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# Lecture 3 MMX3043 Game Design and Development

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Cdt: Dr. Maizatul Hayati Mohamad Yatim

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### Lecture 3 MMX3043 Game Design and Development

1. 1. MMX3043 GAME DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT Lecture 3 Rules of Game Miss Laili Farhana Md Ibharim
2. 2. ‘Game Book’ L.F.M.I.2014 2
3. 3. ‘Game Book’ L.F.M.I.2014 3
4. 4. PRIMARY SCHEMAS OF GAMES RULES: Logical gameplay behind the game. It is a deep structure of a game from which all real world instances of the game’s play and derived. L.F.M.I.2014 4
5. 5. 3 kinds of RULES Operational rules • Concrete material of the game (the real world rules) • The spinner (dice/cards) • The pawn • The squares on the board Constitutive rules • Mathematical and logical rules to create the formal identity of a game • All player begin at 0 • Player alternate turns • First player to reach the top wins Implicit rules • Common for many different games • The board should be placed in the middle • Everyone chooses one pawn • Additional pawns are taken away L.F.M.I.2014 5
6. 6. Designing A Board For Board Games • The board contains all aspects of the GAME INFORMATION at once. • The representations of the players (their tokens) are all in the same “space”, making COMPARISON of relative positions and immediate and intuitive. • Players can clearly see the CONSEQUENCES of their actions, whether it is moving normally during a turn, climbing, or sliding. L.F.M.I.2014 6
7. 7. Game Rules In Digital Games • Rules are related to the PROGRAM CODE. Rules concern the ACTIONS players can take and the OUTCOME of those actions. • Game rules are the aspects of a game program that STRUCTURE and take in player INPUT and DETERMINE the game’s output. • The internal functioning of formal GAME LOGIC is also part of the rules. • The specific manifestations of the VISUALS AND AUDIO in a digital game are usually NOT PART of formal structure of the game. L.F.M.I.2014 7
8. 8. L.F.M.I.2014 8
9. 9. • “UNCERTAINTY” brings to mind ideas of CHANCE and RANDOMNESS. It is crucial in a game that players do not know exactly how it will play out. • If the outcome of the game is PREDETERMINED, the experience cannot provide MEANINGFUL PLAY. • Mathematics of uncertainty = Theory of Gambling and Statistic Logic (Richard Epstein) L.F.M.I.2014 9
10. 10. Decision-Outcome Relationship L.F.M.I.2014 10
11. 11. Probability Theory (PT) • The feeling of RANDOMNESS is an important part of what makes the game fun to play. • It creates a sense of open-ended PROBABILITY and players are rewarded for taking advantage of chance. • We use PT to make decision and make better prediction. 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1 P(A) = Probability (A= Events) 0 means “impossible” 1 means “absolutely certain” Between these two extremes is “possible” L.F.M.I.2014 11
12. 12. L.F.M.I.2014 12
13. 13. Pseudo-Random Distribution (PRD) • Refers to the statistical mechanics of how certain probability-based items and abilities work (in DOTA). • The important GAMEPLAY and BALANCE EFFECT of PRD is that effects based on it rarely occur many times in a row or go a long time without happening. L.F.M.I.2014 13
14. 14. Breaking The Rules • To cheat in a game means to break the rules. • RULE-BENDING and RULE-BREAKING manipulate the structure of a game. • When it comes to forms of rule-breaking in games, game designers need to think as how gamers’ think. L.F.M.I.2014 14
15. 15. Digital Game Rule-Breaking L.F.M.I.2014 15
16. 16. Digital Game Rule-Breaking L.F.M.I.2014 16
17. 17. Digital Game Rule-Breaking L.F.M.I.2014 17
18. 18. Digital Game Rule-Breaking L.F.M.I.2014 18
19. 19. Digital Game Rule-Breaking L.F.M.I.2014 19
20. 20. Digital Game Rule-Breaking L.F.M.I.2014 20
21. 21. Feedback design: Reward • Rewards are balanced with challenges or risks and all players have equal chance of winning. Theory of Flow L.F.M.I.2014 21
22. 22. Feedback design: Reward • Rewards are balanced with challenges or risks and all players have equal chance of winning. L.F.M.I.2014 22
23. 23. Feedback design: Reward • Types of reward  Score (increase a person status)  Surprise  Extension of game  Valuables inside the game (extra car, power up, etc) L.F.M.I.2014 23
24. 24. Feedback design: Punishment • Punishment: application of the punisher. Be very careful when thinking about using punishment, as it tends not to be a tone of fun. • Try REINFORCING alternative behaviors rather than simply punishing those you want to discourage. L.F.M.I.2014 24