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Flexible Pavement Design


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Flexible Pavement Design

  1. 1. By: Asst. Prof. Imran Hafeez
  2. 2. References:  Pavement Analysis and Design by Yang H. Huang  AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement structures  Principles of Pavement Design by E.J.Yoder
  3. 3. Contents Design of Flexible Pavements Mechanistic Design Approach Empirical Design Approach Mechanistic-Empirical Design Approach
  4. 4. METHODS OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN Empirical method Mechanistic method Limiting shear failure method Limit deflection method Regression method Design methods can be classified into five categories.
  5. 5. Mechanistic Approach  Mechanics is the science of motion and the action of forces on bodies. Thus, a mechanistic approach seeks to explain phenomena only by reference to physical causes.  In pavement design, the phenomena are the stresses, strains and deflections within a pavement structure, and the physical causes are the loads and material properties of the pavement structure.
  6. 6. Engr. Imran Hafeez Mechanistic Design A method that involve numerical capability to calculate the stress, strain, or deflection in a multi-layered system, such as a pavement, when subjected to external loads, or the effects of temperature or moisture.
  7. 7. A method that refer to the ability to translate the analytical calculations of pavement response to performance. (Function of Traffic & Environment) Mechanistic Design
  8. 8. Benefits  Improved reliability for design  Ability to predict specific types of distress  Ability to extrapolate from limited field and laboratory results.  Damaging effects of increased loads, high tire pressure, multiple axles can be modeled.  Better utilization of available materials  Improved method for premature distress analysis
  9. 9. 1) Aging factor can be accommodated in analysis 2) Seasonal effects like freezing-thaw weakening 3) Long-term evaluation 4) Drainage factors Benefits
  10. 10. Mechanistic design procedure are based on the assumption that a pavement can be modeled as multi- layered elastic or visco-elastic structure on an elastic or visco-elastic foundation. Assumption Natural Soil (Subgrade) Aggregate Subbase Course Aggregate Base CourseAsphalt Concrete
  11. 11. Low Temp. ~Short Loading Time  Asphalt is a visco-elastic material. The strain developed by imposing a particular stress will depend on temperature and the loading time. At low temperature or short loading times, the material approaches elastic behavior. Under these conditions, the stiffness of a mix depends only on that of the binder and VMA of the mix, which is called elastic stiffness.
  12. 12. High Temp. ~Long Loading Time  At higher temperature or longer loading time, the stiffness of the mix is influenced by additional parameters associated with the mineral aggregates, which is also known as viscous stiffness and depends on the type of the grading, shape, and the texture of aggregate, the confining conditions and the method of compaction in addition to the stiffness and VMA.
  13. 13. Stress~Strain
  14. 14. Stress~Strain Linearity (Linear) (Non-Linear) ε(Strain) δ(Stress)
  15. 15. Typical Creep Stress and strain relationship
  16. 16. Resilient Modulus
  17. 17. Layered System Concepts Analytical solutions to the state of stress or strain has several assumptions 1) The material properties of each layer are homogenous, 2) Each layer has finite thickness except for the lower layer 3) All layers are infinite in lateral directions 4) Each layer is isotropic 5) Full friction is developed between layers at each interface 6) Surface shearing forces are not present at the surface 7) The stress solution are characterized by two material properties for each layer (E &µ)
  18. 18. The use of multilayered elastic theory in conjunction with a limiting strain criteria (Dorman and Metcalf in 1965) for design involve the consideration of three factors: (a) The theory (b)Material characterization values (c) The development of failure criterion for each mode of distress Fundamentals of design procedure
  19. 19. Foster and Ahlvin (1954) presented charts for determining vertical stress radial stress tangential stress shear stress T, and vertical deflection w. The load is applied over a circular area with a radius a Stress Components under Pavements
  20. 20. BISAR CHEVRON-X MICHPAVE Mechanistic based Software
  21. 21. Mechanistic based Software BISAR (Bitumen Stress Analysis in Roads) •BISAR 3.0 is capable of calculating •Comprehensive stress and strain profiles •Deflections •Horizontal forces •Slip between the pavement layers via a shear spring compliance at the interface The centerof the loads and the positions at which stresses, strains and displacement have to be calculated are given as co-ordinates in a fixed Cartesian system.
