IG2 Task 1 Work Sheet


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IG2 Task 1 Work Sheet

  1. 1. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 1 Produce a glossary of terms specific to the methods and principles of sound design and production. Using a provided template, you must research and gather definitions specific to provided glossary terms. Any definitions must be referenced with the URL link of the website you have obtained the definition. You must also, where possible, provide specific details of how researched definitions relate to your own production practice. Name: Kyle Fielding RESEARCHED DEFINITION (provide short internet researched definition and URL link) DESCRIBE THE RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCHED TERM TO YOUR OWN PRODUCTION PRACTICE? SOUND DESIGN METHODOLOGY Foley Artistry A Foley is sound effects technique for synchronous effects or live effects, Foley artists makes these effects with anything. http://www.filmsound.org/foley/ I could use this as I could create my own sounds using old and new recordings Sound Libraries A sound library is a collection of digital sound recordings http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_library I could use this so put all my sounds that are reverent to each other in one place to help sort and keep my folders clean SOUND FILE FORMATS Uncompressed There is one major uncompressed audio format, PCM, which is usually stored in a .wav file on Windows or in an .aiff file on Mac OS. The AIFF format is based on the Interchange File Format (IFF). The WAV format is based on the Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF), which is similar to IFF. WAV and AIFF are flexible file formats designed to store more or less any combination of sampling rates or bitrates. This makes them suitable file formats for storing and archiving an original recording. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_file_format#Uncompressed_audio_format I could use this to help me save and open files so that they are not broken up or saved incorrectly. .wav Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension) (rarely, Audio for Windows) is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bit stream on PCs. It is an application of the Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) bitstream format method for storing data in "chunks", and thus is also close to the 8SVXand the AIFF format used on Amiga and Macintosh computers, respectively. It is the main format used on Windows systems for raw and typically uncompressed audio. The usual bit stream encoding is the linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) format. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WAV I use this all the time with reaper as it saves the files that I use and save as this format.
  2. 2. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 2 .aiff Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used Or storing sound data for personal computers and other electronic audio devices. The format was developed by Apple Inc. In 1988 based on Electronic Arts' Interchange File Format (IFF, widely used on Amiga systems) and is most commonly used on Apple Macintosh computer systems. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_Interchange_File_Format .aiff is very useful as many people use this as it is popular with many apple users. .au The Au file format is a simple audio file format introduced by Sun Microsystems. The format was common on NeXT systems and on early Web pages. Originally it was header less, being simply 8-bit µ-law-encoded data at an 8000 Hz sample rate. Hardware from other vendors often used sample rates as high as 8192 Hz, often integer factors of video clock signals. Newer files have a header that consists of six unsigned 32-bit words, an optional information chunk and then the data (in big endian format). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Au_file_format .au is great for high and low sounds that I may need during my work, and it will help to create better sounds. .smp The file extension ".smp" shows up on several different types of files used for very different programs including audio files, images and email http://www.ehow.com/info_12198596_file-smp.html#ixzz31LEX32Fg .smp is used not as much as the others but it is used very well over emails and the internet. Other than that I may not use it but still it is useful Lossy Compression In information technology, "Lossy" compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations (or partial data discarding) for representing the content that has been encoded. It is possible to compress many types of digital data in a way that reduces the size of a computer file needed to store it, or the bandwidth needed to transmit it, with no loss of the full information contained in the original file. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lossy_compression Lossy compression is a good thing to have unless I want files to be distorted or broken .mp3 MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III, more commonly referred to as MP3, is an encoding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a common audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, as well as a de facto standard of digital audio compression for the .mp3 is the most widely used of the sound formats as it is old and updated all the time, many people call old Walkman’s
  3. 3. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 3 transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MP3 players mp3 as this is what was used on them. AUDIO LIMITATIONS Sound Processor Unit (SPU) A sound Processor Unit (also known as a sound card) is an internal computer expansion card that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces that use software to generate sound, as opposed to using hardware inside the PC. Typical uses of sound cards include providing the audio component for multimedia applications such as music composition, editing video or audio, presentation, education and entertainment (games) and video projection. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound_processing_unit A sound processor is needed if I want to hear any sound from the computer at all, headphones or speakers this is well needed for my work. Digital Sound Processor (DSP) Short for digital signal processing, which refers to manipulating analogue information, such as sound or photographs that has been converted into a digital form. DSP also implies the use of a data compression technique. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/D/DSP.html A DSP is used daily by many while hearing songs over the internet or hearing people voices over Skype. Random Access Memory (RAM) Random-access memory (RAM /ræm/) is a form of computer data storage. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read and written in roughly the same amount of time regardless of the order in which data items are accessed. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older drum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement delays. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random-access_memory RAM is needed for almost everything in computers it is the thing that we see, hear and do on a computer. Mono Audio Mono or monophonic describes a system where all the audio signals are mixed together and routed through a single audio channel. Mono systems can have multiple loudspeakers, and even multiple widely separated loudspeakers. The key is that the signal contains no level and arrival time/phase information that would replicate or simulate directional cues. Common types of mono systems include single channel centre clusters; mono split cluster systems, and distributed loudspeaker systems with and without architectural delays. Mono systems can still be full-bandwidth and full-fidelity and are able to reinforce both voice and music effectively. The big advantage to mono is that everyone hears the very same signal, and, in properly designed systems, all listeners would hear the system at essentially the same sound level. This makes well-designed mono systems very well suited for speech reinforcement as they can provide excellent speech Mono audio is well used for all people but many prefer Stereo, mostly I will use Mono as stereo is slightly more complicated and I am more experienced with Mono sound.
