CHAPTER 4: THE SELF AND IDENTITY
Each age period is associated with _______________ tasks. A major aspect of psychosocial
development for adolescence is the _______________ of a coherent personal
_______________ . The term _______________ and _______________ sometimes are used
interchangeably and sometimes refer to _______________ constructs. _______________ has
been the _______________ point since most observers believe this is the time in development
of Self-_______________ , an _______________ belief about his or her _______________
and _______________ . Adolescents begin to question the _______________ that have been
_______________ on them by adults since _______________ . These are _______________
about _______________ and _______________ , in addition to truths about how the
_______________ works and about what _______________ and _______________ mean. A
child will occasionally _______________ the authority of _______________ and
_______________ , the child’s _______________ requires acceptance of social
_______________ . Adolescents, with _______________ and _______________ thinking
capabilities now feel in-_______________ . Consequently, there is a distinct aspect of self-
_______________ during adolescence in which there is the tendency for adolescents to think
about the self in _______________ and _______________ ways that is different than any time
prior to this stage of development. Adolescents are _______________ with self, and swing
between senses of _______________ to self-_______________ . Adolescents also begin to
appreciate that the self is collection of _______________ , _______________ ,
_______________ and _______________ that influence how we behave.
The development of self-_______________ is complex and _______________ , because there
are several _______________ of the self that develop. Certainly there is no single
_______________ of an adolescent with _______________ or _______________ sense of
Understanding of self in adolescence occurs in phases: (1) there is an early, _______________
self-descriptions, as describing themselves in _______________ terms; (2) middle,
_______________ of _______________ in which the adolescents begin to realize that
behavior could be both _______________ and _______________ ; and (3) late, begin the
_______________ of _______________ in which adolescents understand that they could
_______________ and _______________ differently in different _______________
depending on the social _______________, therefore an adolescent may describe self
differently depending on the _______________ context. This late _______________ in a way
is a self-_______________ mechanism. It means that adolescents become to
_______________ that it is _______________ to present a different _______________ in
different _______________ based on the demands.
Unlike childhood, adolescents begin to have a _______________ estimate of their
_______________ and _______________ , and also this is the stage they begin to become
increasingly _______________ to _______________ by others. Ultimately, Self-
_______________ develops, which is defined as: the _______________ one has about
_______________ , and it is based on _______________ assessments. It is judgment of self
_______________ , and how good one _______________ about oneself. Longitudinal studies
have shown that SE is moderately _______________ . Adolescents with _______________
SE continue on _______________ and those with _______________ SE continue to show
_______________ SE. Perceived physical _______________ is an especially
_______________ contributor to global SE. 2) Second in line is _______________
acceptance. 3) Another factor at work is the perception of _______________ . SE improves if
person perceives _______________ level of _______________ , and it _______________ if
person perceives that his/her _______________ has declined. 4) Also social
_______________ and social _______________ appear to affect SE.
Self-_______________ , on the other hand is based on _______________ -_______________
evaluations of self. It is an individual’s _______________ picture of the _______________
that define him or her. It is the _______________ that a person places on parts of the self.
Teens with high SE are less _______________ with peer _______________ and less
_______________ to _______________ pressure. Also _______________ SE correlates with
more _______________ interpersonal _______________ , and acts as a _______________
against _______________ and is associated with better _______________ .
_______________ SE is associated with _______________ and _______________ .
Studies show in early adolescent (11-13) SE tends to _______________. _______________
of physical _______________ and _______________ abilities become more important, and if
adolescents become to _______________ they are less _______________ in these
_______________ , then their SE _______________ . As adolescents become more sure of
themselves, as they become more _______________ , _______________ and
_______________ , the _______________ aspects of _______________ begin to
_______________ and SE improves. Therefore, the _______________ discomfort of
_______________ SE is _______________ for majority of teens. A trend noticed in some
studies is that SE in _______________ tends to be generally _______________ than in
_______________ , especially after early adolescent. _______________ begin to show
_______________ in SE earlier than _______________ , perhaps because of earlier
_______________ transition. While _______________ SE increases from early
_______________ to early _______________ , the same trend is not notice in
_______________ , or at least _______________ don’t _______________ as fast in early
adolescent SE decline. One possible explanation is that _______________ are
_______________ about level of SE, while _______________ are more _______________ in
their statements. The difference may center on _______________ image. _______________
image _______________ sharply for _______________ in adolescents, and recovery from that
takes _______________ . SE improves as emphasis on _______________ image is shifted to
importance of _______________ and _______________ in _______________ adolescent and
SE is also dependent on _______________ by _______________ . Reassurance and
providing _______________ support and _______________ by others has a positive impact.
