Docks and their classification


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Docks and their classification

  2. 2.  Docks: Docks are enclosed areas for berthing the ships to keep them afloat at a uniform level to facilitate loading and unloading cargo. A dock is a marine structure for berthing of vessels for loading and unloading cargo and passengers. Docks are necessary for discharging of the cargo as ships require a number of days for discharging cargo, during which period they need a uniform water level. If ship is subjected to a vertical movement by the tides, great inconvenience will be felt in lifting the cargo from the ship and special arrangement will be needed for lifting the cargo.
  3. 3.  Classification of Docks: Docks can be classified into following two categories:  Wet docks.  Dry docks. Wet docks: Docks required for berthing of ships or vessels to facilitate the loading and unloading of passengers and cargo are called wet docks. These are also known as harbor docks.
  4. 4.  Dry docks: The docks used for repairs of ships are known as dry docks.
  5. 5.  Shape of docks and Basins: Shape of dock or basin should be straight to facilitate the ships to stand along them, as curved shape is not convenient for ships to stand along side. The shape of docks and basins should be such that maximum quayage i-e berthing length is available within the given area. The shape has therefore essentially to be made up of a number of straight patterns as curved lines are unsuitable for berthing of the ship.
  6. 6.  The following are the shapes may be adopted as per site conditions:  Rectangular dock  Diamond dock  Inclined Quay type. Rectangular dock:The length and breadth should be adjusted in such a way as to give maximum quayage
  7. 7.  Diamond Dock: For the same perpendicular distance between long sides, the long side could be extended conveniently. Inclined Quay dock: It consists of a number of projecting quays into the dock or basin.
  8. 8.  Location of dock: Docks can be located on inland ports of rivers or at estuaries or open sea coasts. A proper piloting service is necessary. The river approaches to the dock have to be maintained.  Internal arrangements: Generally different docks are required for different types of cargo. For example coal and oil should be deal with separate way from food or general cargo.
  9. 9.  Other aspects or requirements:  Approaches must be of sufficient depth and sheltered. In many cases approach channels both on the open coast and island docks have to be dredged frequently.  Availability of fresh water to replace fouled and leaked water from docks. In inland to replace the fouled water from docks, separate canals from the rivers have to be provided, if alternate sources of water supply are not available. In case of sea coast docks, the sea water could be used for cleaning and replenishing the dock.
  10. 10. Classification of Dry docks: Dry docks are classified in the following five categories:  Graving or dry docks.  Floating dry dock.  Marine railway dock.  Ship lift dry docks.  Slip ways.
  11. 11.  Dry or graving dock: A dry dock is also known as graving dock. It is long excavated chamber, having side walls, a semi circular end wall and a floor. The open end of the chamber is provided with a gate and acts as the entrance to the dock.  Floating dry dock: It may be defined as a floating vessel, which can lift ship out of water and retain it above water by means of its own buoyancy. It is a hollow structure made of steel or R.C.C consisting of two walls and a floor with the ends open.
  12. 12. To receive a vessel or ship for repair, the structure or floating dock is sunk to the required depth by filling water known as ballasting in its interior chambers and the vessel is then floated into position and berthed. The dock is raised bodily with the berthed vessel by un ballasting the chambers by pumping out the water. The earliest floating dry docks resembled the shape of ships.
  13. 13. Dry or graving dock
  14. 14. Floating dry dock
  15. 15.  Marine railway dock: The marine railway or slip dock or slip way is an inclined railway extending from the shore well into the water as the off there. This railway track is used to draw out a ship needing repair out of the water. Components of a marine dock: The essential parts of a marine dock are as follows:  Cradle.  Track.
  16. 16. Marine railway dock
  17. 17.  Cradle: The cradle or platform is constructed of steel and moves up and down on an inclined track. The cradle is mounted on a system of rollers which move on the iron tracks laid on longitudinal timbers. These beams resting on piles and other firm foundations. Track: The track consists of heavy rail sections secured to longitudinal sleepers supported on cross ties and laid at inclination varying from 1/12 to 1/25, usually an inclination of 1/15 is found convenient and useful.
  18. 18.  Lift dry dock: This is a constructed platform capable of being lowered into and raised from water. Lowering and raising is achieved by means of hydraulic power applied through cylinders supporting the ends of cross girders carrying the platform.  Ship lifts: As the name suggests, in the ship lift, the ships are lifted bodily out of water. The ship lifts may be either electric, hydraulic or pneumatic. These lifts are used for launching as well as for dry docking the ships. Their main advantage is the ease in adaptability to transfer system enabling multiple garaging of ships.
  19. 19.  Slipways: This technique is used for repairs as well as for building of vessels. In its simplest form a slip way consists of a inclined path of timber or stone laid on a firm ground. On this inclined path a series of rails are fixed. The rails run up from a sufficient depth of water to the required height above the high water level to a point at which the longest vessel to accommodated is completely out of range of tide. The lower end of slip is tidal and open to water.