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03 rhythm and meter

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This lecture covers Elements chapter 3.

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03 rhythm and meter

  1. 1. Rhythm Rhythm is the flow of music through time
  2. 2. Beat <ul><li>Beats are a regular, recurrent pulsations that divide music into equal units of time </li></ul><ul><li>Beats form the background to which a composer places notes of varying lengths </li></ul>
  3. 3. Beat <ul><li>Beats are basic units of time by which all notes are measured </li></ul><ul><li>A note may last a fraction of a beat, an entire beat, or more than one beat </li></ul>
  4. 4. Meter <ul><li>The organization of beats into regular groups is called meter </li></ul><ul><li>A group containing a fixed number of beats is called a measure </li></ul>
  5. 5. Meter <ul><li>There are several types of meter (which are based on the number of beats per measure) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duple Meter- 2 beats per measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple Meter- 3 beats per measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadruple Meter- 4 beats per measure </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Meter <ul><li>There are more obscure types of meter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quintuple Meter- 5 beats per measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sextuple Meter- 6 beats per measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Septuple Meter- 7 beats per measure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These types of meter are used in more advanced compositions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Accent <ul><li>An important aspect of rhythm is the way individual notes are stressed </li></ul><ul><li>Playing a note louder than the notes around it is called an accent </li></ul>
  8. 8. Syncopation <ul><li>Syncopation is when an accented note comes when we are not expecting it </li></ul><ul><li>Syncopation is a characteristic of jazz </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tempo <ul><li>The speed of the beat is known as tempo </li></ul><ul><li>Fast tempos are associated with a feeling of energy and drive </li></ul><ul><li>Slow tempos contribute to solemn, lyrical or calm moods </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tempo Indications <ul><li>Largo- very slow </li></ul><ul><li>Grave- very slow solemn </li></ul><ul><li>Adagio- slow </li></ul><ul><li>Andante- moderately slow, a walking pace </li></ul><ul><li>Moderato- moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Allegretto- moderately fast </li></ul><ul><li>Allegro- fast </li></ul><ul><li>Vivace- lively </li></ul><ul><li>Presto- very fast </li></ul><ul><li>Prestissimo- as fast as possible </li></ul>Tempo markings are approximate indications of what how a composer wants his music to be played.
  11. 11. Changes in Tempo <ul><li>The same tempo is not always used throughout the piece </li></ul><ul><li>A gradual quickening of pace is called an accelerando </li></ul><ul><li>A gradual slowing of tempo is called a ritardando </li></ul>
  12. 12. Metronome <ul><li>Since about 1816, composers have been able to give exact tempo indications with the use of a metronome. </li></ul><ul><li>A metronome is a device that produces ticking noises or flashes of light at any desired musical speed. </li></ul>
  13. 13. George Gershwin (1898-1937) <ul><li>I Got Rhythm (1930) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pervasive syncopations give a jazzy feeling to the song. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the opening rhythmic pattern to the words “I got rhythm”, a syncopation occurs on the word “I”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This song is written in duple meter , two beats per measure . </li></ul>
  14. 14. George Gershwin (1898-1937) <ul><li>I Got Rhythm (1930) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pervasive syncopations give a jazzy feeling to the song. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the opening rhythmic pattern to the words “I got rhythm”, a syncopation occurs on the word “I”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This song is written in duple meter , two beats per measure . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Dave Brubeck (1920- ) <ul><li>Unsquare Dance (1961) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This song is in septuple meter, 7 beats per measure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The septuple meter can be divided into 2 groups of 2 beats and 1 group of 3 beats. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1-2, 1-2, 1-2-3) instead of 1-2-3-4-5-6-7. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Dave Brubeck (1920- ) <ul><li>Unsquare Dance (1961) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This song is in septuple meter, 7 beats per measure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The septuple meter can be divided into 2 groups of 2 beats and 1 group of 3 beats. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1-2, 1-2, 1-2-3) instead of 1-2-3-4-5-6-7. </li></ul></ul>

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