judge Create assemble elements into functional whole or new pattern generate, plan, produce, design, build The first two categories are often referred to as “surface learning” while the remaining four as “deep learning”. Active verbs (used in assessment activities) are used to identify the intended cognitive process category. 11
  12. 12. Exercise 2: Define a learning outcome Think of one learning outcome for a course that you teach, or intend to teach. Use an active verb as the first word. Examples: Interpret uncertainty information associated with a position / orientation solution. Trace the origins of Shakespeare’s Hamlet to earlier legends, such as the Scandanavian Saga of Hrolf Kraki. 12
  13. 13. Knowledge dimension categories Factual basic elements of a discipline terminology, specific facts, reliable information sources Conceptual larger structure interrelating basic elements classifications, categories, principles, theories, models, structures Procedural how to do something; methods of inquiry appropriate subject-specific skills, algorithms, techniques, methods Metacognitive knowledge of cognition in general; awareness of own cognition strategic knowledge, knowledge of cognitive tasks, self-knowledge 13
  14. 14. Taxonomy Table 1 Remember 2 Understand 3 Apply 4 Analyze 5 Evaluate 6 Create A - Factual B - Conceptual A1; R1 A2;R2 A7 C - Procedural O1;A3;R4 R3 A6 D - Metacognitive A4 A5 Four questions: Example Table Cell Learning objectives O1 Use Ohm’s Law to solve problems C3 Learning activities A1 Classify problem type B2 A2 Select appropriate laws B4 A3 Implement proper procedures C3 A4 Remember metacognitive strategies D1 A5 Implement metacognitive strategies D3 A6 Check procedure implemented correctly C5 A7 Critique correctness of solution B5 Assessment rubric R1-3 Classify problem; select law; select procedure B2, B4, C4 R4 Obtain correct solution C3 Taxonomical alignment O aligned with A & R; 4 As not aligned with R; R4 not aligned 14
  15. 15. Stylus Publishing 2013 ISBN 978-1-57922-587-2 Available as hard copy, library network e-edition, consumer e-edition 211 pages, 12 chapters What is a rubric? Why use them? How to construct a rubric Involving students in construction Grading with rubrics Rubrics for: Learning from experience; online learning; teaching improvement; self-assessment; career advancement; program assessment 15
  16. 16. 4 parts: task description (the assignment); scale (level of achievement / grade); dimension (skills / knowledge involved); description (in the grid boxes) – what constitutes each level of achievement. 16 Constructing a rubric
  17. 17. Description still has to be added. 17 Example
  18. 18. Rubrics Manifesto 1. Rubrics are part of a major redistribution of power in how academe defines and controls education. 2. Rubrics give students the power of access, to better understand expectations, to have a greater stake in their own learning. 3. Rubrics allow faculty to document and define their career progress. 4. Rubrics can allow departments, programs, and campuses to define shared goals and document performance. (The USM WEAVE process is essentially a rubric) 18
  19. 19. What is student engagement? Student engagement represents two critical features of collegiate quality. First is the amount of time and effort students put into their studies and other educationally purposeful activities. Second is how the institution deploys its resources and organizes the curriculum and other learning opportunities to get students to participate in activities that decades of research studies show are linked to student learning. What is the survey about? Survey items on the NSSE college report represent empirically confirmed "good practices" in undergraduate education: behaviors by students and institutions associated with desired outcomes of college. NSSE doesn’t assess student learning directly, but survey results point to areas where colleges and universities are performing well and aspects of the undergraduate experience that could be improved. from
  20. 20. NSSE benchmarks of effective educational practice 42 survey questions in five categories LAC = Level of academic challenge ACL = Active and collaborative learning SFI = Student-Faculty Interaction SCE = Supportive Campus environment EEE = Enriching educational experience 20
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  22. 22. Exercise 3: engagement expectations For each hour in class, how many hours of outside class time should a student be expected to work: studying, reading, writing, doing assignments / labs, analyzing data, preparing for class, preparing for exams? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 more? 22
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  26. 26. Universities using NSSE USM used NSSE annually from 2005 to 2010 About 60% of subscribers use NSSE each year 26
  27. 27. W.H. Freeman, 2007 184 pages ISBN: 978-1-4292-0188-9 A faculty guide on applying emerging results from cognitive science, towards teaching scientifically (i.e. based on scientific evidence on what leads to effective learning). Written by biologists with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) teaching in mind. Principles can be applied to teaching in any discipline. Chapters on Scientific Teaching; Active Learning; Assessment; Diversity; Constructing a Teachable Unit; Institutional Transformation 27
  28. 28. Scientific Teaching Scientific teaching = apply critical thinking, rigor, creativity, spirit of experimentation, capture process of discovery Evidence indicates this improves learning Book overviews evidence, approaches, methods, theories Instructors must customize for teaching style, curricula, goals, institutions 28
  29. 29. Active Learning Active learning = learners engaged in more than taking notes and following directions Learners take responsibility for their own learning Activities = group learning, problem-solving, inquiry- based learning (construct new knowledge) 29
  30. 30. Continuous assessment This is more than grades. It both monitors and promotes learning. It provides feedback for students and instructors: a mechanism for self-evaluation & evaluation of classmates. It drives learning = process of reflection & analysis using achievement markers , NOT just an end-point grade It shapes class standards & increases learning gains. It has more impact than any other educational intervention, particularly for low-achieving learners. It provides checkpoints & measures achievement; lets learner determine if on track & modify their approaches; guides changes in study & learning behavior. It is the “Heart of effective teaching”. 30
  31. 31. Diversity Diversity = variation in human experience, ability, and characteristics (education, experience, cognitive styles, personalities, abilities, cultural backgrounds, physiology, innate characteristics). Diversity in teaching: (1) educate students about the diverse world; (2) diversity enhances learning; (3) each student experiences classroom differently 31
  32. 32. Diversity of Learning Styles Style Preferences Spatial pictures, images, spatial understanding Auditory-Musical sound, music Linguistic words, speech, writing Physical body, hands, sense of touch Mathematical logic, reasoning, systems Interpersonal learn in groups, with other people Intrapersonal work alone, self-study 32
  33. 33. Constructing a Teachable Unit A “Teachable unit” is anything from a single lecture to a full semester course. Framework for construction: backwards design 1 – What are the intended outcomes (learning goals)? 2 – What evidence (assessment) for actual outcomes will be used? 3 – What active learning activities will engage learners? 4 – How closely aligned are goals, activities, and assessment? 33
  34. 34. Summary – Lessons Learned 1. The learning process is becoming better understood 2. Learning is enhanced by encouraging active learning / learner engagement; collaborative learning; cognitive awareness (metacognition); using assessment activities to enhance learning; using the diversity of learner prior knowledge, cognitive style, culture and personality to enhance the learning environment 3. Learning is accomplished by learners, not instructors 4. Paradigm shift is from the “sage on the stage” to the “guide on the side”. 34
  35. 35. Where to start 1. Seminar series based on “Scientific Teaching”. Six sessions, once per month, starting on Sept 27. 2. Five self-paced modules on faculty development from OISE, to be available on Blackboard: planning; exploring; teaching; assessing; integrating. 3. STLHE Green Guides on: Teaching the Art of Inquiry; Feedback; Teaching for Critical Thinking; Creative Problem Solving; Leading effective discussions; Technology in Higher Education; Lecturing for better learning. 35
  36. 36. Exercise 4: feedback fill in the form and pass to front 36