Lost in Translation #1/4

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First in a series of presentations focused on interprofessional research related to medical communication. Unsuccessful medical communication of emotional information such as prognosis impacts patient outcomes. This presentation reviews the research to that end.

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  • “Cognitive interventions should target clearly conveying prognostic information (e.g., visual aids, checking behaviors, teach-backs, and multiple conversations). Emotional and psychological interventions should foster trust between clinicians and family, and provide emotional support to family members for coming to terms with the news of a poor prognosis.” (Lee Char et al., 2010.)“…by understanding that a religious objection is at the heart of a conflict, physicians may avoid using more strident attempts at scientific explanations to convince surrogates of the prognosis and instead enlist the help of a chaplain or a representative of the surrogate’s religion to help mediate the conflict. Seeking the input of multiple senior clinicians may help to mitigate conflict with surrogates who have nonreligious concerns about the accuracy of prognostic estimates. A careful explanation of the prognostic significance (or lack thereof) of the physical appearance of the patient may help…” (Zieret al., 2009.)“Hope to enjoy the richness and color of daily experience, hope to control pain, hope to be secure in the physician-patient relationship are the minimum the physician can offer. Hope to affect the quality of life, perhaps to influence the magnitude of side effects, to give treatment options their best chance are the most that might be offered.” (Del Vecchio Good et al., 1990.)
  • Image: http://www.scribd.com/doc/42975012/2/Executive-summary
  • Rosow’s triad at the bottom.PatientFamilyProviderThroughout this series, I will purposely conflate the worldviews of patients, surrogates & loved onesThey are similarTo do otherwise would complicate the picture
  • At the point of greatest patient-physician departure,there is the highest proportion of patients choosing life-extending Rx (61%, 8.5x greater odds). Alternatively stated: the more pessimistic MD estimates of survival, the more predictive a patient’s >90% estimation became of life-extending Rx. “Patients who preferred life-prolonging therapy were 1.6 times more likely to experience unfavorable outcomesreadmission to the hospital,and attempted resuscitation or death while receiving ventilatory assistance.” in a logistic regression model that controlled for age, race, sex, education, income, insurance status, site and stage of disease, functional status, overall quality of life, and physician-prognostic estimates,no statistically significant difference in 6-month survival between those who favored life-extending therapy and those who did not
  • Multiple factors work to determine location of patient deathNote that, as we know, patient’s in general prefer to die at homeThis requires solid prognostic knowledgeLead time for practical planning
  • Obviously most easily applied to the oncologic patient…Remission represents the point of highest optimism.Knowledge of prognosis naturally accrue over time? (Physical changes, Contact with other patients.)“In the cascade effect, one clinical decision inevitably and necessarily leads to a series of other decisions, which in turn leads to others based on the preceding decisions.” (Slomka 1992.)The illness journey becomes parceled into smaller segments with defined, positive end-points.
  • Predictive of higher information needs:YoungerMore educationBelief that time is limited (however those who feel they are near death have lower information requirement)Strong faith“’Knowledge about the expected course of the illness’ was preferred more frequently for cancer patients than for noncancer patients (45.1% vs 35.8%...” (Heyland et al. 2006)However, as we will see later, the number of facts provided by the physician to the patientDoes not correlate with later recall of facts by the patient.
  • Often decisions will not be made alone but rather in concert with the family. It is not imperative that the family agree with the patient’s decision, we must ensure that the patient’s decision will be honored and this is easier done if the family is on board before deterioration. Helen Prigerson (Socialization to Dying): the geriatric patient demonstrates an overall preference for the goals of palliative care; the care that is provided, however, is predicted by the preferences of the family and the provider.
