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IMPROVING ROAD SAFETY
LEGISLATION IN THAILAND
Legal Development Program (LDP)
2015-2016
BY LDP members Thailand
Geneva, Sw...
CONTENT
1. The Road Safety Crisis
2. Legislation Gap in Thailand
3. Overview: Legal Development Program
4. Objectives: Leg...
The Global ProblemTHE GLOBAL ROAD CRISIS
Every six seconds, someone is killed or
seriously injured on the world’s roads
Th...
THE ROAD CRISIS IN THAILAND
4
Though many
stakeholders are
working toward
improving road
safety, very few
experts are
advo...
LEGISLATION GAP IN THAILAND
•National speed law ✔
•Speed limit on urban roads ≤ 50 km/h ✗
•Local authorities can modify th...
OVERVIEW: LEGAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (LDP)
The LDP builds the capacity of its members to
advocate for effective road safety...
OBJECTIVES: LEGAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
Enhance
knowledge and
skills
Promote active
participation in
relevant working
groups...
2016 LEGAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS
2015 ACTIVITIES
2016 ACTIVITIES
ADVOCATING THROUGH AN ACADEMIC FORUM
ADVOCATING THROUGH THE MEDIA
Media coverage from Voice TV reporter Chayakorn
Kumchoke and Pol. Maj. Gen. Pongson Kongtreek...
ADVOCATING THROUGH THE MEDIA
ADVOCATING FOR LEGISLATIVE IMPROVEMENT BASED ON
RECOMMENDATIONS MADE ON RELEVANT PLATFORMS
ADVOCATING FOR LEGISLATIVE IMPROVEMENT BASED ON
RECOMMENDATIONS MADE ON RELEVANT PLATFORMS
ADVOCATING THROUGH THE DEPARTMENT
OF DISASTER PREVENTION AND MITIGATION
19 February:
First meeting to to amend
road safety...
ROAD SAFETY LEGISLATION PROGRESS
Issue Legislation Legislative Improvements Made
Speed limit 1. Road Traffic Act
2. Highwa...
SITUATION ON 2-3
WHEELERS IN THAILAND
SITUATION ON 2-3 WHEELERS
IN THAILAND
2 WHEELER
04/12/59 20LDP Thailand country paper
3 WHEELER
04/12/59 21LDP Thailand country paper
NUMBERS OF 2-3 WHEELERS REGISTERED
Category registered total
- Motorcycle 20,342,403 20,531,896
- Public Motorcycle 189,49...
STATISTIC OF 2-3 WHEELER’S ACCIDENT
04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 23
Table 1.2: Numbers of 2-3 wheelers involved in ...
THE HIGHEST
• Motorcycle ranks the highest number in
road accident among 2-3 wheelers.
• The average rate of accident per ...
FATALITIES AND CASUALTIES
Table 1.3 :Traffic accidents: fatalities and casualties, 2011-2015,
04/12/59 LDP Thailand countr...
CAUSES OF MOTORCYCLE INJURY
The main reasons are:
• Speeding
• Not wearing helmet.
• Carelessness
• Lack of knowledge and ...
RATE OF HELMET WEARING
04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 27
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Rider 53 54 52 51 51
Passenger 19 2...
SEVERE INJURY
From the total number of 79,416 road accidents in Thailand 2010.
Table 1.5: Severe injuriesd by transport ac...
CASUALTIES AND INJURIES FROM MOTORCYCLES
Table 1.6: Number of casualties and fatalities from motorcycles, 2012
04/12/59 LD...
LAW ENFORCEMENT
• Despite availability of many types of 2-3 wheelers in Thailand,
they are not included in traffic laws
- ...
LAWS
04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 31
Table 2.1: Registration of 2-3 wheelers in Thailand, 1979
Categories of 2-3 wh...
VIOLATION PENALTY
04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 32
Table 2.2 : Rate of penalty in violating traffic laws
Violation P...
COMPARING TO MALAYSIA AND USA
Note: Thailand 1987; Malaysia 1994; and United States 1995.
04/12/59 LDP Thailand country pa...
COMPARING TO INDIA 2016
• India (Wikipedia, 2016) has numerous users of 2-3
wheelers and also high number of traffic accid...
COMPARE TO SRI LANKA
04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 35
(Source: Police Headquarters, Colombo, 2006)
Year Fatalities P...
MODEL OF CAUSES FOR MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT IN THAILAND
04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 36
Motorcycle
accident's
cause
Hel...
ANALYSIS & RECOMMENDATIONS:
• Motorcycle is the biggest problem in Thailand
and neighboring countries in Asia such as
Indo...
