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Crane Knowledge for Lawyers Outlines: Crane Identification

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A detailed outline on how to identify the correct type of crane which is essential to then determine the correct specifications and OSHA regs.

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Crane Knowledge for Lawyers Outlines: Crane Identification

  1. 1. Crane Knowledge For Lawyers Outlines Series Outline #1: Crane Identification By: D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com
  2. 2. LawyerOutline1r3 1.1. Different Crane Types There are many distinct and different types of cranes. 1.2. Different Regulations Each configuration has its own governing bodies, specifications and OSHA requirements. 1.3. Precise Identification Required The precise and correct identification is required in order to then identify the appropriate regulations. 1. Crane is a generic term 2.1. Overhead Cranes 2.2. Gantry Cranes 2.3. Jib Cranes 2.4. Mobile Cranes 2.5. Tower/Construction Cranes 2.6. Container Cranes 2.7. Stacker Cranes 2. Seven Families of Cranes (Overview) There are seven major families of crane products and many minor products too. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 1 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  3. 3. 3.1. Each crane type is a different industry 3.2. Each crane type has a different industry association 3.3. Each industry association has a different product specifications 3.4. Each crane type has a different ANSI/ASME specifications 3.5. Each crane type has different OSHA regulations 3.6. Each crane type has different operator training/certification requirements 3. Is this a “difference without a distinction?” NO! The difference is critical to preparing a legal case 4. Disclaimer This paper was meant to be a short outline, a brief overview of cranes. Even after extreme editing, it’s still 31 pages long! I continually had to remind myself, that in order to keep this to a reasonable length, I could only address the mainstream products and options. There are a near infinite number of options and exceptions, which is why I frequently couched my observation with hedge words like “usually” and “most of the time.” My observations pertain to that segment of the market that resides in the fat part of the bell curve. If this leads to confusion, please feel free to call me and I will be glad to explain extraneous parameters that for the sake of brevity, I had to leave out of this paper. D. Larry Dunville Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612 www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 2 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  4. 4. (a) Overhead Cranes (most common US usage) (b) Bridge Cranes (c) Overhead Bridge Cranes (d) Electric Overhead Traveling (EOT) Cranes (common European usage) 5.1.1.1) Overhead Crane (synonyms) These terms are used interchangeably and mean exactly the same thing. 5.1.1.2) Operational Terminology There will be a separate document in this series involved with the primary vocabulary in the industry, but I have included these two terms here because they are frequently used by those not experienced in the industry as synonyms and they are NOT. It’s important to understand the difference. 5.1.1. Nomenclature There are a few terms that we have to clarify. That includes the synonyms for the term Overhead Crane and the difference between Crane and Hoist. 5.1. CRANE TYPE #1: Overhead Cranes 5. Seven Crane Types (Detailed Drill Down By Crane Type) 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 3 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  5. 5. (a) Overhead Crane The overhead crane is the whole device consisting of three components, 1) a hoist, 2) a bridge girder and 3) end-trucks. The crane provides the support structure and lateral motions. In most pictures, the crane is the “Alert Yellow” assembly. (b) Hoist The hoist is the piece of machinery, mounted on the crane, that does the lifting. In other words, the vertical motion. The horizontal motions are accomplished by the crane and trolley. The terms hoist and crane and NOT interchangeable terms. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 4 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  6. 6. a) Hand-push/Work Station Cranes b) Structural/Stick Cranes c) Fabricated Girder Cranes 5.1.2. Overhead Crane sub groups (a) Enclosed Track Workstation Cranes The enclosed track workstation crane is characterized by an internal to the track rolling surface. 5.1.3.1) Overhead Crane Sub-group #1 Configurations There are three types of hand push cranes 5.1.3. OVERHEAD CRANE SUB-GROUP #1: Hand-push/Workstation Cranes These are called “workstation” cranes because they usually service a single operator workstation. They are typically used for light loads, but more than a man can handle. They are frequently assembly workstations with operations that don’t require horizontal motorization, but will more often then not be equipped with an electric or air hoist for motorized vertical motion. Each of these cranes are functionally identical and are only differentiated by the material used for the bridge girder. I’ve called them out separately because each involve a different industry association and therefore a different ANIS/ASME specification. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 5 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  7. 7. (b) I-Beam Hand Push Cranes The I-Beam crane is simply a function of being built with an AISC structural I-Beam section. (c) Patented Track Hand Push Cranes The Patented track crane is also a function of the special “Patented Track” beam used in i-s construction. (a) Typically, no operator training required (b) Low cost, pre-engineered product (c) Usually well under $10k (d) Usually under 3-ton capacity and under 20 ft. span (width) (e) Hundreds of vendors and frequently “home-made” 5.1.3.2) Characteristics of all Hand-push/Workstation Cranes 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 6 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  8. 8. (a) Structural, I-Beam/Wide Flange Beam Cranes (b) Patented Track Beam Cranes 5.1.4.1) Overhead Crane Sub-group #2 Configurations (a) Operator training requirement dependent on company safety policy Note, some states are moving to require an operator’s license. I will include a list of the states in a future update of this document. (b) Pre-engineered product, usually $10k to $50k price (c) Single and double girder configuration (d) Usually 5 to 30-ton capacity and up to 60 ft. span (width) (e) Well over a hundred vendors across the US 5.1.4.2) Characteristics of Structural/Stick Cranes 5.1.4. OVERHEAD CRANE SUB-GROUP #2: Structural/Stick Cranes This sub-group is again characterized by the type of bridge girder used to build the crane. As above, they girder type dictates the manufacturers association and therefore the ANSI/ASME specification. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 7 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  9. 9. (a) Welded Plate Box Girder Cranes Welded plate box girders are the current “state of the art” configuration for heavy capacity, long span cranes. (b) Channel Box Girder Cranes Channel box girders are an old and seldom used configuration. They are a combination of a top and bottom structural channel welded together with plate steel webs to form a box. They are so rare, that I can’t find a picture or drawing. (c) Formed Plate Girder Cranes Over the years, various manufacturers have experimented with forming plate steel into a structural shape, minimizing the amount of welding, thereby lowering manufacturing costs. 5.1.5.1) Overhead Crane Sub-group #3 Configurations There are three members of this group of which the first, welded plate box girders, is overwhelming the majority being built. (a) Operator training dependent on company safety policy (b) Engineered product, usually $50k to $250k (c) Single and double girder configuration, usually double (d) Usually 30 to 500-ton capacity and usually spans longer than 40 feet 5.1.5.2) Characteristics of Fabricated Girder Cranes 5.1.5. OVERHEAD CRANE SUB-GROUP #3: Fabricated Girder Cranes 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 8 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  10. 10. (e) A couple dozen vendors across the US 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 9 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  11. 11. a) Engineered Industrial Gantry Crane b) Pre-Engineered/Portable Gantry Cranes c) RTG (rubber tired) Gantry Cranes 5.2.1. Gantry Crane sub-groups () Engineered Gantry Crane 5.2.2.1) Engineered Industrial Gantry Crane Configurations 5.2.2. GANTRY CRANE SUB-GROUP #1: Engineered Industrial Gantry Crane 5.2. CRANE TYPE #2: Gantry Cranes Gantry Cranes are closely related to Overhead Cranes in most respects. The primary difference is that the gantry crane runway is usually located at or near ground level. Therefore, the floor is supporting the gantry crane rather than the building structure. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 10 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  12. 12. () Single Leg Configuration Gantry Crane 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 11 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  13. 13. () Double Leg Configuration Gantry Crane (1) Operator training dependent on company safety policy (2) Custom engineered product, usually well over $50k to $250k (3) Single leg and double leg configuration (4) Motorized in all directions 5.2.2.2) Characteristics of Engineered Industrial Gantry Cranes 5.2.3.1) Pre-Engineered/Portable Gantry Crane Configurations Pre-engineered products are have been standardized and reduced to a part number in a catalog. 5.2.3. GANTRY CRANE SUB-GROUP #2: Pre-Engineered/Portable Gantry Cranes 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 12 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  14. 