  4. 4. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 4 intelligibility. http://www.mcsquared.com/mono-stereo.htm Stereo Audio Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of directionality and audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers (or stereo headphones) in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing. Thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so- called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is often contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is in the form of one channel, often centred in the sound field (analogous to a visual field). Stereo sound is now common in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio and TV, recorded music and the cinema. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereophonic_sound Stereo seen better as mono but as I do prefer it but not as skilled using it very well in my work. Stereo is the next thing to surround. Surround Sound Surround sound is a technique for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with additional audio channels from speakers that surround the listener (surround channels), providing sound from a 360° radius in the horizontal plane (2D) as opposed to "screen channels" (centre, [front] left, and [front] right) originating only from the listener's forward arc. Surround sound is characterized by a listener location or sweet spot where the audio effects work best, and presents a fixed or forward perspective of the sound field to the listener at this location. The technique enhances the perception of sound spatialization by exploiting sound localization; a listener's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance. Typically this is achieved by using multiple discrete audio channels routed to an array of loudspeakers. There are various surround sound based formats and techniques, varying in reproduction and recording methods along with the number and positioning of Surround sound is the new age sound instead of mono and stereo, I do not prefer it, but it can be seen as better and louder, it can be used to create more realistic sounds.
  5. 5. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 5 additional channels. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surround_sound Direct Audio (Pulse Code Modulation – PCM) Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analogue signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, Compact Discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the analogue signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps. Linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) is a specific type of PCM where the quantization levels are linearly uniform. This is in contrast to PCM using, for instance, A-law algorithm or μ-law algorithm where quantization levels vary as a function of amplitude. Though PCM is a more general term, it is often used to describe data encoded as LPCM. PCM streams have two basic properties that determine their fidelity to the original analogue signal: the sampling rate, which is the number of times per second that samples are taken; and the bit depth, which determines the number of possible digital values that each sample can take. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-code_modulation PCM are used all the time but now with research creating a better PCM it gets better all the time. I use this in my work all the time, even without knowing about it. AUDIO RECORDING SYSTEMS Analogue Analog (or analogue) recording (Greek, ana is "according to" and logos "relationship") is a technique used for the recording of analog signals which among many possibilities include audio frequency, analog audio and analog video information for later playback. Analog recording methods store signals as a continual wave in or on the Analogue is used not used as much as it used to be, but it started recording sounds, we do not usually record this way but it can give you a sort of old timey effect depending on what you use.
