J. S. Bach——Goldberg Variation #1
Bach n: s Deena general musical inspiration in many oi‘ his work and the ease with which he composed. '
ways—the clarity of his interweaving melodies, his Bach produced a / or of great music, especially Z * "
ability to composelijike an improviser, the abundance _ a _keyboard. music. ' “ ' "
imagine the flow of motion you want to create, be it - i
body movement or the playing at a musical phrase. 5‘
Stan the now oi‘ rnotioni slowly at tirst, and notice all
the "giitches"—just notice them—don‘t do anything
about them. V .
FLOW’ Art and music can communicate something
with beauty and grace. As physical manifestations, the
things that sad up to whatmany agree to be ' beautiful"
, —Intention~demonstrated and done with ease .
euninierrupjed motion with intention
. . . _.N‘? “lav; R
VJ4.D‘- 7‘~': .': ,A'.1
‘ —, — - g ‘motion smooths out.
. , .
, li. Qz1': n:
'1'n“IrP2’HAi: F% +LsIAA anfyshs Uh‘? !
B : i!: §:'Jw
_ A Note: Chick only plays R ; ‘
bracketed section on video.
''"'F7“-‘—'‘‘ '‘1*‘‘’*‘ 4 ”—“‘ '2 “‘~“* ~w -. -~ T . ..
I lfind that it I'm practicing a piece and I'm having 7 there's this little glitch, and then five seconds later
‘ ulty in a particular part and the difficulty keeps g ' ' you're having a problem. Well, it's not that section that
Evening, very often it will be that there's a part just ‘ _ ' ‘ you have to worry about-—tt‘s the little glitch earlier that "
prior to that where l never got a fingering together, or , threw your attention off. So the flows gone and you
some little glitch nappens—You know, you go along and stan to stumble over nere. So you have to find out -
where those points are. ‘
This technique is a matter of considering the
ten fingers at the hands to be individual . _ ,
musicions, .and. the, -‘88; keys of the pianoto I ‘ _ .
be 88ydru'ms. .. it . T V - ’ I ’ -. - _ ‘
F""__‘ . -. R_lﬂ_ ' 3 y
> Five: 81 Four: I -15'“: ‘ I A . y , i 3 2 - ‘
'n! t'rr. vr11i-rm "fr. a
Ten Drummers com
"TEN DRUMMERS: TWO-HANDED SCALE DRILLS
by John Novella
Although this technique appears quite" easy as ' T ' . into two areas for practicing purposes: _
’ demonstrated, it takes a lot of coordination to do well. “l) Scales and Arpeggios, to acquire good linear .
T in‘ order fort-he scale to sound as one phrase played movement. Although there are many possibilities,
' here are three-that will help get you started. They -
V with one hand, there can be no audible “glitches" as ’ _ _
the scale changes hands. it is therefore very helpful to should of course be done tour octaves in all twelve V
t ~ , do some preparatory drills, which can be divided up . keyst — - -A .
L 1 Drill #1-Whole Tone Scale
I»; « A -play two octaves ﬁist, then extend to four octaves
Drill #2—Maior Scale
—play all major scales
2) Patterns-The following drills will prove helpful there are many possibilities, but these will make
as a transition into two-handed scales. Again, for a good start.
i Drill #4 ‘ D
EASY TO LOVE
when l learn a standard tune, I like to sit down
"with the lead sheet and just find a way of’
interpreting it that feels comforlablelo me. its
a process of making the melodies and the
harmonies my own. '
EASY To LOVE ~ E T ~ ~ f'CoIePon‘er»
inc. owner of publication and allied rights throughout the world.
Copyright @ i936 Chappell 8. Co. Inc. " ' ' ' ' " " ' Chappeiis Company
19 Copyright Renswed. Assigned to John F. Wharton. International Copyrigh‘. Secured. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Trustee of the Coke Poner Musical & Literary Property Trusts. Primed in the U. S.A. Used By Permission.
as-. ".r-. = -
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Chicks approach to this tune was_the “solo piano"
approoch; ,meaning= that the arrangement is made to
sound complete on the piano without any other insIru~
» entsinyolved. Had he been thinkingrot, for instance, a
. trio, the voicings usedyvould have been a tittle different.
Chicks use of: tull'-spread voicings, along ‘with available
tensions and a few tasty chord substitutions, have add-
ed a nice touch. In generolfthough, he has stayed “in
bounds" and has not reharmonized the tune at all-
someihing to bear in mind, as too much rehormoniza-
tion can destroy the whole mood of the composition!
