● Homo is the genus of hominids that includes
modern humans and species closely related to
them. The genus is estimated to be about 2.3 to
2.4 million years old, possibly having evolved from
australopithecine ancestors, with the appearance
of Homo habilis.
● Several species, including Australopithecus
garhi, Australopithecus sediba, Australopithecus
africanus, and Australopithecus afarensis, have
been proposed as the direct ancestor of the Homo
● These species have morphological features that
align them with Homo, but there is no consensus
on which gave rise to Homo, assuming it was not
an as-yet undiscovered species.
➢ Australopithecus garhi is a gracile
australopithecine species whose fossils were
discovered in 1996 by a research team led by
Ethiopian paleontologist Berhane Asfaw and Tim
White, an American paleontologist.
➢ The hominin remains are believed to be a
human ancestor species and possibly the direct
ancestor to the human genus, Homo.
● is a species of Australopithecus of the
early Pleistocene, identified based on
fossil remains dated to about 2 million
years ago. been dated to between
1.977 and 1.980 million years ago.
● was an early hominid, an
australopithecine, who lived between
~3.03 and 2.04 million years ago in the
later Pliocene and early Pleistocene.In
common with the older Australopithecus
afarensis, Au. africanus was of slender
build, or gracile, and was thought to have
been a direct ancestor of modern
● is an extinct hominid that lived between 3.9
and 2.9 million years ago. A. afarensis was
slenderly built, like the younger
● HOMO and LUMO are acronyms for highest occupied molecular
orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, respectively. The
energy difference between the HOMO and LUMO is termed the
HOMO–LUMO gap. HOMO and LUMO are sometimes referred to
as frontier orbitals.
● Roughly, the HOMO level is to organic semiconductors what the
valence band maximum is to inorganic semiconductors and
quantum dots. The same analogy exists between the LUMO level
and the conduction band minimum.
In organometallic chemistry, the size of the LUMO lobe can help
predict where addition to pi ligands will occur.
A SOMO is a singly occupied molecular orbital such as
half-filled HOMO of a radical.
➢ (Latin: "wise man") is the scientific name for the human
➢ Homo is the human genus, which also includes
Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominid;
H. sapiens is the only surviving species of the genus
➢ Modern humans are the subspecies Homo sapiens
sapiens, which differentiates them from what has been
argued to be their direct ancestor, Homo sapiens idaltu.
HOMO SAPIENSHOMO SAPIENS
Where Lived: Eastern Africa (northern Kenya, possibly northern
Tanzania and Malawi)
When Lived: About 1.9 million to 1.8 million years ago.
Eastern Africa (northern Kenya,
possibly northern Tanzania and
About 1.9 million to 1.8 million
Homo habilis (also Australopithecus habilis) is a
species of the Hominini tribe, which lived from
approximately 2.33 to 1.44 million years ago,
during the Gelasian Pleistocene period.
Modern humans are
the only remaining
species of the
hominids, a branch of
characterized by erect
posture and bipedal
dexterity, sociality and
tool use; and a general
trend toward larger
and more complex