  6. 6. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 6 media. The wave might be stored as a physical texture on a phonograph record, or a fluctuation in the field strength of a magnetic recording. This is different from digital recording of which among many possibilities include digital audio and digital video, which digital signals are represented as data or discrete numbers. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog_recording Digital Mini Disc The Minidisc (MD) is an obsolete magneto-optical disc-based data storage device for 74 minutes and, later, 80 minutes, of digitized audio or 1 gigabyte of Hi-MD data. The Sony brand audio players were on the market from September 1992 until March 2013. Minidisc was announced by Sony in September 1992 and released that November for sale in Japan and in December for the USA and Europe. The music format was originally based exclusively on ATRAC audio data compression, but the option of linear PCM digital recording was later introduced to attain audio quality comparable to that of a compact disc. Minidiscs were very popular in Japan but made a limited impact elsewhere. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MiniDisc DMD are use mainly in PSP’s and gadgets alike. But they are very popular in Japan but as I do not use them they do not affect my work. Compact Disc (CD) Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format. The format was originally developed to store and play back sound recordings only (CD- DA), but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM). Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video Compact Disc (VCD), Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), Photo CD, Pictured, CD-in, and Enhanced Music CD. Audio CDs and audio CD players have been commercially available since October 1982. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cd CD will not be a big part in my work but CD have been used for a long time, and with blue- ray they keep on getting better. Digital Audio Digital Audio Tape (DAT or R-DAT) is a signal recording and playback Digital Audio is everything we
  7. 7. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 7 Tape (DAT) medium developed by Sony and introduced in 1987. In appearance it is similar to a Compact Cassette, using 4 mm magnetic tape enclosed in a protective shell, but is roughly half the size at 73 mm × 54 mm × 10.5 mm. As the name suggests, the recording is digital rather than analog. DAT has the ability to record at higher, equal or lower sampling rates than a CD (48, 44.1 or 32 kHz sampling rate respectively) at 16 bits quantization. If a digital source is copied then the DAT will produce an exact clone, unlike other digital media such as Digital Compact Cassette or non-Hi-MD Minidisc, both of which use a Lossy data reduction system. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Audio_Tape hear from computers, phones and devices, it is used all the time and therefor I will use it all the time, but the tape is old and seen as bad for recordings, since I do not own a DAT player I cannot use this is my work. MIDI MIDI (/ˈmɪdi/; short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a protocol, digital interface and connectors and allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another. A single MIDI link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midi MIDI is used all the time in reaper, and therefore I will use it all the time to create sounds and effects Software Sequencers A music sequencer (or simply sequencer) is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms, typically MIDI or CV/Gate, and possibly audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_sequencer A software sequncer is not for being understood by novices of sound, but it can be, as I use it sometimes with MIDI’s in my work. Software Plug- ins In computing, a plug-in (or plugin, extension, or add-on / add-on) is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing software application. When an application supports plug-ins, it enables customization. The common examples are the plug-ins used in web browsers to add new features such as search-engines, virus scanners, or the ability to utilize a new file type such as a new video format. Well-known browser plug-ins include the Adobe Flash Player, the QuickTime Player, and the Java plug-in, which can launch a user-activated Java applet on a web page to its execution a local Java virtual machine. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plug-in_(computing) Software plugins are used daily for me in my work on reaper. They help me make tunes and effects. MIDI Keyboard A MIDI keyboard is typically a piano-style user interface keyboard device A MIDI keyboard is what I play
  8. 8. Salford City College Eccles Sixth Form Centre BTEC Extended Diploma in GAMES DESIGN Unit 73: Sound For Computer Games IG2 Task 1 8 Instruments used for sending MIDI signals or commands over a USB or MIDI cable to other devices connected and operating on the same MIDI protocol interface. This could also be a personal computer running software such as a digital audio workstation (DAW) that listens to and sends MIDI information to other MIDI devices connected by cable or running internal to the personal computer system. The basic MIDI keyboard does not produce sound. Instead, MIDI information is sent to an electronic module capable of reproducing an array of digital sounds or samples that resemble traditional analog musical instruments. These samples or waveforms are also referred to as voices or timbres. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIDI_keyboard my MIDI effects though, although digital is does give me the effects I want. AUDIO SAMPLING File Size Constraints - Bit-depth In digital audio, bit depth describes the potential accuracy of a particular piece of hardware or software that processes audio data. In general, the more bits that are available, the more accurate the resulting output from the data being processed http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/bit-depth Bit-depth is used in digital audio and it helps me get the best out of my hardware and software, so I use this without knowing. File Size Constraints - Sample Rate Also called a sample rate. Typically expressed in samples per second, or hertz (Hz), the rate at which samples of an analog signal are taken in order to be converted into digital form. A PCs sound card typically will sample a received analog signal, such as through a microphone, and digitize it for use by the computer. A higher sampling rate provides a better quality reproduction than a lower sampling rate. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/sampling_rate.html Another thing I do not mean to use is a sample rate, as it is one of the hidden things in digital audio, but I do use this lot.