The exceptions to the traditional changes occur in the
form of a few substitutions, and they are as follows: In
I ETASYZTO LOVE: A HARMONIC ANALYSIS
by John Novello ‘
bar 5, he uses a device called "parallel structures, “ in
which he simply harmonizes the existing melody note
(Ft? ) with the some voicing used on the previous G
: melody. Tnisis 6 very popular device, which results _
here in a B69 chard. in bar 8, Chick's ear doesn't like
the lead sheet changeraf F7, and s_o. he changes it to a
dominant 7th chard a fifth away from the following
chord, Dmin 7. This results in ariA7 chord, and is
analyzed as a V7 of ll-7 (A7 to D—7). The traditional
chord, H, is very weak, but it works nevertheless. The
A7 Chick uses works better, as it is a stranger bass
motion. Eb7 would also have worked quite well, as the
. next—strongest bass motion besides the interval at a
fifth is a half—step (ED7 to D-7). For example:
In bar 77, Chick simply changes the chord quality from
a stock C maj 7 to C maj 7 #5, which he is fond of
doing, ,as it creates aninner voice movement to the
following A min 7 chord (Bill Evans was also noted for
his unique inner voice movement). The purpose of
inner voice movement" at this type is to bring motion to
an otherwise stagnant chord progression. In bar 76, as
he mentions in the video, Chick alters the B melody to
a Bb in order to create the passing melody of B—Bb-A.
Chick chose this one
and since any dominant 7 chord can be preceded by
its relative ll-7 chord (l'~7 to BD7), the two-chord
substitution of l’~7.to Bb7 for E6 works quite nicely. In
bar27, Chick uses the ill chord E7 in place of the l
chord C maj. As he says on the tape, going_directly to -
the B creates a surprise, as one narmollywants to
hear the standard resolution to the C maj 7 chord. This ,
device lS calledfaeceptive resolutions-
With regard to Chick's voicings: as do most jazz
This acts as a strong melodic and harmonic turnaround
back to the main theme. The resultant new chord then
A becomes A7bl3, in order to accommodate the altered
melody. Altering the melody like this, especially in this
’ style, is done all the time and is a great way of-giving
new life to an arrangement. In bar26, Chick uses a
twochord substitution for the sheet music chordof F
min 6. The logic here is that Fmin 6 is exactly the
. . same as a B179 chord, exceptforthe: different roots; _
keyboardists in a solo piano situation, Chick loves to
voice his chord structures in spreads (chord structures
spanning over an octave, which include the root of the
left hand) and to use many tensions (9's, ii's, and 13's).
; _This style creates a rich, full, moving sound. In an
ensemble, the general rule of thumb is to leave out the
root and camp with four-way close voicings (voiclrigs
having a span of less than an octave, which are nor-
mallyusedtorcomping). I A _
' 'A. ,b13 . '
“ Duke's music and Monk's music have a
similarity that inspires me to kind of
"cross-fertilize" them. I think Monk was
influenced a lot by Duke. They're two of my
favorite composers and I find it easy to
know their original intentions when I play
Duke's music and Monk's music have a
similarity that inspires me to kind of
"cross-fertilize" them. I think Monk was
inﬂuenced 0 lot by Duke. They're two of my
favorite composers and I find it easy to
know their original intentions when i play
Duke Ellington, Albany Bigard, lrving, Mills
193i by MILLS Music inc. All "alums ReseNed. ‘Intemational Copyright Secured. Made in USA.
Copyright Renewed 1959. » Used By Permission.
. :73’- f—I
MOOAHD INDIGO— e _ ~ .
RENDERING A MELODY
EX ‘- . ‘§le_lody—P! :y the rhytvhrn or the melody totally straight,
i-Jith nejcontrasting rhythms. '
Ex 2 Drums—Slow, swing beat.
Ex 3: Keep imagining that slow, swing beat and then
play the melody.
, / >A >
, _,~La, y , r1 9 j; —-; i.I. ~. mg __q
u “A 7‘ it _ 1 . jit-
3- 3 ~3 .
Ex‘4: Keeping that basic rhythm, embellish the melody
by adding other rhythms. . .
Do this with other tunes. First, play the rhythm of the‘ that rhythm you're imagining. Add other rhythms, keep—'
melody straight. Then imagine what a drummer might - ing that basic rhythm in your imagination.
play underneath it. Then play the melody again with 35
The blues are woven into the culture in such
a way that it would be difficult not to know
the blues and be alive. Even the wailing and
‘ to relate to the blues. it's the basic cry of
humanity dealing with its bare survival.
Anyone who gives some vent to this feeling
willvbe playing the blues in his own way.
THE BLUES: AN ANALYSIS *
by John Novello _
To any musicisr the blues means a fairly fixed set of there a'e many variations at the blues, Chick uses a
harmonic changes; over the years, these changes have relatively standard i2—bar jazz blues in the key of F.
