Diagnose & FDFRBDPB3A Diagnose & Respond to product & process faults- Bread
<ul><li>ENDOSPERM- consist of starch and protein </li></ul><ul><li>BRAN- seed coat, consists of in-digestible fibre </li></ul><ul><li>GERM- shoot of germinating plant. High fat content </li></ul>
The three basic flour categories are: Wholemeal - 100% extraction, made from the whole wheatgrain with nothing added or taken away. Brown - usually contains about 85% of the original grain, some bran and germ have been removed. White - usually 75% of the wheatgrain. Most of the bran and wheatgerm have been removed during milling. OTHER VARIETIES OF FLOUR Wheatgerm - white or brown flour with at least 10% added wheatgerm. Malted wheatgrain - Brown or wholemeal flour with added malted grains. Stoneground - Wholemeal flour ground in a traditional way between two stones. Organic - Flour milled from grain that has been grown to organic standards. Growers and millers must be registered and are subject to regular inspections. BASIC TYPES OF FLOUR
THE CHOICE OF FLOURS FOR BAKING Plain Flour - also known as all-purpose. Use for shortcrust pastry, sauces and gravies where a raising agent is not required. Self-raising - Flour to which a raising agent has been evenly mixed. Use for cakes, scones and puddings. Soft Flour - a soft white flour which has been milled very finely to give sponges, cake and scones a higher rise and finer texture. Strong Flour - a flour with a high protein content providing a high volume and open texture. Ideal for bread and all types of yeast cookery, Yorkshire puddings and puff pastry Wholemeal – 100% extraction, made from the wholewheat grain with nothing added or taken away. Brown – usually contains about 85% of the original grain. Some bran and germ have been removed. White – usually 75% of the wheatgrain. Most of the bran and wheatgerm have been removed before milling. Wheatgerm – white or brown flour with at least 10% added wheatgerm. Malted wheatgrain – brown or wholemeal flour with added malted grains. Stoneground – wholemeal flour ground in traditional way, between 2 stones.
<ul><li>Starch is a chemical group, consisting of many small sugar (glucose) units joined together in long chains. This is how the wheat stores energy. Unlike protein, starch does not change much during mixing. The primary function of starch is to hold water. Because there is so much starch this is a major component of flour water absorbs ion. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes can reduce starch to sugars for yeast fermentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Starch function in bread dough is therefore; </li></ul><ul><li>To absorb water </li></ul><ul><li>To act as a filler </li></ul><ul><li>A source of sugars for fermentation </li></ul>
<ul><li>Starch function during baking : </li></ul><ul><li>At the same temperature protein gives up its water, starch absorbs more water. Starch granules swell with the absorbed water. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally at about 60 degrees Celsius, they burst and undergo a radical change, they fuse together to form a gel. This process is known as gelatinization . </li></ul><ul><li>Starch gelatinization is the thickening of starch solution to form a paste. The gelatinized starch takes over from protein, and forms the main structure of the bread. </li></ul><ul><li>Starch function during baking: </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs and holes water given up by the protein </li></ul><ul><li>Gelatinizes to form bread structure and texture. </li></ul><ul><li>(Bread structure is a complex interaction between </li></ul><ul><li>protein and gelatinized starch. </li></ul>
Stimulates yeast activity Aids in gas production Modifies gluten structure Conditions gluten Assists oven spring A selection of micro ingredients uniformly balanced in the form of functional and non-functional extenders. Bread improvers commonly have two functions. Gluten conditioning and maximizing functionality during mixing, fermentation and baking To ensure dough contains sufficient sugars to maintain adequate gas production at all stages of the fermentation process. BREAD IMPROVERS
Salt function in bread dough <ul><li>Controls fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens gluten structure </li></ul><ul><li>Flavors the product </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses anti bacterial properties, which inhibit mould growth to some extent </li></ul><ul><li>Salt is most commonly used at 2%. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives the required properties, </li></ul><ul><li>without making the bread too salty. </li></ul>
Effects of sugar in bread making Sugar additions above 5% based on flour weight may slow fermentation rates considerably, while more than 10% sugar will require maximum amount of yeast in the dough (6%) Sugar is hydroscopic, that is it draws up water from the dough depriving the yeast of moisture to dissolve the sugars on which it feeds. Therefore sugar acts in a similar manner to salt, affecting process of osmosis, or the manner in which the yeast feeds
YEAST <ul><li>Yeast is a single celled plant which, being devoid of chlorophyll, are classified botanically as moulds and fungi. </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell is a living organism and can metabolize and reproduce independently of its fellows. Reproduction by budding. </li></ul><ul><li>Budding yeast cell : </li></ul><ul><li>Favor table conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Develops a bud </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus replaces itself, </li></ul><ul><li>identical to last </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei moves to bud </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall develops and </li></ul><ul><li>breaks off </li></ul><ul><li>Bud detaches from parent cell </li></ul>
Commencement of yeast activity occurs at the mixing phase. The salt in the dough, which retards the rate of fermentation and gas production, controls the yeast activity. The CO2 gas develops the structure and texture of the dough by stretching the gluten in the crumb cells, increasing dough volume. The rate of fermentation, that is gas production, is at highest under optimum temperature and humidity conditions in the proofer activity is stopped when baking temperature gets over 60 degrees Celsius and the yeast is killed. Other factors also influence fermentation rate. Heat will stimulate yeast activity and increase fermentation rate. Too much heat during fast mix will have the dough proofing too fast for this stage of the process. Therefore dough temperatures must be monitored as to not exceed the Finished Dough Temperature FDT.