Ultimately _______________ of _______________ they are, regardless of _______________
and _______________ with others that will lead to attainment of _______________ self
_______________ . SE emphasizes self-_______________ , but it also emphasizes personal
_______________ and _______________ for what one does.
_______________ support, _______________ and _______________ are associated with
_______________ SE. To improve SE _______________ want to create an
_______________ that _______________ the probability of _______________ , and attribute
the _______________ to the adolescent’s _______________ and _______________ . If
adolescents have a degree of _______________ , personal _______________ and
_______________ and they feel they are contributing to _______________ , it will have
_______________ impact on SE. Healthy SE depends on an adolescent’s ability to tolerate
_______________ and _______________ . Parents who _______________ their children too
_______________ and too _______________, don’t allow for development of
_______________ skills necessary for a _______________ SE.
Erikson’s fifth stage was Identity vs. Identity Confusion, which is experienced during
adolescence. Erikson referred to this as the adolescent identity crisis. Erikson advocated that
adolescents be given a license to explore alternative _______________ and _______________
. _______________ and _______________ Experimentation are the two key ingredients of
Erikson’s view on identity development. During this stage, adolescents typically experience a
period of time when they are _______________ about their _______________ roles,
experiencing a psychosocial _______________ . _______________ is the social condition of
_______________ in modern society, who are ready for _______________ life in many ways,
but don’t have a clear _______________ in the social _______________ and they don’t have
long-term _______________ and _______________ . Erikson believed that such a
_______________ period would allow adolescents to make _______________ that truly
reflect _______________ choice. During early phases of the _______________ , adolescents
try many different _______________ before deciding which one _______________ a clear
sense of _______________ . After actively searching, the individual successfully chooses an
_______________ that fits.
Marcia (1980) expanded on Erikson’s description of the conflicts encountered at the identity
versus identity confusion stage. Four types of resolution are described: identity
_______________ , identity _______________ , identity _______________ , and identity
_______________ . The resolutions vary on two dimensions: the presence or absence of a
_______________ and the presence or absence of a sense of _______________ to an identity.
Identity _______________ is an individual who has made little progress in exploration, has
not made any commitments, and is not in the process of forming any _______________ .
Identity _______________ is a status that includes teens who have not experienced a
_______________ but have made _______________ anyway. Their _______________ are
viewed as _______________ .
Identity _______________ is about experiencing a _______________ but _______________
are _______________ , or not ready to make definite _______________ .
Identity _______________ is an individual who has explored other _______________ , or has
experienced a _______________ and has made _______________ . Numbers of identity
_______________ grow by _______________ . The years between __and ___ seem
especially crucial for developing _______________ .
The next stage of Erikson stage of psychosocial development is intimacy vs. isolation.
Making a commitment during identity vs. role confusion naturally grows into commitment in
the intimacy that develops in early adulthood.
Some important characteristics of identity formation include:1) Individuals periodically
experience identity _______________ and _______________ stages through life. 2) Families
influence _______________ by encouraging _______________ self-_______________ and
_______________ ; and _______________ . 3) Some Ethnic minorities experience identity
challenges as a result of _______________ and _______________ . Erikson maintained that
ethnic minority groups have struggled to maintain their _______________ identities while
blending into majority _______________. 4) Male and female _______________ , and thus
_______________ , differ; _______________ formation may precede _______________ for
_______________ , whereas _______________ experience _______________ before