Baroque period part 3


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Baroque period part 3

  1. 1. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>One of the greatest musicians to ever live </li></ul><ul><li>Bach was such a great organist that he could play with his feet better than some organists could play with their hands </li></ul><ul><li>In 1720 his wife died leaving him with 4 young children </li></ul>
  2. 2. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>He had 16 more children by his new wife </li></ul><ul><li>Several of his children became well known composers themselves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, Carl Philip Emmanuel Bach, and Johann Christian Bach all made significant contributions to the world of music. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>At 36 Bach got the last job of his life at the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig </li></ul><ul><li>While there he wrote a different cantata (an extended composition for chorus, orchestra, and soloist) for each Sunday and holiday for 4 years </li></ul><ul><li>At least 295 that we know of today (195 of them have survived). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Prelude in C Minor from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I (about 1722) </li></ul><ul><li>This is a piece from a book of preludes and fugues composed in all 24 keys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prelude in C Minor is a study in perpetual motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This motion grows out of repeated patterns of eight rapid notes in both the right and left hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toward the end of the prelude, the rhythmic drive is interrupted by a slow ornamental passage in the style of improvisation, The Prelude soon returns to rapid running notes and concludes with a bright C major harmony. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Fugue in C Minor </li></ul><ul><li>The Fugue in C Minor is lighter in mood than Bach ’s Organ Fugue in G Minor ( Little Fugue ) studied earlier </li></ul><ul><li>The subject grows out of a decisive five-note fragment-two short notes followed by three longer ones </li></ul><ul><li>In the opening section of the fugue, each of the three voices in turn-alto, soprano, bass-states the subject, which is introduced without accompaniment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>Fugue in C Minor continued </li></ul><ul><li>Starting with its second appearance, the subject is accompanied by a counter-subject that begins with a rapid descending scale </li></ul><ul><li>The fugue subject is stated eight times: seven times in minor and once in major </li></ul><ul><li>The fugue subject is stated eight times: seven times in minor and once in major </li></ul>
  7. 7. Johann Sebastian Bach <ul><li>Fugue in C Minor continued </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional episodes, which have a more continuous flow of rapid notes, precede several statements of the subject </li></ul><ul><li>In most of these episodes, the counter-subject ’s rapid scale accompanies the subject’s opening fragment </li></ul><ul><li>The subject in the soprano is now accompanied by a pedal point- a low sustained octave in the bass </li></ul><ul><li>Like it ’s Prelude, the Fugue in C Minor ends with a bright C major harmony. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major (about 1721) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Movement: Affettuoso (affectionately, tenderly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Affettuoso is slow, quiet, and in a minor key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It uses only three solo instruments and a cello which duplicates the bass line (left hand of the harpsichord) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The movement is based on a repeated alternation between a main theme and episodes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Major (about 1721) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Third Movement: Allegro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The concluding Allegro is dancelike in character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is in ABA form; the A sections are in major, and the B section is in minor </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Suite No. 3 in D Major (1729-1731) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth Movement: Bouree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is an even livelier dance in duple meter </li></ul><ul><li>It is the shortest movement of the suite. It is in AABB form </li></ul><ul><li>Section A uses the full orchestra, including trumpets and timpani </li></ul><ul><li>Section B is three times longer than A and alternates loud tutti passages with softer passages for strings and oboes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die stimme ( Awake, a Voice Is Calling Us ; 1731) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Last Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bach based this cantata on the chorale tune Wachet auf, because its text was inspired by the Gospel for this particular Sunday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are nine melodic phrases, of which the first three (making up the A section) are repeated immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The last phrase of the A section reappears at the end of the B section and beautifully rounds off the chorale melody. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die stimme ( Awake, a Voice Is Calling Us ; 1731) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>First Movement: Chorus and Orchestra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The opening movement is scored for chorus and small orchestra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are three layers of sound: the chorale phrases in long notes in the soprano, the imitative dialogue in shorter note values in the three lower voices; and the ever busy orchestra playing along underneath in even shorter tones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chorale tune in the soprano is presented not as a continuous whole but rather phrase by phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once during the movement, the three lower voice become emancipated from the soprano and jubilantly sing a melody in rapid notes on Alleluja . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die stimme ( Awake, a Voice Is Calling Us ; 1731) <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Movement: Tenor Chorale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fourth movement is scored for tenors; violins and violas in unison, and basso continuo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chorale tune returns in this movement, the most popular of the cantata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chorale tune moves in faster rhythmic values than it did in the opening movement, but here, too, it is broken into component phrases linked by an instrumental melody </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) <ul><li>A master of Italian opera and English oratorio, he was born in halle, Germany one month before J.S. Bach </li></ul><ul><li>Handel was not from a musical family, but his father finally recognized his talent and let him take organ lessons </li></ul><ul><li>His first opera was produced when he was 21 </li></ul>
  15. 15. George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) <ul><li>Moved to England and began writing operas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was very successful for a time, but tastes changed so he began to write oratorios </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An oratorio is a piece for solo singers, chorus, and orchestra set to a biblical text </li></ul><ul><li>His most famous was the Messiah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was so popular that gentlemen were told to come without swords and ladies without hoops in order to make more room for people to hear it </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) <ul><li>Handel ’s music is as important as Bach’s </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote a great deal of instrumental music, but the core of his works are Italian operas and English oratorios </li></ul>
  17. 17. Messiah <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Sinfonia for Strings and Basso Continuo (French Overture) Grave; Allegro moverato (moderate allegro) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opens with a French overture in minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A slow section is followed by a faster one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lively subject is passed from higher instruments to lower ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near the end of the movement is a feature typical to Handel: energetic orchestral motion is suddenly broken off by a brief pause that ushers in a closing cadence of slow chords. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Messiah <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Comfort Ye, My People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vocal line is something between a recitative and an aria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More lyrical than one, less elaborate than the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This type of melodic accompaniment is called an arioso . </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Messiah <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Ev ’ry Valley Shall Be Exaulted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aria for tenor, strings, and basso continuo Andante </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It opens and closes with a string ritornello </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It uses striking word painting which is characteristic of baroque music </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Messiah <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>For Unto Us A Child Is Born </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorus, strings, basso continuo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is Handel ’s most joyful music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The texture is light, with one or two voices singing at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He sets two contrasting ideas against each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He keeps the dynamics subdued until the striking chordal outburst on Wonderful, Counselor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This change from p to ff and from polyphonic to homophonic texture is very cool </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Messiah <ul><li>Listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>Hallelujah Chorus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is one of the world ’s most famous choral pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He offer sweeping variety by sudden changes among monophonic, polyphonic, and homophonic textures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The monophonic texture is full-sounding as all the voices and instruments perform in unison at the proclamation for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The texture becomes polyphonic when this majestic proclamation is set against joyful repeated exclamations of Hallelujah in quick rhythms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyphony gives way to homophony as the chorus sings The kingdom of this world to hymn-like music </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Finally, the end of Baroque! <ul><li>Johann Sebastian Bach ’s music was the height of the Baroque style in music, and the Baroque period pretty much ended with him </li></ul><ul><li>The musical style that followed is known today as the Classical style </li></ul><ul><li>The Classical style was, in some ways, a reaction to the excesses of the Baroque </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas Baroque music had been florid, extravagant, and emotional, music in the Classical period was sparer, more reserved, and more controlled </li></ul>