For Bulk fermentation dough’s there need only be a low level of yeast as enough gas can be produced over a longer period of time. For R.D.D more yeast is needed for a higher level of activity over a shorter period of time. The role of yeast in bread making: Fermentation is the conversion of sugar to Carbon Dioxide gas and Alcohol It produces Carbon Dioxide gas which expands the dough to the required volume and gives the desired light texture. It matures or develops the dough through action of fermentation on the gluten structure. It produces flavor through the production of complex chemical compounds as by-products of the fermentation process.
Emulsifiers, Fats & Oils <ul><li>Fats and oils can be classified in a number of different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>1.Solid or liquid at room temperature. Solid = Fat, Liquid = Oil. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Animal or vegetable origin </li></ul><ul><li>3. Whether they are saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Saturated materials are usually solid at room temperature so are classified as fats. Both mono and poly unsaturated are liquid at room temperature so are classified as oils. </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Wheat also contains a small amount of fatty materials- also known as Lipids . This is generally 1-1.5% in flour. Sometimes the oil extracted form wheat is sold in health food stores as Wheat Germ Oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Function effects of added Fat in bread: </li></ul><ul><li>Loaf volume </li></ul><ul><li>Crust character </li></ul><ul><li>Crumb texture </li></ul><ul><li>Anti Firming </li></ul><ul><li>Slicing aid </li></ul><ul><li>Emulsifiers are considered to enhance the role of bread fats rather then to replace them. Emulsifiers have two roles. 1. Crumb conditioning 2. Crumb softening </li></ul><ul><li>The common emulsifiers in baking are Lecithin, SSL and DATEM. </li></ul>
Only genuine whole meal flour is made by stone milling. Only this process guarantees the flour is 100% whole wheat. These flours contain a high percentage of bran. The germ of the wheat is present and the protease enzymes will speed up the ripening of the dough during fermentation, by acting on gluten and increasing extensibility. These two factors means that whole meal bread normally requires less fermentation time than white bread. The consistency of the dough should not be stiff as hydration continues for a longer period after mixing due to the content of bran. Water absorbsion can vary, so amounts given in recipes must be seen as approximate. +/- WHOLEMEAL & GRAIN BREADS
Rye flour Rye flour contains Glaidin, but not glutinin. 42% Glaidin,, must be mixed with wheat flour. 60% starch. Its gas retaining properties are practically nil. Fermentation time of rye is faster. Water absorbs ion is slightly higher than wheat flour. RYE
CROISSANTS ARE MADE FROM LAMINATED DOUGH: Croissant, danish and puff pastry are all made from laminated (layered) dough. That is encasing butter in dough, and taking it through a series of folds, rolling and turns to produce layers of butter in between sheets of dough. The leavening in laminated doughs is derived mainly from the steam generated by the moisture in the butter during baking. The laminated fat acts as a barrier to trap the water vapor and carbon dioxide formed during baking. As the steam expands in the oven it lifts and separates the individual layers.
While croissant and danish dough do contain a small amount of yeast to aid in leavening, puff pastry relies solely on steam and requires a higher percentage of butter and a more elaborate folding process that creates nearly 800 layers.