  22. 22. MICHPAVE MICHPAVE is a user-friendly, non-linear finite element program for the analysis of flexible pavements. The program computes displacements, stresses and strains within the pavement due to a single circular wheel load. Useful design information such as fatigue life and rut depth are also estimated through empirical equations. Most of MICHPAVE is written in FORTRAN 77. Graphics and screen manipulations are performed using the ORTRAN callable GRAFMATIC graphics library, marketed by Microcompatibles Mechanistic based Software
  23. 23. Allowable Vertical strain at Top of sub grade Basic Equation: Strain (allowable)-A* (N/10*6) *B Where A and B are coefficients, and N is the number of load repetitions Subgrade Strain Criteria Table Model A B Allowable Strain Shell 1978, 50% probability 0.000885 0.250 318 Shell 1978,84 % probability 0.000696 0.250 250 Shell 1978,95% probability 0.000569 0.200 251 Chevron, mean rut 10mm 0.000482 0.223 193 University of Nottingham, mean rut 13mm 0.000451 0.280 143 South Africa, Terminal PSI=1.5 0.001005 0.100 667 South Africa, Terminal PSI= 2.0 0.000728 0.100 483 South Africa, Terminal PSI=2.5 0.000495 0.088 345 NAASRA, Austraila 0.001212 0.141 680 Verstraeten, rut less than 15 mm 0.000459 0.230 179 Kenya 0.001318 0.245 483 Giannini & Camomilla Italia 0.000675 0.202 295
  24. 24. Empirical Approach “An empirical approach is one which is based on the results of experiments or experience.” Generally, it requires a number of observations to be made in order to ascertain the relationships between input variables and outcomes. It is not necessary to firmly establish the scientific basis for the relationships between variables and outcomes as long as the limitations with such approach are reorganized.
  25. 25. – It uses material properties that relates better to actual pavement performance – It provides more reliable performance predictions – It better defines the role of construction – It accommodates environmental and aging effects on materials Benefits
  26. 26. Empirical equations are used to relate observed or measurable phenomena (pavement characteristics) with outcomes (pavement performance). There are many different types of empirical equations available today e.g.  1993 AASHTO Guide basic design equation for flexible pavements.  Group Index method  CBR Method Empirical Approach
  27. 27. AASHTO Guide basic design equation for flexible pavements. Log10(W18)=Zr x So+ 9.36 x log10(SN + 1)-0.20+(log10((ΔPSI)/ (4.2-1.5)) /(0.4+(1094/(SN+1)5.19 )+2.32x log10(MR)-8.07 where: W18 =standard 18-kip (80.1-kN)-equivalent single-axle load (ESAL) ZR = Reliability/probability of service So = Standard Deviation of ESAL’S ΔPSI = Loss of Serviceability Empirical Approach
  28. 28. • SN=Structural Number (an index that is indicative of the total pavement thickness required) • SN =a1D1 + a2D2m2 + a3D3m3+... ai = ith layer coefficient di = ith layer thickness (inches) Mi = ith layer drainage coefficient Δ PSI= difference between the initial design serviceability index, po, and the design terminal serviceability index, pt MR= sub-grade resilient modulus (in psi) Empirical Approach
  29. 29. ROAD TESTS Maryland Road TestMaryland Road Test The objective of this project was to determine the relative effects of four different axle loadings on a particular concrete pavement (HRB, 1952). The tests were conducted on a 1-1-mile (1.76 km) section of concrete pavement constructed in 1941 on US 301 approximately 9 mile (1.44 km) south of La Plata, Maryland HRB 1940~ 60.
  30. 30. WASHO Road Test After the successful completion of Maryland Road Test sponsored by the eleven Midwestern and eastern states, the Western Association of States Highway Officials (WASHO) conducted a similar test but on sections of flexible pavements in Malad. Idaho, with the same objective in mind (HRB, 1955).
  31. 31. AASHO Road TestAASHO Road Test The objective of this project was to determine the significant relationship between the number of repetitions of specified axle loads of different magnitudes and arrangements and the performance of different thicknesses of flexible and rigid pavements (HRB. 1962). The test facility was constructed along the alignment of Interstate 80 near Ottawa. Illinois, about 80 miles (128 km) south west of Chicago. 178 Utica UticaRoad 23 2371 71 US 6 North US 6Ottaw a Loop 4Loop 5 Loop 6Loop 3 Frontage Road Frontage Road Maintenance Building AASHO Adm’n 12 Proposed FA 1 Route 80 Army Barracks
  32. 32. AASHO Road Test
  33. 33. Along with this mechanistic approach, empirical elements are used when defining what value of the calculated stresses, strains and deflections result in pavement failure. Mechanistic-Empirical Approach
  34. 34. The basic advantages of a mechanistic- empirical pavement design method over a purely empirical one are: It can be used for both existing pavement rehabilitation and new pavement construction It accommodates changing load types It can better characterize materials allowing for: •Better utilization of available materials •Accommodation of new materials •An improved definition of existing layer properties M-E Methods Advantages
  35. 35. National Cooperative Highway Research Projects
  36. 36. National Cooperative Highway Research Projects