Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Development of a Wire and Cable Extrusion Line for Processing Polyolefins Containing Novel Flame Retardants (ANTEC Poster)

725 views

Published on

Due to concerted environmental regulations, some of the halogenated flame retardants such as decabromodiphenyl ether are being phased out. The focus of this project is to complete an investigation into the effectiveness of a bio-derived non-halogenated flame retardant material. Ultimately, the proprietary flame retardant could be compounded into a polyethylene resin to accommodate wire and cable grade products. The successful qualification of the flame retardant will serve as an alternative to current halogenated additives. Extensive testing has shown the ability to reduce the rate of thermal degradation, and has indicated the ability to be melt processed with the base resin. Processability was found to be effected only slightly by increasing loading levels as well.

Published in: Business, Lifestyle
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

Development of a Wire and Cable Extrusion Line for Processing Polyolefins Containing Novel Flame Retardants (ANTEC Poster)

  1. 1. Development of a Wire and Cable Extrusion Line for <br />Processing Polyolefins Containing Novel*Flame Retardants<br />Andrew Fothergill, Liam Driscoll, SethumadhavanRavichandran,<br />Prof. Stephen Johnston, Prof. Jayant Kumar, Prof. RamaswamyNagarajan<br />University of Massachusetts Lowell<br />ABSTRACT<br />Due to concerted environmental regulations, some of the halogenated flame retardants such as decabromodiphenyl ether are being phased out. The focus of this project is to complete an investigation into the effectiveness of a bio-derived non-halogenated flame retardant material. Ultimately, the proprietary flame retardant could be compounded into a polyethylene resin to accommodate wire and cable grade products. The successful qualification of the flame retardant will serve as an alternative to current halogenated additives. Extensive testing has shown the ability to reduce the rate of thermal degradation, and has indicated the ability to be melt processed with the base resin. Processability was found to be effected only slightly by increasing loading levels as well. <br />THERMAL PROPERTIES<br />BURN CHARACTERISTICS<br />MATERIALS<br /><ul><li>Medium Density Polyethylene [MDPE]
  2. 2. Manufacturer: Dow Chemical Company
  3. 3. Grade: DHDB-6549 NT
  4. 4. Flame Retardants [FR]
  5. 5. Bio-derived and non-halogenated proprietary additive
  6. 6. Poly(4-vinylphenol) [PVP]</li></ul>COMPOUNDING<br /><ul><li>Blend MDPE with non-halogenated flame retardants at 5%, 10%, and 15% FR by mass
  7. 7. Procedure
  8. 8. MDPE processed at 185oC – 5 minutes</li></ul> PVP processed at 165oC – 5 minutes<br /><ul><li>FR added to melt and blended for 5 additional minutes</li></ul>CHARACTERIZATION<br /><ul><li>Thermogravimetric analysis [TGA]
  9. 9. Degradation of samples through thermal exposure to 1000oC
  10. 10. Differential scanning calorimeter [DSC]
  11. 11. Cycle: Heat – Cool – Heat
  12. 12. Rate: 10oC/min
  13. 13. Rheological analysis
  14. 14. Study the non-Newtonian characteristics based on storage/loss modulus and viscosity
  15. 15. Flammability - UL 94-HB
  16. 16. Determine the burn rate of the base resin and blends
  17. 17. Burn less than 1.5” per minute to pass</li></ul>Table 2: UL94-HB Burn Test Results<br /><ul><li> All samples passed the UL94-HB test
  18. 18. Flame retarded samples swelled upon burning, </li></ul> which reduced the drip count<br /><ul><li> Results inconclusive as to which loading level </li></ul> provided best flame retardancy <br />Figure 3: DSC Comparison Base vs. Novel<br />Base Resin<br />(Flaming Drips)<br />5% Novel FR<br />(Hanging Glob)<br />5% PVP FR<br />(Drip Forming)<br />Figure 4: DSC Comparison Base vs. PVP<br />BACKGROUND<br />Halogenated flame retardants have been commercially utilized in the plastics industry since the early 1970’s. They are highly effective in decreasing flammability. When developed, very little information was known regarding the environmental persistence and toxicity of brominated additives. These compounds were elected for study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in 1995 for hazard evaluation1. Since then, extensive research has been conducted<br /><ul><li> DSC results show a reduced crystalline phase due to</li></ul> the addition of FR<br />CONCLUSIONS<br /><ul><li>Thermal degradation of the polymer-FR blends fall within the range of 375oC- 500oC
  19. 19. Novel FR had a lower mass loss rate than PVP FR
