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Privacy, Drones, and IoT

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This year I had the opportunity to give a presentation at the World Bank in Washington DC during one of their "brown bag sessions", focused on Privacy, Drones and IoT.

The World Bank is an organization that works worldwide with a wide range of projects, including some initiatives connected with new technologies, and every time, they should evaluate different risks involved, including privacy risks.

The purpose of the presentation was to understand the concept of ‘privacy’ and its different meanings worldwide, how to define the privacy framework and assess the risks arising from the use of new technologies such as drones or IoT, and introduce the Privacy Impact Assessment as an effective tool that we can use in any jurisdiction.

I am going to share some thoughts of these broad and complex chapters that I had to sum up within one hour in this presentation!

Here the full post: http://www.lauravivet.com

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Privacy, Drones, and IoT

  1. 1. Privacy, Drones, and IoT Laura Vivet Lawyer, CIPP/E/US June 2016
  2. 2. What is Privacy?
  3. 3. Different Meanings & Regulations Worldwide • Has Omnibus Data Protection Law • Omnibus Law in Proces • No Law or Sectorial Coverage Only
  4. 4. Privacy in the United States 1. Sectorial approach 2. “Right to be left alone” 3. Multiple definitions of personal data or sensitive data: • Common law • Federal and state laws • FTC consent decrees unfair and deceptive practices
  5. 5. Common Law Kyllo vs United States
  6. 6. Federal & State Laws What is covered? Risk FCRA Applies to CRA Limits the use of consumer reports Protects consumer reports (any information pertaining to 7 factors) Civil/criminal penalties Damages Private right of action COPPA Operators of commercial websites/online services directed to children <13 Places parents in control PII = name, SSN, video, audio, geolocation, cookies, etc Civil penalties (up to $16,000 per violation) Damages Reputation GLBA Applies to financial domestic institutions Addresses privacy & security NPI Civil penalties up to $1 1M Private right of action 
 in some states HIPPA Covers health related entities Protects health information PHI Civil/criminal penalties Fines up to $250 000
  7. 7. • Unfair acts and deceptive practices • PII/Sensitive information: name, etc; consumer data linked to a specific consumer, computer or device; live feeds • RISK: Up to $100 M. Other requirements: security measures,
 training programs, disclosures, etc. FTC consent decrees
  8. 8. Privacy in Europe • Comprehensive approach • Fundamental right (Art. 8 CFR) • Directive 95/46/EC —> GDPR • Enforcement: Independent DPA in each MS • Other Privacy provisions: E-commerce, telecommunications, health information • “Personal data”: road definition • Applies to any entity, public or private • Processing of PD —> Anything! • Extraterritorial scope —> Applicable outside EU! • Exceptions • RISK: Up to €20 M or 4% total
 worldwide annual turnover
  9. 9. In Europe everything is forbidden unless allowed. United States ≠ Europe In United States everything is allowed unless forbidden.
  10. 10. • Between US and EU • Co-regulatory framework • “Personal data”: Broad definition • Public Sector —> Privacy Act • Private Sector —> PIPEDA (+ AL, BC, QB) • Enforcement: Independent DPAs • Statutory torts, anti spam, criminal code, etc RISK • 2015: enalties $17,800 • Data breach < $100,000 • Anti spam: ivil/criminal < $10M Privacy in Canada
  11. 11. Drones
  12. 12. Drones & Privacy
 in the United States Key concepts:
 “Reasonable expectation
 of privacy” and the limits of
 “private property”
 No federal law addresses privacy Tools: • Common Law • State & local regulations • Voluntary Best Practices UAS
  13. 13. Common Law Causby vs United States
  14. 14. State & Local Regulations (some examples) California Responds to the use of UAS by the paparazzi Florida Protects against surveillance activities Arkansas Prohibits the use of UAS to commit voyeurism New Hampshire Conduct video surveillance of citizens who are lawfully hunting, fishing or trapping
  15. 15. • NTIA Multistakeholder rocess
 (May 18, 2016) • Commercial and private • Private industry and privacy advocates • Privacy and security • US DHS Best Practices in UAS Programs (December 18, 2015) • DHS and local, state and federal government • Privacy and security Voluntary Best Practices UAS
  16. 16. Drones & Privacy by Design