RISKY DESIGN OF MOTORCYCLE IN THE REGION
04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 38
MAIN PROBLEMS
Law enforcement:
• There is a law requiring drives and passenger to wear
helmets.
• Traffic police work most...
NEXT STEP FOR THAILAND
• Next step for Thailand is to emphasis on
law enforcement on motorcycle driver.
• Providing knowle...
Q & A
THANK YOU
For more information:
Visit www.ldpthailand.org
Find us on Facebook
Contact:
Ms.Oratai Junsuwanaruk
Thailand Cou...
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  1. 1. IMPROVING ROAD SAFETY LEGISLATION IN THAILAND Legal Development Program (LDP) 2015-2016 BY LDP members Thailand Geneva, Switzerland – 13 October, 2016 BLOOMBERG INITIATIVE FOR GLOBAL ROAD SAFETY
  2. 2. CONTENT 1. The Road Safety Crisis 2. Legislation Gap in Thailand 3. Overview: Legal Development Program 4. Objectives: Legal Development Program 5. Activities: Legal Development Program 6. Road Safety Legislation Progress
  3. 3. The Global ProblemTHE GLOBAL ROAD CRISIS Every six seconds, someone is killed or seriously injured on the world’s roads The young and poor are disproportionately affected Half of those dying are vulnerable road users $518 billion is lost annually due to road crashes 3
  4. 4. THE ROAD CRISIS IN THAILAND 4 Though many stakeholders are working toward improving road safety, very few experts are advocating for improved legislation There are 36.2 deaths per 100,000 people – 2.5x the global rate Thailand has the second highest road crash fatality rate in the world 73% of road crash fatalities are riders of motorized 2- and 3- wheelers
  5. 5. LEGISLATION GAP IN THAILAND •National speed law ✔ •Speed limit on urban roads ≤ 50 km/h ✗ •Local authorities can modify the national speed limit ✗ Speeding •National drunk driving law ✔ •Drunk driving based on BAC or equivalent measure ✔ •BAC limit for general ≤ 0.05% ✔ •BAC limit for young and novice driver ≤ 0.02% ✗ Drunk driving •National motorcycle helmet law ✔ •Law applies to drivers and adult passengers ✔ •Law applies to all road types ✔ •Law requires helmet to be properly fastened ✔ •Law requires helmet to meet a national or international standard ✔ Motorcycle helmet usage •National seat belt law ✔ •Law applies to front seat passengers ✔ •Law applies to rear seat passengers ✗ Seat belt usage •National child restraint law ✗ •Law is based on age, weight, height, or a combination ✗ •Law restricts children under a certain age and/or height ✗ Child restraints
  6. 6. OVERVIEW: LEGAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (LDP) The LDP builds the capacity of its members to advocate for effective road safety legislation in Thailand 2015: AIP Foundation partnered with the World Health Organization as part of the Bloomberg Initiative for Global Road Safety to establish the LDP 2016: the LDP has 14 members and an advisory committee
  7. 7. OBJECTIVES: LEGAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Enhance knowledge and skills Promote active participation in relevant working groups and committees Advocate for evidence-based laws
  8. 8. 2016 LEGAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS
  9. 9. 2015 ACTIVITIES
  10. 10. 2016 ACTIVITIES
  11. 11. ADVOCATING THROUGH AN ACADEMIC FORUM
  12. 12. ADVOCATING THROUGH THE MEDIA Media coverage from Voice TV reporter Chayakorn Kumchoke and Pol. Maj. Gen. Pongson Kongtreekaew Ms. Ratanawadee H. Winther appears on Thailand Today
  13. 13. ADVOCATING THROUGH THE MEDIA
  14. 14. ADVOCATING FOR LEGISLATIVE IMPROVEMENT BASED ON RECOMMENDATIONS MADE ON RELEVANT PLATFORMS
  15. 15. ADVOCATING FOR LEGISLATIVE IMPROVEMENT BASED ON RECOMMENDATIONS MADE ON RELEVANT PLATFORMS
  16. 16. ADVOCATING THROUGH THE DEPARTMENT OF DISASTER PREVENTION AND MITIGATION 19 February: First meeting to to amend road safety improvement law 3 May: Second meeting to amend road safety improvement law 16 May: Third sub-committee on road safety management 19 May: Third “Road Safety Directing Center” 11 July: Fourth “Road Safety Directing Center” 21 July Meeting to prepare revisions to road safety improvement law 31 August: National Road Safety Policy Committee Meeting October: Cabinet Meeting – road safety-related agency is improving the law in five months
  17. 17. ROAD SAFETY LEGISLATION PROGRESS Issue Legislation Legislative Improvements Made Speed limit 1. Road Traffic Act 2. Highway Act 3. Department of Transport Regulations (suspension or revocation of license) 1) Reduce speed in urban areas and set appropriate speed limits for provincial roads. Worked with the police to determine appropriate speeds and announced the speed control methods. 2) Increase fines for offenses in the Road Traffic Act to 10,000 baht. Drunk Driving 1. Road Traffic Act 2. Alcohol Control Act 1) BAC less than 0.02% required for a novice driver and/or a temporary license holder. 2) Establish measures to deter the issue of drunk driving. 3) Increase penalties related to BAC levels. 4) Include offenders in a database. Driver’s licenses 1. Road Traffic Act 2. Land Transport Act 1) Intensify driver’s license regulations. 2) Suspend and revoke a driver's license to drive a personalized cover. 3) Increase the criminal penalties to three months and a 50,000 baht fine. Public transportation 1. Road Traffic Act 2. Land Transport Act 3. Car Act 4. Consumer Protection Act 1) Set additional conditions for obtaining a specialized license to establish stronger safety standards for public buses. 2) Improve methods available to protect and provide justice to those affected. Seat belt usage 1. Road Traffic Act 1) Require seat belts for passengers in the rear seats of a car. The driver is responsible for the rear seat belts.
