General Histology and Histotechnique (1st semester; 2012-2-13)CONNECTIVE TISSUE 2. Macrophages/HistocytesCharacteristics: - Developed from monocytes (WBC)- Have intercellular spaces - Irregular shape- Cells scattered in matrix- Wide variety of cells most abundant Function:- Vascular - To engulf those bacteria – cellular debris;- From mesoderm phagocytosis- Lie below basement membrane Two types:Functions: a. Fixed Macrophage1. Binds together, supports and strengthens other body - it resides in a particular tissue only tissues Ex.: Alveolar macrophages in the lungs; spleen2. Protects and insulates internal organs.3. Compartmentalizes structures such as skeletal b. Wandering macrophage muscles. - Roamed the tissues and then gather at sites of4. The major transport system within the body. infection/inflammation.5. The major site of stored energy reserves; for fat cells. 3. Plasma CellsConnective Tissue: Embryonic origin - Small and round/irregular shape- blast - Developed from lymphocytes- cytes – mature cells; form the connective tissues. - Secretes antibodies Proteins that attacking on foreignTwo basic elements: substances in the body. 1. Cell Important in Immune System. 2. Matrix Location: GIT, Mammary glandTypes of Cells 4. Mast Cells - Abundant alongside of Blood vessels that supply connective tissue. - Produce Histamine A chemical that dilates small blood vessels Especially during the reaction in the injury. 5. Adipocytes (fat cells) - May form small clusters or aggregates in loose connective tissue. - Store lipids and form adipose tissue. Functions: It Protects, insulates and cushions organs of1. Fibroblasts the body.- Large-flat-spindle shaped cells with branching processes. 6. WBC- Present in all - Not found insignificant numbers in connective- Most numerous tissuesFunction: - When there is a significant numbers of WBC –- To secrete the proteins needed for fiber synthesis. Abnormality- Components for intercellular matrix. - Increase number in response to allergic condition during parasitic invasion.
General Histology and Histotechnique (1st semester; 2012-2-13)Neutrophil – Increase number at site of infection. - Jelly-like substance that provide support and adhesiveness in cartilages, bones, skin, and blood7. Chondrocytes vessels.- Mature cells that form cartilages. Dermatan sulfate - found in skin, tendon, Blood vessels,8. Osteocytes Heart bulbs- form the bones Keratan sulfate – Found in bone, cartilage, cornea of the eye.9. Hematopoietic cells- Form the Blood cells 3. Adhesion Protein - Responsible in linking components of ground10. Undifferentiated mesenchyma substances to each other and to the surfaces.- Potential to differentiated into adult cell types Fibronectin – principal adhesion protein of connectiveConnective tissue MATRIX tissue Ex.:Matrix - It binds halogen, fibers, and ground substances and- Maybe fluid, semi-fluid, gelatinous, fibrous, or cross-linked them together. calcified - It attaches cells to ground substancesFunction: To prevent tissue cells from touching oneanother. B. FibersConsists of: - Strengthen and support connective tissues Types:A. Ground Substance- Highly hydrated gel which the cells and fibers of 1. Collagen Fibers connective tissue are embedded “colla” – glue- Intercellular substances - Appear as white fiberMade up of: - Most abundant connective fibers - Contain a protein substance known as collagen.1. Hyaluronic Acid - For flexibility at a High Tensile Strength- Viscous- Slippery substances 5 types of collagen fibers:Function:- To bind cells together Types Location Function 1. Type 1 Skin, bone tendon, Accounts for 90% of the- To lubricate ligament, dentine, total body collagen;- It helps maintain the shape of eye ball sclera of the eye, organ provide resistance to capsules force tension andHyaluronidase stretch. 2. Type 2 Cartilage (hyaline and Provide shape &- It breaks apart the hyaluronic acid, and causes the elastic) notochord, resistance to ground substance to become watery. invertebral disc. deformationLocation: 3. Type 3 Uterus, liver, spleen, Provide structuralWBC – produces hyaluronidase to move connective kidneys and lungs, support and elasticity smooth muscles, bloodtissue. vessels and fetal skin.- Produce by sperm cell – to fully penetrate the eggs 4. Type 4 Basal lamina of Provide support and during fertilization epithelial and filtration barrier endothelial cells,- Produce by bacteria for them to spread in kidney connective tissues 5. Type 5 Basal lamina of smooth Provide support. and skeletal muscle2. Chondroitin Sulfate cells, glial cells, placental epithelium
