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  1. 1. CHAPTER 7: Struggling with Moral Evil: SINEveryday we are challenged by occasionsof sin; Sin is the greatest obstacle to authenticfreedom; it rejects the good to which weare directed by our conscience;It is a refusal of God’s love in the morallaw.Sin is breaking our fundamental lovingrelationship with God, others and evenourselves.
  2. 2. Awareness of our sinfulness can alsobe a moment of grace, for we haverealized our failure to act in love.But the most important thing toremember is not suffering broughtabout by sin and sin itself:It is God’s love, mercy, healing andforgiveness.
  3. 3. But what is really the reality of sin all about?When do we commit sin?At its core is human selfishness orself-centeredness; this is an eventor moment in our life when we failto love and hurt others.
  4. 4. But what is really the reality of sin all about?At the middle of sin is letter “I”We can say that it is also basically PRIDE.As followers of Christ we have to be aware of oursinfulness in order to be able to sense our need forGod’s love and forgiveness, our need for Christ.In sin we forget that we are persons-in-a-community,especially when we hurt or offend them. .The irony of it is this: “by being selfish we deceiveand destroy our very selves.”
  5. 5. Sometimes we downgrade the reality of sin in our lifeand mistook them as petty mistakes. What are theeffects of this notion regarding sin?•it is merely a stage in our personal growth, a part ofself-becoming. It is the loss the sense of sin. (ex.Freedom to do what they want to do . . . anywayeverybody is doing it . . . )•We tend to rationalize our sinful acts.•It is simply a state of the mind or acts of the thoughtsthat create feelings of sin or guilt.•Some people over stress the power of sin to the pointof that they lose God’s power to save them. Evil willtriumph. Tao lang tayo, mahina, walang magagawa.
  6. 6. Jesus and SinTo understand the extent and depth of humansinfulness, we need to experience and behold thedepth and greatness of God’s love to humanity – inparticular at the crucified Savior.The cross is a symbol of shame – of the power andugliness of sin, its power that created so muchhuman suffering.But the crucified Savior transformed the cross into asymbol of God’s great love, of forgiveness ofredemption. Through he cross Christ destroys sinand death! Through the cross, Jesus restores ourfriendship with God - a relationship broken by sin.
  7. 7. Jesus and SinJesus shows us that sin hinders us from trulyloving God and others.The Parable of the Prodigal Son describesclearly God’s love for humanity. Butforgiveness comes about after repentanceand conversion - it is a process oftransformation.Jesus is giving us a new chance!
  8. 8. Sin StoriesSIN STORIES ROOT OF OFFSHOOT EFFECT HOPE SINADAM and Pride Disobedience Separation God madeEVE (between God garments for and Man) Adam and EveCAIN and Pride Jealousy Separation The mark onABEL Murder (between Man Cain’s and his forehead fellowmanNOAH and Pride Wickedness Separation The Rainbowthe FLOOD Evil (between Man & His fellowmen, even nature)TOWER OF Pride Disunity Separation The Story ofBABEL Disharmony (between Nations) Abraham Chaos
  9. 9. What is Original Sin?In the story of Adam and Eve, we learned thatbecause of pride and disobedience, sin started toenter into the world, with its consequences.In baptism, we learned that through the symbol ofwater and through the power of the Holy Spirit, weare cleansed from all sins, given a new life andincorporated into the ChurchThrough these two notions or concepts, we will tryto understand what original is all about.
  10. 10. What is Original Sin?ORIGINAL SIN – can refer to two concepts• The sinful act committed by our first parentsWhen Adam and Eve abused their freedom and disobeyed God and did evil before Him, they REJECTED God (th4e Cause of their existence).By sinning, they lost the true meaning of their TRUE selves as the image and likeness of God. By sinning they acted against their own very nature as human beings.By sinning they lost original holiness and justice.