  • Predictive of higher surrogate needs for control.YoungerMaleNon-Catholic ReligiousLower Trust of Provider(s)Lower Perceived Quality of CommunicationStudies indicate that it is extremely rare for providers to explicitly ask patients how they would like to make decisionsImage credit: http://assets.lifehack.org/wp-content/files/2008/03/decision.jpg?ecd364
  • When asked what their preference would be should the patient be incapacitated and a decision be made…It is not this simple, however,…(slide)
  • Amount of control afforded to providers differs based upon how moral the decision seems to patientsDemonstrates that therapeutic paternalism has a limit with regard to what are considered highly moral choices.Also indicates a need for providers to frame options in a proper light (medical vs. moral) limit choices proactively to those that are medically reasonable. “Life-sustaining/supporting” vs. “death-prolonging”I.E. when the long-term family caregivers of patients are asked about…“The term ‘life-sustaining treatment measures’ was often interpreted differently than how it would be defined medically. ANH or administration of antibiotics was not seen as a medical but ‘normal’ or ‘basic’ treatment by the family caregivers in this study.” (Kuehlmeyeret al., 2012.)
  • The inverse of many things we will refer to, below. Highlight hopelessness as a medical construct.
  • Poor communicationCaregivers don’t have the time to make emotional/practical preparations for death, can’t make fully-informed HC decisions and lose the chance to interact supportively with the pt increased grief and risk of mood d/o during bereavement.Also: inadequate pain mgmt, heightened anxiety, depression,reduced quality of life, hopelessness. (McClement & Chochinov 2008.)Image credit: http://us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/yuliufu/yuliufu1204/yuliufu120400006/13182835-revolving-door-in-shanghai-of-china.jpg
  • Overall, there is agreement between physicians and surrogates once past the point of mutual ambivalence. However…32% elected to continue curative therapy with Px estimate <1% and 18% elected to continue to curative therapy with Px estimate 0%.
  • ProviderWith a willingness to initiate conversationsComes off as an expertConveys that she will not abandon the patientAssure them that pain will be controlledAnswers all questionsUses humorSupports dignityCompassionateResponsiveDedicated90% of patients/surrogates want to hear the provider’s opinion(Waldrop et ai., 2012.) (Johnson et al. 2011.)
  • Would you want CPR?Meaning and relevance.
  • Differing opinionsbtwn HC providers and patients…
  • …in the world of palliative chemotherapy.NEJM. “After talking with your providers about chemotherapy, how likely did you think it was that chemotherapy would…cure your cancer.”“…disclosure alone may not lead to sustained understanding among patients.”“In other words, a focus on chemotherapy was the instrument that facilitated prognostic misunderstanding. This phenomenon may help explain our finding that patients with colorectal cancer, a more chemotherapy- responsive disease than lung cancer, were more likely to report that chemotherapy could be curative.”
  • Physician statements on the y and surrogate interpretation on the x. “The fact that surrogates were able to accurately interpret numerical statements expressing a high probability of a good outcome, but not those expressing a high risk for death, suggests that simple misunderstandings of numerical risk information are unlikely to explain the discordance.”Using your scary words will only take you so far.
  • Impacted also by the style of communication between pts and families: “1) avoidance of psychological distress,2) desire for mutual protection,and 3) a belief in positive thinking.” (Waldrop et al., 2012.) and by timing, “84% wanted to discuss treatment goals and options when first diagnosed. 59%wanted to discuss survival, but only a third wanted to discuss dying and palliative care at the diagnosis.” (Parker et al., 2007.)
  • Norton’s “Reconciling Decisions Near the End of Life” theory: “From the providers' perspective, the big picture was a gestalt of the patient's condition constructed from information about the diagnosis,test results,prognosis,general assessment findings (including physical, emotional, and spiritual factors),treatment options,treatment efficacy,treatment burdens,and patient goals. This information, filtered through providers' knowledge,insights,and experience…” (Norton & Bower, 2001.)sense of ambivalence and level of comfort.