14. (a) Fix Portable Gantry Crane Fixed Gantry Cranes are sold as a fixed height and width. (b) Adjustable Portable Gantry Crane Adjustable Gantry Cranes can be altered in height and/or width, by adjustment with simple hand tools. (a) Typically, no operator training required (b) Pre-engineered, catalog product (c) Operationally, Gantry Cranes can be fixed location or mounted on casters (d) Only double leg configuration (e) Usually hand push, but sometimes motorized in all directions 5.2.3.2) Characteristics of Pre-Engineered/Portable Gantry Cranes 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 13 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  15. 15. (a) Single Girder (b) Double Girder 5.2.4.1) RTG (rubber tired) Gantry Cranes Configuration (a) Operator training dependent on company safety policy (b) Custom engineered product, usually over $100k (c) Double leg configuration only (d) Motorized in all directions and steerable (e) Usually outdoor service, commonly used in multimodal shipping facilities for container handling 5.2.4.2) Characteristics of RTG (rubber tired) Gantry Cranes 5.2.4. GANTRY CRANE SUB-GROUP #3: RTG (rubber tired) Gantry Cranes 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 14 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  16. 16. (a) Floor Mounted Jib Cranes Floor mounted Jib Cranes almost always require a footing, engineered to size and properly anchored in order to prevent toppling under load. 5.3.1.1) Pre-Engineered These are pre-engineered, standardized, catalog products. 5.3.1. Jib Crane sub-groups 5.3. CRANE TYPE #3: Jib Cranes Jib Cranes are low cost solutions for workstation level material handling problems. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 15 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  17. 17. (b) Wall Mounted Jib Cranes The term “wall mounted” is really a misnomer. Actually, the wall mounted Jib Crane must be mounted to a building column of adequate size to structurally accept the loading. (a) Non-standard Floor Mounted Jib Cranes Jib Cranes over 5-ton capacity and/or over 25 ft. reach are normally custom engineered products. (b) Non-standard Wall Mounted Jib Cranes Jib Cranes over 5-ton capacity and/or over 25 ft. reach are normally custom engineered products. (c) Traveling Jib Cranes Traveling Jib Cranes are a unique idea, but costly to buy and need a special building to accept the loadings incurred. As a result, they are very rare. I’ve only seen a handful of them in over 35 years in the overhead crane business. 5.3.1.2) Custom Engineered 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 16 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  18. 18. (a) Typically, no operator training required (b) Low cost, pre-engineered product, usually under $10k (c) Usually under 5-ton capacity (d) A couple dozen US manufacturers 5.3.2.1) Wall Mount Jib Crane Characteristics (a) Typically, no operator training required (b) Low cost, pre-engineered product, usually under $10k (c) Usually under 5-ton capacity (d) A couple dozen US manufacturers 5.3.2.2) Floor Mount Jib Crane Characteristics (a) Typically, no operator training required (b) Custom engineered product, usually over $50k (c) Usually under 5-ton capacity (d) Very few manufacturers and a very rare product 5.3.2.3) Traveling Wall Jib Crane Characteristics 5.3.2. Jib Crane Characteristics 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 17 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  19. 19. (a) All Terrain (b) Rubber Tired 5.4.1.1) Lattice Boom Mobile Cranes (a) All Terrain (b) Rubber Tired 5.4.1.2) Hydraulic Mobile Crane 5.4.1. Mobile Crane Sub-Groups The Mobile Crane classification is both huge a near infinite numbers of configurations. In an attempt to simplify the Mobile market place, I’ve attempted to reduce the options to a 2x2 matrix. This may be an over simplification, but this paper would grow to a book if I included all the possible options. 5.4. CRANE TYPE #4: Mobile Cranes 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 18 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  20. 20. a) Certified Operator Training, OSHA mandated b) Standardized product c) Crane boom is assembled and erected at the job site d) Available in both rubber tire and crawler track configurations 5.4.2. Lattice Boom Mobile Crane Characteristics a) Certified Operator Training, OSHA mandated b) Standardized product c) Crane boom requires no assembly in the field, but lower block rigging may be field modified d) Available in both rubber tire and crawler track configurations 5.4.3. Hydraulic Boom Mobile Crane Characteristics 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 19 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  21. 21. a) Fixed Tower/Construction Cranes The base is non-moving, but a rotating or slewing ring is located beneath the jib. 5.5.1. Mobile Crane Sub-Groups 5.5. CRANE TYPE #5: Tower/Construction Cranes This section is included only to help the reader in crane identification. I have no experience in this portion of the crane world and have included only the most basic information. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 20 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  22. 22. b) Slewing Tower/Construction Cranes The slewing ring is located at the base and the entire assembly rotates. a) Certified Operator Training, OSHA Mandated b) Standardized Product 5.5.2. Tower/Construction Cranes Characteristics 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 21 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  23. 23. a) High Profile Container Cranes High profile, where the boom is hinged at the waterside of the crane structure and lifted in the air to clear the ships for navigation. b) Low Profile Container Cranes Low profile, where the boom is shuttled toward and over the ship to allow the trolley to load and discharge containers. Low-profile cranes are used where they may be in the flight path of aircraft, i.e. where a container terminal is located close to an airport 5.6.1. Container Crane Sub-Groups 5.6. CRANE TYPE #6: Container Cranes This section is included only to help the reader in crane identification. I have no experience in this portion of the crane world and have included only the most basic information. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 22 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  24. 24. a) Engineered AS/RS (auto storage/retrieval system) Stacker Cranes b) Pre-Engineered Manual Stacker Cranes 5.7.1. Stacker Crane Sub-Groups a) Engineered AS/RS Stacker Crane These are highly complex, usually computerized, large scale, storage and retrieval systems. Costing in the millions of dollars. 5.7.2. Stacker Crane Characteristics Although functionally similar, these are two products at the opposite end of the cost and complexity spectrum. 5.7. CRANE TYPE #7: Stacker Cranes This section is included only to help the reader in crane identification. I have no experience in this portion of the crane world and have included only the most basic information. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 23 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  25. 25. () Engineered AS/RS Stacker Crane 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 24 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  26. 26. b) Pre-Engineered Manual Stacker Cranes These are standard, “off the shelf,” pre-engineered, small scale, manually operated systems. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 25 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  27. 27. 6.1. The term Crane is a generic term It’s so diversely used that it’s almost useless. 6.2. Use this paper and/or consult an expert Be absolutely sure you’re using the correct nomenclature, the correct ANSI/ASME specification and likewise the correct section of the OSHA regsulations. If you not sure, feel free to call me. 6. Conclusion 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 26 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  28. 28. . My Name: D. Larry Dunville . Company: President, Overhead Crane Consulting, LLC 1. Specification writing, proposal evaluation and vendor approval drawing review 2. Crane safety training and corporate safety programs 3. Expert Witness, related to Overhead Cranes, Jib Cranes, Gantry Cranes, Monorails, Hoists and Mobile Cranes . Specialization: Overhead Crane Consulting specialized in; . Phone: (574) 210-8612 . Website: www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com . Email: Larry.Dunville@gmail.com . Location: Tucson, AZ and Sawyer, MI 7. About Me For over 35 years, I was the owner of Dearborn Crane & Engineering Co. I sold Dearborn in 2012 and started Overhead Crane Consulting, LLC in 2016. Please take a look at my website for further details. 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 27 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612
  29. 29. 1. Crane Governing Bodies/Specifications List A detailed listing of the governing bodies, industry specification, ANSI/ASME spec listing and appropriate OSHA sections. All segmented by crane type. This listing will include spec titles and association contact information. 2. Essential Terminology/Pictionary This will be a picture dictionary of the essential terms. The intent is to make a tool that a lawyer and client can each point to, thereby confirming agreement on the object in question and proper nomenclature in the legal write-up. 3. Long form Industry Glossary This will be an exhaustive listing of crane industry terminology annotated with the sources of the definitions. 1. Overhead Cranes 2. Gantry Cranes 3. Jib Cranes 4. Mobile Cranes 4. In-depth Outlines 8. Up Coming: Cranes for Lawyers Outline Series 04/16/16 LawyerOutline#1.pdf Page 28 of 28 D. Larry Dunville www.OverheadCraneConsulting.com Larry.Dunville@gmail.com (574) 210-8612

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