_ been harmonized as needed and wanted. Although Note the following analysis of his last chorus:
"f 1A; Stand 5 Jazz glues‘ Form.
: 1'. ' '.
S F? Bar
It-7 y: i I 9 1‘? r‘‘°7
07 C7 F I-'7/ BI) 1307 CT
‘ . ._
* I 6 = pm: chord in tam inversion (3rd in the bass)
- _= .- i - - - - - - i - i -
. ' I Z I“ l: I
i I ' : h‘ ‘I’ _‘ l
I r . i 3 I’ ‘
J ~ ' I
‘ . ‘ . _ r '« r
. ‘ x 4 ‘ ‘ _“- »
. " N: ‘
B. ick's Variation
l)‘ Harmonic Analysis
in bar l, C. “‘*k has added a B7 as a passing approach
chord c h-. .-step soove the B57 : r:~rd in bar 2 49
does this again as a transition to bar A. in bar 6. he
again uses same approach chords to the D7 chard in
, bar'7 ~G-7_ta 6%‘ dE. 'n‘7 isa c'arnmon way to connect W '
I in root pesitionwith F7 in first inversion (third in the
— boss). This creates good bass motion and sets up the
. ihterva_l' of atitth abovethe next chord, rD7. which is_ot
COILIJTSG excellent bass motion (bass motion F-G-G#-A-
D). Chick then uses a D_b7, a common substitution for
the ll chord (G min 7). Going to the Db7 instead of the
standard G min 7 serves two functions: first, the domi-
nant 7 sounds more bluesy, and second, we again get
a strong bass motion at D7-D07-C7 (note: the interval
at a fifth above or a half—step above the intended target
chord is considered to be excellent bass motion). The
last two bars of any blues is considered a turnaround,
back to the top at the tune. Since this is Chick's last
time through, he simply ends the tune after the turn-
around liaain, he does sor‘.1e"1'ng fresh and colorful
by enaingvon a sus type dominant 7 structure lTiS’r8OC1
of a typical straight. dorninanf7 chord.
2) Voicings ’ 1 _
Another thing Chick does that makes his interpretation
otthe oiues unique is his strong use of tensions. in
I bars 7, 3; and 4,-the #11 (B natural) an the F7 chord -
adds a bit at Monk! Same with the'flat 9 on the B07
chord in bars 5 & 6. Chick refers to this note (again
8 natural) as simply a "weird" note. interestingly
enough, this is a very important note to the blues
sound in this key. -
3) Blues Sound
The “blues sound" is composed of two elements-
A) The blues scale: Root, b3, 4, #4, 5, b7, root. _
which means a progression of chords that leads us
Ex. 2: Standard Blues Scale
mm I73 J‘ ' ' 4 5 I7 ' root
is you can see, the #4 is an integral part at the blues I
sound CJ| 'lGCl’llCk takes advantage at it not only ln'l'llS
chord voicings, but also melodically in his entire
mprovisation (see bars 8, 9, and TO).
8) Blues tones: crushed, usually non—diatonic notes
that approach scale tones, but most often are chord
tones (see example below). Not only does Chick use
this sound in his blues solo (especially bars 8 and 9),
it IS an integral part of all his melodic playing,
3: Crushed Blues Notes—-F Blues
. . . , ii‘ _. J’
; _ V,
Shiclcadds-even more-color to this blues sound ‘
’"°U-Shine. use rofclusrers. which are chord voicings
zgredominantly made up of minor and major seconds
see barsvi, -3, 4', 5, and 6). Rhythmically, he adds a’
‘rice departure from the norm by his use at swinging
accented sextuplets. This really brings this chorus to
tie and adds the final touch and energy to the ending.
‘ , _ Chick actually applies'ttis'two-ihanded scale-playing.
concept to chords (see bars 3,4, and 6 especially). "
As Chickpoints outta the end, he likes expressive L
music, and the 12-bar blues is just such a vehicle.
--Anything goes! Just keep the basic l2-bar form and
basic chord pattern and add a touch of honest emo-
tion and you're off!
LONG FALL L i - ~
Tommy 8. plays this particular rhythm great (the Bolpn groove for this piece. The 8 section was added as a
from Brazil); sotconceiveo‘ ofthat kinda? general ‘little relief to the basic vamp
‘ r , .. -<. .'. ‘.£. ‘;. '?. ::-: ra= 'y~. ~,. m». .'—-~ —. -- .
‘LONG FALL”: FORM AND
by John Novello 7
The form of this composition is analyzed as simply A-B, -
section A being i2 bars while section B is 4 bars,
making this a simple i6~bar tune.
