04 notation


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This lecture covers the Elements of music chapter 4.

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04 notation

  1. 1. Music Notation Notation is a system of writing music so that specific pitches and rhythms can be communicated.
  2. 2. Notating Pitch <ul><li>With music notation, we can indicate exact pitches by the upward or downward placement of symbols called notes on a staff . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Notation <ul><li>A note is an oval. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s duration is indicated by whether it is black, white, or has a stem and flags. </li></ul>W ht Q EyX
  4. 4. Notation <ul><li>A Staff is a set of 5 horizontal lines. Notes are positioned either on the lines or in the spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher a note is placed on the staff, the higher the pitches. </li></ul>w w w w w w w w w
  5. 5. Note Naming <ul><li>Seven of the 12 pitches that fill the octave in western music are named after the first 7 letters of the alphabet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A,B,C,D,E,F,G </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This sequence is repeated over and over to represent the same tones in higher and lower octaves. </li></ul><ul><li>This sequence represents the white keys on the piano. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Note Naming <ul><li>The other five tones of the octave correspond to the black keys of the piano and are indicated by one of the seven letters plus a sharp ( # ) or flat ( b ) sign . </li></ul><ul><li>The note between C and D may be called C # or D b. </li></ul><ul><li>A natural sign ( n ) cancels a flat or a sharp. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Clef Signs <ul><li>A clef sign is place at the beginning of the staff to show the pitch of each line and space. </li></ul><ul><li>The two most common clefs are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treble clef , used for high ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bass clef, used for low ranges. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Grand Staff Keyboard music calls for a wide range of pitches to be played by both hands; for this music, the grand staff , a combination of treble and bass staves is used. Note that the C nearest to the middle of the keyboard is called middle C .
  9. 9. Notating Rhythm <ul><li>Music notation indicates how long a note lasts in relation to the others in the piece. </li></ul><ul><li>A single note lasts longer or shorter depending on how it looks. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lengthening Notes <ul><li>Notes can be lengthened by adding a dot after the note. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding a dot to a note increases it’s value by half. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A tie is another way to increase a note’s value. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tie is like a musical plus sign. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H + H =4 h h = 4 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Adding Variety to Notes <ul><li>We can also add rhythmic variety by shortening the duration of a note. </li></ul><ul><li>One method is the triplet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three notes of equal value notated as a group </li></ul></ul>qqq 3 or qqq 3
  12. 12. Notating Silence The length of silence in music is notated by using a symbol called a rest . Rests are periods of silence. Their duration correspond to those of notes.
  13. 13. Notating Meter <ul><li>A time signature (meter signature) shows the meter of the piece. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It appears at the beginning of the piece and also whenever there is a meter change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It consists of 2 numbers, one on top of the other. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The top number tells how many beats in a measure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bottom number tells which note will receive one beat. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Score <ul><li>A score shows the music for each instrument or vocal category in a performing group </li></ul><ul><li>A conductor uses the score to guide in the performance of the piece. </li></ul>