  20. 20. DSC results indicate ability to extrude blend at similar conditions to base resin
  21. 21. Matching exothermal peaks at 110oC and endothermal peaks at 125oC
  22. 22. Inhibited crystallinity for both blends
  23. 23. Processability not compromised at low loading levels of Novel FR, slightly effected at 15%
  24. 24. 10% loading level underperformed in UL94-HB test due to possible phase separation</li></ul>Table 1: Percent Crystallinity from DSC<br /><ul><li>Reduction of crystallinity by 20% for Novel FR
  25. 25. Reduction of crystallinity by 30% for PVP FR
  26. 26. Minimal variation noticed in TM for blend</li></ul>regarding the ability of halogenated organics to act as precursors to dioxin and furan generation2. This includes brominated and chlorinated flame retardants. The toxicity of <br />THERMAL PROPERTIES<br />RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES<br />current grades is now well-known to cause bodily harm through various degenerative diseases4,5 including cancers3. Dioxins and furans are both carcinogenic in very low amounts, and remedial measures and cost-effective reduction to exposure is nearly non-existent. Influenced by sustainability trends, specific studies to understand the root contaminants were initiated. Two specific chemicals were identified to have an impact on the wire and cable industry: polybrominateddiphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls. On July 1, 2006, the European Union enacted the RoHS Directive, which initiated the phase-out of poly(vinyl chloride) and halogenated flame retardants6. The directive only restricts the use of these substances. However, companies are phasing out these chemicals to ensure sustainability, safety, and recyclability7. This presents a market potential for non-halogenated flame retardants. This research is focused on exploring the use of a novel alternative material.<br />FUTURE WORK<br /><ul><li>Blend higher loadings of FR by mass
  27. 27. Potentially blend with nanoclays
  28. 28. Scale-up to extrusion/injection molding
  29. 29. Additional industry standard testing
  30. 30. X-Ray crystallography for crystal size and type</li></ul>Figure 1: TGA Comparison Base vs. Novel<br />REFERENCES<br /> United States of America. Department of Health and Human Services. National Toxicology Program. Report on Carcinogens. 11th ed. Vol. 70. Print. Ser. 25.<br /> International Chemical Secrateriat. Bromine and Chlorine - Human Health and Environmental Concerns. ChemSec. Clean Production Action, Nov. 2009. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. <http://www.chemsec.org/rohs/reports-and-documents>.<br /> Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.<br />Lebel, G. “Organochlorine Exposure and the Risk of Endometriosis.” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 69 (1998): 221-228.<br />Bertazzi P.A. et al. “The Seveso studies on early and long term effects of dioxin exposure: a review.” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 106 (suppl 2, 1998): 625-631.<br /> "What Is the RoHS Directive?" EBFRIP - European Brominated Flame Retardants Industry Panel. European Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel, 2008. Web. 25 Oct. 2010. <http://www.ebfrip.org/main-nav/european-regulatory-centre/rohs-directive-restriction-of-the-use-of-certain-hazardous-substances-in-electrical-and-electronic-equipment/what-is-the-rohs-directive>.<br /> International Chemical Secretariat. Electronics Without Brominated Flame Retardants and PVC. May 2010. Web. 29 Oct. 2010. <http://www.chemsec.org/rohs/reports-and-documents>.3<br />TN 48, “Polymer Heats of Fusion”, TA Instruments, New Castle, DE<br />TA123, “Determination of Polymer Crystallinity by DSC”, TA Instruments, New Castle, DE.<br />* “Non-Halogenated Flame retardant materials” J. Kumar, R. Nagarajan, S. Ravichandran et al. Patent Pending <br />Figure 5: Dynamic viscosity results<br />Figure 2: TGA Comparison Base vs. PVP<br /><ul><li> Low loading levels for Novel FR additive </li></ul> reduced dynamic viscosity up to 15%<br /><ul><li> 15% Novel FR increased viscosity by 20% </li></ul> compared to 51% for the 15% PVP FR<br /><ul><li> PVP FR showed a 20-51% increase in dynamic </li></ul> viscosity relative to the base resin<br /><ul><li>Novel FR shows a 9% maximum reduction in mass </li></ul> loss rate at 5% loading<br /><ul><li> PVP FR shows minimal effect for various loadings of </li></ul> additive on degradation characteristics<br /><ul><li> The Novel FR produced twice the amount of char </li></ul> at 2%<br />Special Thanks To: The International Wire and Cable Symposium, Professor Stephen Driscoll, and MayurKumbhani<br />

×