2) HARMONIC ANALYSIS
The'A section is modal, meaning the melody and har-
. Tior_i_y_is based on a certain mode or scale, while the B“ L -.
section derives from an ascending bass line which
‘noduIates‘. to‘G major (bar'i5); andthen chromat_ical, ly, ij,
JSGBUUS b. ajc_k1tci" horne. b.ase. 'a B, -minorfcolar. There are - ~ ’
3 variety of minorvmades. -ln this case. although Chick ' .
isesjthe chord symbols Gf'B'min+5 ‘and A min+5, the
oicings h; e.us‘es. in section A could be more accurately
tescribed as coming from the aeolian modes of B minor
ind Aminor. (See Ext) ’
Regarding the B section harmony, Chick just uses his
ear and harmonizes the ascending bass line he
created with. different-color chord qualities, and then
composes a melody drawn from the implied scales of
these chords. . ‘ e .
T Here are thefvarious scales which could be used as a
basis for-improvisation. Note that in performing this
wcampo_sition, — Chick and the band take manyrhythrnic, _
harmoriic, and melodic libertiesalike playing notes out-
—sid_e__the‘_basic__scale, adding chromatic passing chords, ‘
V and 'stretching thebasic rhyjttjtm at times—which is
typicalof this kind-of Latin fusion style: Overall, though, A
Chick sticks very closely to the basic modes and
harmony. (See Ex. 2)
Bm + 5 B aeolian
Am * 5 A aeolian
BI-n + 5 B aeolian
Um? D dorian
Em? E phr_gian
: nlclcs application or the various scales used ln“Long Fall" by John Novella
with the exception at the C natural in bar 4 (which is
simply an approach note to the root 8 from a halt-step
above), and the D natural in bar 16 (which also is an
approach note to the llth, Eb, from a halt-step below),
all melody notes are from the indicated modes. Even V
the scale that Chick suggests using is actually just
notes derived from the B aeolian. The pattern that he
suggests, though, adds a nice dimension to the
‘ straights aeolian and gives him a basis for the typegot
improvising and melodic construction‘ being done. The
notes in the pattern are all from the B aeolian made-
it's just the shape or intervals at the scale pattern
which set the overall concept that Chick does so well!
5,, “ M» c
E” 3"‘ a
1}‘ W», an
all isfcﬂslsis sexy:
VLONG FA'LL"’ REHFARSAL WITH TRIO
E ‘. A. salon Rhythm = :i: -rem
i: .:. Play only what you hear. ‘
. . 2. it you don't hear ‘anything, don’t play
3,. Dent let your fingers andlimbs justswand-ei—. place
. Make yo
CHEAP BUT GOOD ADVICE’
FOR PLAYING MUSIC INA
. Don't improvise on endlessly—play something with
intention, develop it or not, but then end oft, take a
- break. _ _
I Leave space—create space-intentionally create
places where you don't play.
ur sound blend. Listen to your sound and
adjust it to the ‘rest of the band and the room.
. it you play more than one instru"ment at a time-
like a drum ‘kit or multiple keyboards—m_ake sure
they are balanced with one another. . .
. Don't make_any af_your music mechanically orjust
through patterns of habit. Create each sound,
phrase, and piece with choice—deliberately.
C 9. Guide your choice of what to play by what you
like—not by what someone else will think.
Use contrast and pounce
- loud-soft -
ii. ’ Play to makethe other musicians sound good.
Play things that will makethe overall’mu_sic sound A
12. Play with a relaxed body. Always release whatever
tensionyou create. _
13. Create space—begin, develop and and phrases
14. Never beat or pound your instrument—p| ay it easily
and gracefully. .
15. Create space—then place something in it.
16. Use mimicry sparsely-mostly create phrases that
contrast with and develop the phrases of the other
Music which, in one way or another, helps people get along
better in life is the best kind of music.
With my music, i like to share the joy of making music: the"
spirit at playing. i like music to keep us tuned to our basic tree-
dom to create.
A musician, music, can add a soothing, sparkling, and
joyful inﬂuence to the normal stresses and 'strains’ot’eve‘ryday
living in this world. ’
In the “‘Keyboaid‘Warkshop, ” I've attempted to share a few bits
of musical technique and study methods that are a part of my
music—making. I hope you ﬁnd them useful in your own
music-making, and encourage you to continue to spread the
Thanks to: Glenn Mangel, Rob Wallis, Paul Siegel, John .
Pal1tucci, Tom Brechtlein, Ron Moss, Sally Hesse, Evelyn
_. _Brechtlein, _:John: Novello, and -Charlie Giordano, for their help. _
and good work in rn‘aki‘ng'this video. ’ ' ' '- - ‘ "
And a special thanks to L. Ron Hubbard, whose work in the .
ﬁelds ot. Art and Study have been tremendously helpful tome
“OS 0 l't1USlCl0l'l.