  • JAMA: Cross-sectional, stratified, random national survey done March-Aug 1999 of seriously ill pts, recently bereaved family, physicians and other HC providers. Likert scale of 44 attributes.Attributes ranked by more than 70% of patients but not physicians.“When forced to choose between attributes (Table 5), patients ranked pain control higher than mental awareness; however, the mean rank difference was only 1.51. In contrast, the average difference between the same items among physicians was 3.76, suggesting physicians may be more willing than patients to sacrifice lucidity for analgesia.”Image credit: http://www.islandcrisis.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/difference.jpg
  • Cognitive interventionstarget clearly conveying prognostic informationvisual aidschecking behaviorsteach-backs, andmultiple conversations. Emotional and psychological interventions foster rapport (or trust) between clinicians and family, andprovide emotional support to family membersDivergent viewsSeek to speak common languageSpiritual or religious basisphysicians may avoid using more strident attempts at scientific explanations to convince surrogates of the prognosis instead enlist the help of a chaplain or a representative of the surrogate’s religion to help mediate the conflict. Data interpretationSeeking the input of multiple senior clinicians to help patient triangulate. Focus patient on and defineprognostic significance of the physical data(Lee Char et al., 2010.)(Zieret al., 2009.)
  • Lost in Translation #1/4

    1. 1. Kyle P. Edmonds, MD Institute for Palliative Medicine San Diego Hospice
    2. 2. Actions Experiences Outcome Confidence Interval
    3. 3. Kelley et al., 2010.
    4. 4. Weeks et al., 1998.
    5. 5. Gomes & Higginson, 2006.
    6. 6. CRISIS Dx Focus on Curative Therapy Remission Peace of Mind Reoccurrence CRISIS Further Curative Therapy CRISIS No Further Curative Options
    7. 7. High Level of Requested Prognostic Info United States 93% United Kingdom 85% Japan 80% Greece 50% Italy 32% Spain 12% Parker et al., 2007.
    8. 8. Patient Provider Family
    9. 9. • Differs patient-to-patient • Provider assumptions Johnson et al., 2011.
    10. 10. Heyland et al, 2006
    11. 11. Johnson et al., 2011.
    12. 12. Sparse Conflicted Contradictory Avoidant Too rushed Hopeless Brink of Death Waldrop et al., 2012.
    13. 13. • Poor treatment adherence • Unplanned admissions • Low pt/provider congruity • Less decision-making involvement • Depression Harding et al., 2008.
    14. 14. Zier et al., 2009.
    15. 15. Parker et al., 2007.
    16. 16. • Would you want CPR? As you are now? In a less healthy state? Kass-Bartelmes et al, 2003
    17. 17. • Permanent coma “worse than death”: Kass-Bartelmes et al., 2010.
    18. 18. • Dementia “worse than death”: Kass-Bartelmes et al., 2010.
    19. 19. Weeks et al., 2012.
    20. 20. Zier et al., 2012.
    21. 21. • Express optimism • Patient possesses special fortitude • Disbelief in physician’s ability to prognosticate • Prognosis as a “gist” “[…] And we are talking “I don’t give a lot of weight to about my father in this “Ultimately, I don’t think the guess I understand that “I individual number, I tend case, not just any patient. I [doctors] can really know not to trust the eventually [the patient] mayindividual know that my chancecould the percent father of number as I just as the die…I guess muchhave to do better than someone survival unless what the overall feeling that [the hope more.” doctorcomes in dead.”I think is saying…and physician] is conveying.” he will.” Adapted from: Zier et al., 2012.
    22. 22. Data Chosen Role Trust in Provider Cues Patient Framing Ambivalence Coping Style Beliefs History
    23. 23. Experiences Assumptions Education Population Data Provider Professional Norms Chosen Role Patient Data Ambivalence Beliefs
    24. 24. Attributes on which patients and physicians differ: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Be mentally aware Be at peace with God Not a burden to family Be able to help others Pray Have funeral arrangements planned 7. Not be a burden to society 8. Feel one’s life is complete Steinhauser et al., 2000.
    25. 25. Actions Experiences Defining Hope Ambivalence Framing Assumptions Tailoring Outcome Affective Cues Avoidance Lack of Trust Confidence Interval
    26. 26. Kyle P. Edmonds, MD kyle.p.edmonds@gmail.com kylepedmonds.com
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