  18. 18. SITUATION ON 2-3 WHEELERS IN THAILAND
  19. 19. SITUATION ON 2-3 WHEELERS IN THAILAND
  20. 20. 2 WHEELER 04/12/59 20LDP Thailand country paper
  21. 21. 3 WHEELER 04/12/59 21LDP Thailand country paper
  22. 22. NUMBERS OF 2-3 WHEELERS REGISTERED Category registered total - Motorcycle 20,342,403 20,531,896 - Public Motorcycle 189,493 - Motor-tricycle 1,654 21,920 - Motor-tricycle taxi (Tuk Tuk) 20,266 Table 1.1: Numbers of 2-3 wheelers registered in Thailand: (Source : Department of Land Transport, 2016) 04/12/59 22LDP Thailand country paper
  23. 23. STATISTIC OF 2-3 WHEELER’S ACCIDENT 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 23 Table 1.2: Numbers of 2-3 wheelers involved in traffic accidents between 2011-2015, (Source : Royal Thai Police, 2016) Category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 -Bicycle 418 365 394 387 891 -Tricycle 17 18 19 16 29 -Motorcycle 20,056 20,395 20,426 19,038 26,715 -MotorTricycletaxi (TukTuk) 259 294 285 224 241
  24. 24. THE HIGHEST • Motorcycle ranks the highest number in road accident among 2-3 wheelers. • The average rate of accident per year on motorcycle is at 21,000 accidents • Bicycle is at 490 accidents per year. 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 24
  25. 25. FATALITIES AND CASUALTIES Table 1.3 :Traffic accidents: fatalities and casualties, 2011-2015, 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 25 Victim 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 fatalities 9,552 9,007 7,944 6,338 6,268 seriousinjured 4,138 3,954 3,666 2,813 2,519 Slightlyinjured 17,258 18,656 18,037 17,035 15,641 (Source : Royal Thai Police, 2016) The average death rate on road accidents in Thailand is 7,800 people per year or 38 people out of 100,000.
  26. 26. CAUSES OF MOTORCYCLE INJURY The main reasons are: • Speeding • Not wearing helmet. • Carelessness • Lack of knowledge and understanding of road safety • Weak law enforcement • Light penalty (e.g. fine for not wearing helmet around 400 THB, 11.43 CHF) 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 26
  27. 27. RATE OF HELMET WEARING 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 27 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Rider 53 54 52 51 51 Passenger 19 24 20 19 19 Both 44 46 43 43 42 Table 1.4: Rate of helmet wearing between 2010-2014 (percentage). (Source : Thai Roads Foundation, 2016) Average 52.2% for riders, 20.2% for passengers.
  28. 28. SEVERE INJURY From the total number of 79,416 road accidents in Thailand 2010. Table 1.5: Severe injuriesd by transport accident, 2012 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 28 Vehicle involved Percentage Motorcycle 82.25 Pick-up truck 7.12 Bicycle and tricycle 3.85 Others 6.78 (Source: Injury surveillance report, Ministry of Public Health, 2012)
  29. 29. CASUALTIES AND INJURIES FROM MOTORCYCLES Table 1.6: Number of casualties and fatalities from motorcycles, 2012 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 29 Serious injuries 62,031 Fatalities 3,154 (5.08%) Serious injuries rate of wearing helmet (percentage) Rider 13.84 Passenger 5.56 ( Source: Injury surveillance report, Ministry of Public Health, 2012) From all serious accidents, only 13.84% of drivers wore helmet, and 5.56% passengers did.