  11. 11. What is Original Sin?2. The sinful state or condition resulting from their sinful act.Original sin as “kasalanang mana” (that we already have a sin when we were born), does not mean that we carry within ourselves that sinful act of our first parents.Instead what we inherited the sinful condition which was the consequence of the first sinful act, which we experience
  12. 12. What is Original Sin?Sin is not biological that can beinherited.The water used in baptism doesnot physically wash away originalsin. Rather it symbolizes a newlife, through the Holy Spirit. Itempowers us to reject sin.
  13. 13. What is Original Sin?Baptism incorporates us into theChurch, into the family of God. Itcleanses us. It reconciles us withGod.However, we remain in this sinfulworld and continue to experience thelure of sin and its effects. We need tocontinue to resist and fight sin.
  14. 14. Therefore, our experience of original sin includes two points:1. Our Concupiscence - it refers to the disorder of our natural desires that attracts us to sin; it is our weakened state within; though ourconscience obliges us to do good, nonethelessdeep inside us there is an inclination to sin.This is the tension within us: the effects ofgrace and effects of sin. It creates an obstacle to the authentic exercise of our freedom. Thus we have to be strong and never forget to pray for God’sassistance, especially when deciding or makingdecisions.
  15. 15. What is Original Sin?2. The sin of the world – this is what weexperience in this sinful world,temptations, sufferings, pains, death –all because of sin.It refers to the effects of the first sinfulact; it does not only disturb our innerdisposition, it equally affected also alllevels of human relationships (refer tothe sin stories)
  16. 16. Kinds of Sin3.Mortal Sin – destroys our relationship with God and with one another; needs to be confessed5.Venial Sin – weakens our relationship with God and with one another; sincere act of contrition is enough to obtain forgivenessNote: though believed to be relatively small, venial sins are very dangerous; repeatedlycommitted, it can also LEAD us to commit mortalsin.
  17. 17. Classification of Sin3.Sin of Commission: - performance of a forbidden act. - doing what we are not supposed to do2. Sin of Omission: - failure to perform an obligatory act - not doing what we are supposed to do
  18. 18. Other forms of sinsPersonal Sin and Social Sin:Personal sins results when we freely choose togive in to our self centered tendencies; howeversince we are all persons-in-community, allpersonal sins (no matter how secret or private theyseem to be) have social effects;All our evil inclinations can be summed up intoseven. We call them seven capital sins, notbecause they are sins per se but because they arethe easiest sources of our sins.
  19. 19. Other forms of sins 2. Social Sins: These sins refer to negativemoral attitudes and acts or failureto act which run counter to thecommon good. Ex. discrimination, orprejudices
  20. 20. The Seven “Capital” (deadly) Sins1. Pride: an inordinate love of one’s own excellence; an excessive love of self or self esteem The virtue of humility (which disposes us to acknowledge our limitations) is opposed to pride2. Covetousness: the excessive love for, and seeking after, wealth and other worldly possessions Liberality (disposes us to rightly use worldly goods) is opposed to covetousness.3. Lust: the inordinate seeking of the pleasures of the flesh Chastity is the virtue opposed to lust.4. Anger: a strong feeling of displeasure, combined with a desire to inflict punishment on the offender The virtues of meekness and patience are opposed to anger.
  21. 21. The Seven “Capital” (deadly) Sins 5. Gluttony: an excessive desire for or indulgence in food and drink The virtue of temperance is opposed togluttony. 6. Envy: a bitter feeling at the excellence or good fortune of those who are better or happier, with adesire to rob them of what they have. The virtue opposed to envy is charity. 7. Sloth: the neglect of one’s duties, spiritual or temporal, through laziness. (also called tepidity –spiritual sloth) The virtues of diligence and zeal (fervor for salvation) are opposed to sloth.
  22. 22. The Sacrament of Reconciliation Important points to remember:1. We are all sinners and we need God’s mercy and forgiveness.2. We need to confess at least once a year; it is recommended to go to confession once we have committed sins.3. In confession, there is a need for sincerity and humility.4. In confession, the most important thing is not our sins; it the experience of God’s loving mercy and forgiveness – which in return we must do to others5. Inasmuch as we have been forgiven, we too must also forgive others.