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# Costs and lives saving presentation by AIP Foundation

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COST AND LIVES SAVINGS ANALYSIS IF
THE PASSENGER HELMET LAW IS PASSED
AND ENFORCED IN 2014

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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### Costs and lives saving presentation by AIP Foundation

1. 1. COST AND LIVES SAVINGS ANALYSIS IF THE PASSENGER HELMET LAW IS PASSED AND ENFORCED IN 2014
2. 2. CONTENTS Purpose of analysis Research and timeframe Methodology Findings Public Support Recommendations
3. 3. PURPOSE OF ANALYSIS To research estimates of the costs and lives saved by 2020 if the passenger helmet law is passed and enforced in 2014.
4. 4. RESEARCH AND TIMEFRAME • Researcher: Asia Injury Prevention Foundation The model was adapted from those used in public health by the U.S CDC • Timeframe: Four months
5. 5. METHODOLOGY Source of data and references • Cambodia National Road Safety Action Plan for 2011 – 2020 • RCVIS report, Annual Reports from 2008-2012: Road crashes and casualties in Cambodia. • Liu et al., “Helmets for Preventing Injury in Motorcycle Riders” • World Health Organization, Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013 • 2013 bi-monthly helmet observation,Handicap International • Analysis of Costs of Road Crashes report in Cambodia by ADB and updated in 2011 by Handicap International • Consumer Price Index Data, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 2014
6. 6. METHODOLOGY (cont.) The cost savings were calculated based on the figures from Asia Development Bank (ADB) and updated in 2011 by Handicap International. Model for calculating number of head injuries prevented: y2 = (f) x (g x h x j x e) Model for calculating number of lives saved: y1=(f) x (a x b x c x d x e)
7. 7. METHODOLOGY (cont.) a = Projected number of RTFs. Values of “a” were calculated by the Institute of Road Safety Research (SWOV), The Netherlands, and used for developing the Cambodia National Road Safety Action Plan 2011-2020 Model for calculating number of lives saved: y1=(f) x (a x b x c x d x e)
8. 8. f = % of all motorcycle crash-related fatalities that are passengers b = % of road traffic fatalities that are motorcyclists c = % of motorcycle fatality crashes that result in head injuries Values of f, b, c obtained from the average figures of RCVIS reports from 2008 to 2012 METHODOLOGY (cont.) Model for calculating number of lives saved: y1=(f) x (a x b x c x d x e)
9. 9. d = % reduction in likelihood of death by effect of wearing motorcycle helmet. Value of “d” obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. d = 42% e = projected % increase in passenger helmet use METHODOLOGY (cont.) Model for calculating number of lives saved: y1=(f) x (a x b x c x d x e)
10. 10. METHODOLOGY (cont.) Model for calculating number of head injuries prevented: y2 = (f) x (g x h x j x e) f = % of all motorcycle crash-related fatalities that are passengers g = 20 x (a x b) : Estimated number of non-fatal motorcycle-related traffic injuries (according WHO Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013, the fatality to injury ratio is 1 to 20)
11. 11. Model for calculating N. of head injuries prevented: y2 = (f) x (g x h x j x e) h = % of non-fatal motorcycle crash-related injuries that are head injuries. Values of h obtained from the average figures of RCVIS reports from 2008 to 2012 j = % by which motorcycle helmets have been shown to reduce the risk of head injury. Value of j obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. j = 69% e = Projected % increase in passenger helmet use METHODOLOGY (cont.)
12. 12. METHODOLOGY (cont.) Calculation took into consideration: • Property damage, administration costs, • Lost output, medical and human costs The cost savings were calculated based on the figures from Asia Development Bank (ADB) and updated in 2011 by Handicap International.
13. 13. FINDINGS If the passenger helmet law is passed in 2014 and effectively enforced: • 561 lives will be saved; • 10,574 head injuries will be prevented; and • USD 98,618,422 will be saved by 2020
14. 14. FINDINGS (cont.) Year Passeng -er helmet use Increase in passenger helmet use Est, lives saved Est, head injuries prevented Cost (\$USD) savings for fatalities Cost (\$USD) savings for injuries Total cost (\$USD) savings 2015 55% 48% 61 1,152 2,668,563 8,079,457 10,748,020 2016 60% 53% 72 1,362 3,141,045 9,550,209 12,691,255 2017 65% 58% 85 1,600 3,708,178 11,221,272 14,929,450 2018 70% 63% 99 1,864 4,318,937 13,071,590 17,390,527 2019 75% 68% 114 2,148 4,973,322 15,064,114 20,037,436 2020 80% 73% 130 2,446 5,671,332 17,150,403 22,821,735 Total 561 10,574 24,481,377 74,137,045 98,618,422
15. 15. PUBLIC SUPPORT  Approximately 98% of survey respondents and 97% of parents support a mandatory helmet law for passengers and children respectively.  Over 6,000 people have signed petitions to show their support for a universal passenger helmet law since January 2013.  An estimated 10,000 pledges have been obtained showing support for the swift enactment of the passenger helmet law.
16. 16. PUBLIC SUPPORT (cont.)  Over 100 stakeholders from the private sector, civil society, and international community have endorsed the joint policy recommendation.  Submitted to H.E Minister of Public Works and Transport and a senior representative from National Police in January 2013. The statement was later co-issued by Handicap International and Coalition for Road Safety (CRY). Joint Statement: Motorcycle Passengers, Including Children, Must Wear Helmets
17. 17. RECOMMENDATIONS  For media: Advocate for and mobilize public support for the enactment of laws that mandate helmets for motorcycle passengers, including children.  For government: Approve the draft law and implement further enforcement and intervention to reach the national target on helmet use by 2020.  For civil society organizations: Intensive advocacy activities for the passenger helmet law to be passed and then enforced as soon as possible.
18. 18. RESULT  New Traffic Law: A new traffic law mandating helmets for motorcycle passengers, including children, has been approved by the national assembly, signed by the King and announced in public by the Ministry of Public Works and Transport.  National Passenger Helmet Enforcement Action Plan: AIP Foundation works closely with the General Commissariat of the National Police, Provincial Police to develop the Passenger Helmet Enforcement Action Plan for national and district levels.
19. 19. RESULT  New Sub-degree on Fines: To ensure the new traffic law enforcement is implemented smoothly and effectively, a new sub-degree on fines was developed by the National Road Safety Committee and approved by the Government.  New Law Enforcement: An official announcement from the General Commissariat of the National Police, with commitment from the Government started enforcing from January 2015.
20. 20. THANK YOU AIP Foundation Cambodia Office #18BEo, Street 348, Sangkat Toul Svay Prey I, Khan Chamkamorn, Phnom Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia Email: pagna.kim@aipf-cambodia.org