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Origin of the Universes Theory-G1.pptx

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Oscillating
Universe
Theory
01
What does oscillate means?
To move back and forth at a regular
speed

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Oscillating
Universe Theory

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INVOLVED SCIENTIST
ALBERT
EINSTEIN
GEORGE GAMOW
RICHARD TOLMAN
ALEXANDER
FRIEDMANN

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Origin of the Universes Theory-G1.pptx

  1. 1. Oscillating Universe Theory 01 What does oscillate means? To move back and forth at a regular speed
  2. 2. Oscillating Universe Theory
  3. 3. INVOLVED SCIENTIST ALBERT EINSTEIN GEORGE GAMOW RICHARD TOLMAN ALEXANDER FRIEDMANN
  4. 4. BIG BANG
  5. 5. BIG CRUNCH
  6. 6. Oscillating Universe Theory
  7. 7. THE BIG BANG THE OSCILLATING UNIVERSE THEORY The Big Bang states that the universe will continue to inflate forever. The Oscillating Universe Theory states that the universe will keep on expanding until growth stops and it will start to get smaller until there is nothing . Then a new big bang will happen. THE DIFFERENCE
  8. 8. • Developed by Paul Steinhardt: -This theory holds that our Universe would be the last one of many originated in the past, after successive explosions (Big Bang) and contractions (Big Crunch). -It is a never ending cycle known as Oscillating Universe.
  9. 9. The Big Crunch • Big bang occurs when the universe expands and eventually reverses, then collapses causing the formation of a singularity • Singularity result to a Big bang and the birth of a new universe.
  10. 10. Criticisms of Oscillating Universe Theory
  11. 11. • In the 1980s, Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose proved that the universe could not rebound after a contraction, as suggested by oscillating universe theory. • Some of these criticisms are related to the weak explanation of why this rebound would occur and the incompatibility with the second law of thermodynamics according to which, the entropy would rise in each oscillation so that it could not be returned to the initial conditions.
  12. 12. Overcoming the Oscillating universe
  13. 13. • To reinforce this idea, scientists rely on the evidence of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), which indicates that the universe is most likely to reach a Big Freeze or Heat Death. • Such evidence has been collected with the same device that helped to calculate the age of the universe: the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). There is therefore a very convincing probability in the scientific setting.
  14. 14. Multiverse Theory 02
  15. 15. Multiverse Theory • The multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of infinite or finite possible universes.
  16. 16. MULTIVER SE • Including the Universe we consistently experience) that together comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy. The various universes within the multiverse are also called "parallel universes" or "alternate universes".
  17. 17. WORD ORIGIN • In these contexts, parallel universes are also called "alternate universes", "quantum universes", "interpenetrating dimensions", "parallel dimensions", "parallel worlds", "alternate realities", "alternate timelines", and "dimensional planes", among other names.
  18. 18. • The American philosopher and psychologist William James coined the term MULTIVERSE in 1895, but in a different context.
  19. 19. STEPHEN HAWKING THE SUPPORTERS Some Philosophers and scientist believe in this theory of the multiverse which include: BRIAN GREENE MAX TEGMARK
  20. 20. NEIL TUROK THOSE WHO DISAGREES Scientists who are not proponents or who anew opposed the idea of the multiverse include: STEVEN WEINBERG
  21. 21. There are at least 4 theories why a multiverse is possible
  22. 22. ETERNAL INFLATION • Eternal inflation is an extension of the Big Bang theory which results in the existence of a Multiverse but there is no hard evidence that it does, or must, exist. It simply states that once inflation happens, it produces not just one universe, but an infinite number of universes.
  23. 23. INFLATION
  24. 24. INFINITE UNIVERSES Scientists can't be sure what the shape of space-time is, but most likely, it's flat and stretches out infinitely. But if space-time goes on forever, then it must start repeating at some point, because there are a finite number of ways particles can be arranged in space and time.
  25. 25. BUBBLE UNIVERSES Another theory comes from "eternal inflation." Based on research from Tufts University cosmologist Alexander Vilenkin ,‘Multiverse’ concept, some parts of space-time expanded faster than others. This created ‘bubbles’ of space-time. Each bubble contained a vacuum simmering with energy (variously called dark energy, vacuum energy, inflation field, or Higgs field).
  26. 26. DAUGHTER UNIVERSES Daughter Universes or Many Worlds Theory, proposed by Hugh Everett, is an idea that is based on the theory of quantum mechanics. Everett proposed that the universe creates a copy of itself for every possible outcome of a situation to occur.
  27. 27. MATHEMATICAL UNIVERSES "A mathematical structure is something that you can describe in a way that's completely independent of human baggage," said theory-proposer Max Tegmark of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as quoted in the 2012 article. "I really believe that there is this universe out there that can exist independently of me that would continue to exist even if there were no humans."
  28. 28. The Multiverse theory hasn't been solved yet. It is a theory about infinite number of other universes which could exist, but are invisible to us. It is one of many theories with which the physicists have faced, but it is also still one of the most interesting ones. So other universes could happen with our big bang or eternal inflation.
  29. 29. REFERENCES https://www.universetoday.com/38195/oscillating-universe- theory/#:~:text=The%20Oscillating%20Universe%20Theory%20is,Bang%20and%20 a%20Big%20Crunch. "Stephen Hawking's Universe Theory." PBS. PBS. Web. 24 Jan. 2016. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/hawking/universes/html/osci.html>. "Oscillating Universe Theory - Universe Today." Universe Today. 2009. Web. 23 Jan. 2016. <http://www.universetoday.com/38195/oscillating-universe-theory/> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dW4IL-8qi0o https://www.slideshare.net/Abhinand14/the-multi-universe-theory https://www.livescience.com/strange-theories-about-the-universe.html https://www.slideshare.net/Joseph_Dimacali/multiverse-theory-powerpoint-final https://phys.org/news/2015-12-big-theory.html

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