General Histology and Histotechnique (1st semester; 2012-2-13) - It forms a network around fat cells, nerve cells/fiber, skeletal & muscle cells. - Forms the Stroma Meaning “bed/covering” Supporting framework of many soft organs. - Helps form the basement membrane Location: boundary of C.T. and epithelial, around blood vessels, nerves, hematopoietic tissues such as bone marrows, liver, spleen Classification of Connective Tissue2. Elastic fibers- Known a Yellow fiber I. Embryonic- Smaller diameter than in collagen - Present in embryos and fetus- Branched to joined together to form network within a tissue a. Mesenchyme- Protein – Elastin - Exclusively found in embryo Surrounded by glycoprotein – Fibrillin - This tissue were all types of connective tissue arise – essential to the stability of elastic - Composed of irregular cell – mesenchymal cell fibers. - Contains a semifluid ground substance - Contains a delicate reticular fiberFunction: Location: found under skin and along developing bones- For strength and stability of embryo, in adult connective tissues especially bloodLocation: Skin, Blood vessels (walls), lung tissues vessels.2 types: 1. Stretched 2. Relaxed b. Mucous / Warton’s jelly - Consists of a widely scattered fibroblast - Viscous ground substance and jelly-like collagen fibers3. Reticular fibers Location: Umbilical cord- Consists of collagen and protein of glycoprotein Function: For support- Produced by fibroblasts- Thinnest and form branching networkFunctions:- Provide support and strength- Provide support to the walls of Blood vessels
General Histology and Histotechnique (1st semester; 2012-2-13)II. Mature1. Loose- Fibers are loosely wovena. Areolar- One which is widely distributed in the body- Forms the subcutaneous layer Layer of a tissue that attaches the skin to the underlying tissues and organs.- Most common connective tissues in all invertebrates.- One of the component of Basement membrane- Consists of Macrophages, mast cells, FibroblastsFunction: b. Adipose- Separates muscles - Adipocytes; fat cells - Derived from fibroblast - Good insulator (reduced heat loss) - Widespread in fetus & infants - Only small amount in adult Function: for storage of triglycerides Location: found I subcutaneous layer deep to skin, around heart and kidneys, yellow marrow of long bones, padding around joints and behind eyeball in eye socket.
General Histology and Histotechnique (1st semester; 2012-2-13) 2. Dense - More numerous thicker and denser fibers - With few cells a. Dense regular connective tissue - Matrix-Shiny white - Bundles of collagen fibers Function: Provide strong attachment between various structures. Location: Tendons (muscle to bone); Ligaments (bone to bone); Aponeurosis (muscle to muscle/ muscle to bone)c. Reticular- Consists of reticular fibers/reticular cells- Forms stroma of organs- Binds together smooth muscle tissue cells- Contains collagen, elastic & reticular- Cells – fibroblast, macrophage, plasma cells, adipocyte, mast cellsLocation: Stroma (supporting framework) of liver,spleen, lymph nodes; portion of bone marrow; reticularlamina of basement membrane, around blood vesselsand muscle, subcutaneous layer of skin, lamina propriaof mucous, nerves. b. Dense irregular connective tissue - Collagen fiber (randomly arranged) - Few fibroblast Location: Fascia (tissue beneath skin and around muscles and other organs); reticular region of dermis of skin, periosteum of bone, perichondrium of cartilage, joint capsules, membrane capsules around various organs (kidneys, liver, testes, lymph nodes), pericardium of the heart and heart valves.
General Histology and Histotechnique (1st semester; 2012-2-13)c. Elastic connective Tissue- Branching elastic fiber- Cell - fibroblast- Allows stretching of various organsLocation: Lung tissue, walls of elastic arteries, trachea,bronchial tubes, true vocal cords, suspensor ligament ofpenis, and ligaments between vertebrae.