Classical period part 3


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Classical period part 3

  1. 1. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) <ul><li>As a highly skilled servant, Haydn was to compose all the music requested by his patron </li></ul>He was also required to “appear daily in the antechamber before and after midday and inquire whether His Highness was pleased to order a performance of the orchestra.”
  2. 2. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) <ul><li>Once when the Prince stayed at the palace longer than usual, the orchestra members came to Haydn and asked to go back to Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>They missed their wives and children </li></ul><ul><li>Haydn obliged them by composing his Symphony in F Sharp Minor, now known as the farewell symphony </li></ul>
  3. 3. Where Haydn Worked The Esterhazy castle (Eisenstadt Austria) The Concert Hall of the Esterhazy Castle
  4. 4. Haydn ’s Music <ul><li>He was a pioneer in both the development of the symphony and the string quartet </li></ul><ul><li>Both Mozart and Beethoven were affected by his style </li></ul><ul><li>He never forgot the peasant dances and songs of his childhood and many of his works have a folk flavor </li></ul>
  5. 5. Haydn ’s Music <ul><li>He was a master at developing themes </li></ul><ul><li>He would split them into small fragments to be repeated quickly by different instruments </li></ul><ul><li>In these movements contrast of mood comes from changes in texture, key, rhythm, dynamics and orchestration </li></ul><ul><li>The contagious joy that comes from his lively rhythms and vivid contrasts makes it clear why London went wild </li></ul>
  6. 6. Haydn ’s Music <ul><li>Most of his writing revolves around his 104 symphonies that were written over a 45 year span from 1758-1795 </li></ul><ul><li>Many of his most popular symphonies have nicknames such as; Surprise (No. 94), Military (No. 100), Clock (No. 101), and Drum Roll (No. 103) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Symphony No. 94 in G Major Mvt. 1 (Surprise) </li></ul><ul><li>Don Giovanni &quot;Introduction&quot; </li></ul>Haydn ’s Music
  8. 8. <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Trumpet Concerto in E flat Major Mvt. III </li></ul>Haydn ’s Music
  9. 9. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) <ul><li>One of the most amazing child prodigies in history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was born in Salzburg, Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the time he was six he could play the harpsichord and violin, improvise fugues, write minuets, and read music perfectly at sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At age eight he wrote his first symphony; at eleven, an oratorio; at twelve, an opera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By his early teens he had enough works to his credit for a composer 3 times his age </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) <ul><li>At 16 he was in Rome and was able to hear the Sistine chapel choir performing a work that was treasured property </li></ul><ul><li>He went home and wrote the whole thing out by memory </li></ul><ul><li>To copy this music was a crime; for anyone to hear it and remember it so accurately was incredible </li></ul><ul><li>Mozart was not punished, he was knighted by the Pope for his musical accomplishments </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) <ul><li>At age 25 he finally broke free of his place in Vienna and traveled to Venice to try to make it as a freelance musician </li></ul><ul><li>For a few years he was successful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His operas: The Abduction from the Seraglio, 1782, and The Marriage of Figaro, 1786, were huge successes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He followed up with Don Giovanni the following year, but it pushed the Viennese too far </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark subjects and dissonance did not appeal to them </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) <ul><li>He died of unknown circumstances on December 5, 1791 a few weeks short of his 36 th birthday </li></ul><ul><li>He was buried in an unmarked mass grave near the chapel </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mozart ’s Music <ul><li>He was one of the most versatile composers </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote masterpieces in all the forms of the time </li></ul><ul><li>His symphonies are as profound as his string quartets, his piano concertos as dramatic and lyrical as his operas </li></ul><ul><li>His works convey a feeling of grace, ease, and spontaneity, as well as balance, restraint, and perfect proportion </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mozart ’s Music <ul><li>Not only do Mozart ’s compositions sound effortless; they were created with miraculous ease and rapidity </li></ul><ul><li>He completed his last 3 symphonies in only 6 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>He composed extended works in his mind before ever writing them down </li></ul><ul><li>He could even carry on a conversation while notating a score </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mozart ’s Music <ul><li>Don Giovanni (1787) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A unique blend of comic and serious opera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It combines seduction and slapstick with violence and the supernatural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the old tale of Don Juan, the legendary Spanish lover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozart ’s Don Giovanni is an extremely charming but ruthless nobleman who will stop at nothing to satisfy his sexual appetite </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Mozart ’s Music <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Act I Leporello ’s catalog aria ( Madamina ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mozart ’s Music <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550 (1788) </li></ul><ul><li>Is the most passionate and dramatic of his symphonies </li></ul><ul><li>Although the work is classical in form and technique, it is almost romantic in emotional intensity </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mozart ’s Music <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Second Movement: Andante </li></ul><ul><li>The mood of the andante hovers between gentleness and longing </li></ul><ul><li>The andante is written in sonata form and is the only movement in major </li></ul><ul><li>This movement develops from a series of gently pulsing notes in the opening theme </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mozart ’s Music <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major, K. 488 (1786) First Movement: Allegro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gentle opening movement blends lyricism with a touch of sadness owing many shifts between major and minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two main lyrical themes introduced by the orchestra in the first exposition are restated by the piano and orchestra in the second exposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development section is based on a new legato theme that is unexpectedly introduced by the orchestra after a dramatic pausE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozart creates a dramatic confrontation by juxtaposing fragments of this new theme, played by the woodwinds, and the restless ideas in the piano and orchestra </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Mozart ’s Music <ul><li>Requiem in D Minor, K. 626 (1791) </li></ul><ul><li>Although he did not live to complete this mass for the dead, it remains still one of the finest choral works of the classical period </li></ul><ul><li>It was commissioned anonymously by an unscrupulous nobleman who was going to claim the work as his own </li></ul><ul><li>Mozart composed 9 movements and part of a 10 th before his death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His friend Franz Xaver Sussmayr filled out the often sketchy orchestration of the 10 th movement and added 4 others </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Mozart ’s Music <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Dies Irae (Day of Wrath) </li></ul><ul><li>Is based on a 13 th century text which vividly describes the last judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous tension is created by the key of D minor, the stormy rushing violin notes and the distinctive rhythmic patterns of the opening phrase, which intensifies the word irae (wrath) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>He has been compared in genius to and stature to William Shakespeare and Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>He opened new realms of musical expression and profoundly influenced composers throughout the 19 th century </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>During his 29 th year, he began to feel the first symptoms of deafness </li></ul><ul><li>His doctors could do nothing to halt the progress of the disease nor the torment it was causing him </li></ul><ul><li>He could not go out in public because of his shame at becoming deaf </li></ul><ul><li>He even thought about ending his life, but he felt he could not until he had “brought forth all that I felt was within me” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>Beethoven could not write 3 symphonies in 6 weeks like Mozart </li></ul><ul><li>He would painstakingly work on every detail until it was just right </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it would take years to complete a symphony </li></ul><ul><li>He would carry around note books and constantly make refinements to his work. He usually worked on several pieces at once </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 ( Pathetique ; 1798) </li></ul><ul><li>This term, coined by Beethoven suggests the tragically passionate character of this piano sonata </li></ul><ul><li>His impetuous playing and masterful improvisational powers are mirrored in the sonata ’s dynamic contrasts, explosive accents, and crashing chords </li></ul><ul><li>At the age of 27 Beethoven had already created a style of playing that foreshadowed 19 th century romanticism </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Second Movement: Adagio cantable (lyrical adagio) </li></ul><ul><li>In A flat major, is slow and intimate </li></ul><ul><li>It is in rondo form and can be outlined A B A C A---Coda </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Third Movement: Rondo (Allegro) </li></ul><ul><li>The last movement in C minor is a rapid and energetic rondo </li></ul><ul><li>It is outlined A B A C A B A—Coda </li></ul><ul><li>The lively main them in minor contrasts with the other sections, which are in major </li></ul>
  28. 28. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (1808) </li></ul><ul><li>This symphony opens with one of the most famous rhythmic ideas in all music, a short-short-long motive </li></ul><ul><li>Beethoven reportedly explained this four-note motive as “fate knocking at the door” </li></ul><ul><li>It dominates the first movement and also plays an important role later in the symphony </li></ul>
  29. 29. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>First Movement: Allegro con brio (allegro with vigor) </li></ul><ul><li>Listening guide pg. 261 </li></ul><ul><li>This allegro con brio is an enormously powerful and concentrated movement in sonata form </li></ul><ul><li>It ’s character is determined by a single rhythmic motive, short-short-long, from which Beethoven creates an astonishingly variety of musical ideas </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Second Movement: Andante con moto (moderately slow, with movement) </li></ul><ul><li>This movement, mostly in A flat major is mostly relaxed and lyrical but also contains moments of tension and heroism </li></ul><ul><li>It is an extended set of variations based on two themes </li></ul>
  31. 31. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Third Movement: Allegro (scherzo) </li></ul><ul><li>This movement is a rapid scherzo in C minor, with 3 sections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A (scherzo), B (trio), A` (scherzo) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Movement: Allegro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This movement is in sonata form and is the climax of the symphony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It brings the victory C major over C minor, of optimism and exultation over struggle and uncertainty </li></ul></ul>