  30. 30. LAW ENFORCEMENT • Despite availability of many types of 2-3 wheelers in Thailand, they are not included in traffic laws - no requirement for registration, driving license, or helmet wearing helmet to non-motorized 2-3 wheeler. 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 30
  31. 31. LAWS 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 31 Table 2.1: Registration of 2-3 wheelers in Thailand, 1979 Categories of 2-3 wheelers Applicable laws 1. Motorcycle Traffic Act 1979 C.E. 2. Tricycle, Bicycle No. 3. Motor-tricycle Motor Vehicle Act 1979 C.E. 4. Motorcycle Motor Vehicle Act 1979 C.E. 5. Motor-tricycle Motor Vehicle Act 1979 C.E. 6. Motor-Tricycle taxi (Tuk Tuk) Motor Vehicle Act 1979 C.E. ( Source: Traffic Act, 1979 C.E)
  32. 32. VIOLATION PENALTY 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 32 Table 2.2 : Rate of penalty in violating traffic laws Violation Penalty/Fine Rider who does not wear helmet 500 bath (14.06 CHF) Rider who carries a passenger and the passenger does not wear helmet 1,000 bath (28.12 CHF) Passenger who does not wear helmet 500 bath (14.06 CHF) Source(: Royal Thai Police, 2016)
  33. 33. COMPARING TO MALAYSIA AND USA Note: Thailand 1987; Malaysia 1994; and United States 1995. 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 33 Table 3.1 - Proportion of Road Users Killed in Various Modes of Transport as a Percent of All Fatalities Country Pedestrian s Bicyclists Motorized vehicles Others 2-wheeled 4-wheeled Thailand 47 6 36 12 - Malaysia 15 6 57 19 3 United States of America 13 2 5 79 1
  34. 34. COMPARING TO INDIA 2016 • India (Wikipedia, 2016) has numerous users of 2-3 wheelers and also high number of traffic accident. • Global Road Safety Report-2015, an estimated of 207,551 deaths on roads. • The motorcycles and motor-powered three- wheelers constitute the second largest group of traffic collision deaths. 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 34
  35. 35. COMPARE TO SRI LANKA 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 35 (Source: Police Headquarters, Colombo, 2006) Year Fatalities Pedestrians Passengers (bicycle riders) (motorcycle riders) Drivers Others 1989 1,596 648 417 224 226 77 4 1990 1,795 686 417 265 324 96 7 1991 1,532 542 529 195 181 85 0 1992 1,515 528 485 231 187 84 0 1993 1,421 603 304 222 208 65 19 1994 1,611 586 438 217 220 147 3 1995 1,681 636 366 246 244 177 12 1996 1,755 753 354 153 272 192 31 1997 1,835 662 347 251 244 319 12 1998 2,023 814 367 238 232 294 78 1999 2,059 713 358 307 172 288 221 2000 2,058 827 470 306 237 213 5 2001 2,118 791 431 338 294 261 3 2002 2,160 750 380 317 451 188 74 2003 2,096 747 397 311 281 171 71 2004 2,214 748 381 298 385 194 208 2005 2,304 747 428 326 406 178 221
  36. 36. MODEL OF CAUSES FOR MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT IN THAILAND 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 36 Motorcycle accident's cause Helmet wearing Speed violation Traffic sign violation Specification unsuitable
  37. 37. ANALYSIS & RECOMMENDATIONS: • Motorcycle is the biggest problem in Thailand and neighboring countries in Asia such as Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam, Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka, etc. • The main problem is not wearing helmet • Note that motorcycle in this region comes in small size ,high speed power but very small risky tires. 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 37
  38. 38. RISKY DESIGN OF MOTORCYCLE IN THE REGION 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 38
  39. 39. MAIN PROBLEMS Law enforcement: • There is a law requiring drives and passenger to wear helmets. • Traffic police work mostly on traffic management rather than traffic discipline. • This causes challenges in decreasing number of road accident. • Presently, it is only 50% of 2-3 wheels users wearing helmet. 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 39
  40. 40. NEXT STEP FOR THAILAND • Next step for Thailand is to emphasis on law enforcement on motorcycle driver. • Providing knowledge to people. • Pressure from civic society to bring the government’s attention to this issue. 04/12/59 LDP Thailand country paper 40
  41. 41. Q & A
  42. 42. THANK YOU For more information: Visit www.ldpthailand.org Find us on Facebook Contact: Ms.Oratai Junsuwanaruk Thailand Country Manager AIP Foundation oratai.j@aipf-thailand.org Tel: (66) 81 454 90 54

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