  17. 17. What is covered? Risk GDPR Commercial operations Government operations (except outside scope of Union law) Up to €20 M or 4% total worldwide annual turnover Member States Laws Household activity (hobbyists) Freedom of expression and information Outside scope of Union Law: Public security, defense Civil/criminal penalties Damages Drones and Privacy in the EU
  18. 18. The Internet of Things (IoT)
  19. 19. IoT creates 3 kinds of risk: • Malfunction • Hacking • Privacy and security can create economic harm Internet of Things Risk Factors that shape the risk equation: • Vulnerability • Intent • Consequences Metrics to assess IoT risk: • Value and sensitivity of the data • Criticality of a function • Scalability of failure
  20. 20. Measures • Autonomy • Authentication and ncryption • Differentiate important vs unimportant and define criticality • Consider failure • Critical systems not linked to the internet Minimize Risks for the IoT Problems • Limited ability to patch & update software • Management difficulties • Computing resources limited on IoT devices • Cost and complexity • Wireless
  21. 21. Risk is dynamic Will be greatest for the 1st generation of IoT devices
  22. 22. Identify and minimize privacy risks Privacy Impact Assessment General Steps 1 Describe the project 2 Describe the information lifecycle 3 Identify privacy and related risks 4 Identify and evaluate privacy solutions 5 Integrate PIA solutions into the project plan
  23. 23. References Daniel Solve, “Privacy Law Fundamentals”, 2013, IAPP https://iapp.org/news/a/iapp-books/ DLI Piper, “Data Protection Laws of the World”, June 28, 2016 https://www.dlapiperdataprotection.com/#handbook/world-map-section Federal Trade Commission, “Protecting Consumer Privacy in an Era of Rapid Change”, FTC Report, March 2012
 https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/documents/reports/federal-trade-commission-report-protecting-consumer-privacy-era-rapid-change-recommendations/ 120326privacyreport.pdf European Charter of Fundamental Rights http://www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf General Data protection Regulation (GDPR) http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016R0679&from=EN Current UAS Landscape, NCSL http://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/current-unmanned-aircraft-state-law-landscape.aspx Department of Homeland Security, Best Practices re UA, onlineS https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/UAS%20Best%20Practices.pdf NTIA Multistakeholder Process re commercial and private UAS,
 https://www.ntia.doc.gov/other-publication/2016/multistakeholder-process-unmanned-aircraft-systems James Andrew Lewis, “Managing Risk for the Internet of Things”, CSIS, February 2016.
 https://www.csis.org/analysis/managing-risk-internet-things Michael Garcia, Naomi Lefkovitz, Suzanne Lightman, “Privacy Risk Management for Federal Information Systems”, NIST, May 2015
 http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/nistir-8062/nistir_8062_draft.pdf M-03-22, OMB Guidance for Implementing the Privacy Provisions of the E-Government Act of 2002
 https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/memoranda_m03-22 Canada, Privacy Impact Assessment: http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pol/doc-eng.aspx?id=18308 Art. 29 WP, Opinion 7/2013 on the Data Protection Impact Assessment Template for Smart Grid and Smart Metering System
 http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/article-29/documentation/opinion-recommendation/files/2013/wp209_en.pdf ICO, Privacy Impact Assessment Code of Practice, UK, online: https://ico.org.uk/media/for-organisations/documents/1595/pia-code-of-practice.pdf
  24. 24. References Map of Israelite Camp:
 http://emp.byui.edu/satterfieldb/Tabernacle/TabernacleCampIsrael.html Different meanings and regulations worldwide:
 https://iapp.org FTC and TrendNet settle claim over hacked security cameras, CNET:
 http://www.cnet.com/news/ftc-and-trendnet-settle-claim-over-hacked-security-cameras/ Drones:
 http://www.suasnews.com/2014/10/drones-fly-into-south-park-episode/ Common Law Causby vs United States:
 http://www.thehappychickencoop.com/a-history-of-chickens/ Drones and PbD:
 http://www.dezeen.com/2014/10/30/ambulance-drone-alec-momont-emergency-uav-tu-delft/ Internet of Things:
 http://www.computerweekly.com/news/4500260406/Top-10-internet-of-things-stories-of-2015 Risk is dynamic, it will be greatest for the first generation of IoT devices: 
 http://blog.orbitahealth.com/bebaio/8-iot-cartoons-that-will-add-some-humor-to-your-day
  25. 25. Thank you! Laura Vivet www.lauravivet.com ı lv@lauravivet.com

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