Masonry terminology 1


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Masonry terminology 1

  1. 1. MasonryMasonryTerminologyTerminologyMr. LarsonMr. Larson06-0706-07
  2. 2. Unique termsUnique terms The masonry industry uses manyThe masonry industry uses manyterms that have no meaning or useterms that have no meaning or useto the general public. Terms that areto the general public. Terms that arealmost comical.almost comical. Head jointsHead joints Bed jointsBed joints Hog in the wallHog in the wall Frog in the brickFrog in the brick Butter your earsButter your ears Burning the jointBurning the joint
  3. 3. More common termsMore common terms Admixtures:Admixtures:• Materials added toMaterials added tomortar to impart specialmortar to impart specialproperties to theproperties to themortar.mortar. Anchor:Anchor:• A piece or assemblage,A piece or assemblage,usually metal, used tousually metal, used toattach building parts toattach building parts tomasonry or masonrymasonry or masonrymaterials.materials.
  4. 4. AnchorAnchor
  5. 5. BackupBackup: the part of a masonry wall: the part of a masonry wallbehind the exterior facing.behind the exterior facing.BatBat: A piece of brick.: A piece of brick.Bed jointBed joint: The: Thehorizontal layer ofhorizontal layer ofmortar on which amortar on which amasonry unit ismasonry unit islaid.laid.
  6. 6. BondBond::• Tying various parts of a masonry wall byTying various parts of a masonry wall bylapping units one over another or bylapping units one over another or byconnecting with metal ties.connecting with metal ties.• Patterns formed by exposed faces of units.Patterns formed by exposed faces of units.• Adhesion between mortar or grout andAdhesion between mortar or grout andmasonry units or reinforcementmasonry units or reinforcement..Interlockingmasonry bond
  7. 7. Bond BeamBond Beam: course or courses of a: course or courses of amasonry wall grouted and usuallymasonry wall grouted and usuallyreinforced in the horizontal direction.reinforced in the horizontal direction.Serves as horizontal tie of wall,Serves as horizontal tie of wall,bearing course for structuralbearing course for structuralmembers or as a flexural membermembers or as a flexural memberitself.itself.
  8. 8. BrickBrick: a solid masonry unit of clay or: a solid masonry unit of clay orshale, formed into a rectangularshale, formed into a rectangularprism while plastic and burned orprism while plastic and burned orfired in a kiln.fired in a kiln.
  9. 9. ClayClay: a natural, mineral aggregate: a natural, mineral aggregateconsisting essentially of hydrousconsisting essentially of hydrousaluminum silicate; it is plastic whenaluminum silicate; it is plastic whensufficiently wetted, rigid when driedsufficiently wetted, rigid when driedand vitrified when fired to aand vitrified when fired to asufficiently high temp.sufficiently high temp.ButteringButtering: placing: placingmortar on a masonrymortar on a masonryunit with a trowel.unit with a trowel.
  10. 10. CloserCloser: Last masonry unit laid in a: Last masonry unit laid in acourse. It may be whole or a portioncourse. It may be whole or a portionof a unit.of a unit.CourseCourse: One of the continuous: One of the continuoushorizontal layers of units, bondedhorizontal layers of units, bondedwith mortar in masonry.with mortar in masonry.
  11. 11. DripDrip: a projecting piece of material,: a projecting piece of material,shaped to throw off water andshaped to throw off water andprevent its running down the face ofprevent its running down the face ofwall or other surface.wall or other surface.EarsEars: the ends of a stretcher block: the ends of a stretcher blockwhere the head joint is formed;where the head joint is formed;found only on stretcher block that dofound only on stretcher block that donot have square ends.not have square ends.
  12. 12. Efflorescence:Efflorescence: a powder or staina powder or stainsometimes found on the surface ofsometimes found on the surface ofmasonry, resulting form deposition ofmasonry, resulting form deposition ofwater soluble salts.water soluble salts.FaceFace::• The exposed surface of a wall orThe exposed surface of a wall ormasonry unit.masonry unit.• The surface of a unit designed to beThe surface of a unit designed to beexposed in the finished in the finished masonry.
  13. 13. FlashingFlashing: a thin impervious material: a thin impervious materialplaced in mortar joints and throughplaced in mortar joints and throughair spaces in masonry to preventair spaces in masonry to preventwater penetration and/or providewater penetration and/or providewater drainage.water drainage.FrogFrog: a depression in the bed surface: a depression in the bed surfaceof a brick. Sometimes called aof a brick. Sometimes called a panel.panel.
  14. 14. GroutGrout: Mixture of cementitious: Mixture of cementitiousmaterial and aggregate to whichmaterial and aggregate to whichsufficient water is added to producesufficient water is added to producepouring consistency withoutpouring consistency withoutsegregation of the constituents.segregation of the constituents.High lift Low liftHigh lift Low lift
  15. 15. Head JointHead Joint: The vertical mortar joint: The vertical mortar jointbetween ends of masonry units.between ends of masonry units.Often called cross joint.Often called cross joint.
  16. 16. Hog in the WallHog in the Wall: The trade term: The trade termdescribing a masonry wall that isdescribing a masonry wall that isbuilt to the same height on bothbuilt to the same height on bothends but that has one end of the wallends but that has one end of the wallcontaining more courses than thecontaining more courses than theother. This is usually caused by oneother. This is usually caused by onemason laying bigger mortar jointsmason laying bigger mortar jointsunder the bricks than are laid by theunder the bricks than are laid by theother mason.other mason.
  17. 17. RackingRacking: a method entailing stepping: a method entailing steppingback successive courses of masonry.back successive courses of masonry.SpallSpall: a small fragment removed from: a small fragment removed fromthe face of a masonry unit by a blowthe face of a masonry unit by a blowor by action of the elements.or by action of the elements.
  18. 18. LeadLead: section of a wall built up and: section of a wall built up andracked back on successive courses. Aracked back on successive courses. Aline is attached to leads as a guideline is attached to leads as a guidefor constructing a wall between themfor constructing a wall between them
  19. 19. SoldierSoldier: a stretcher set on end: a stretcher set on endwith face showing on the wallwith face showing on the wallsurface.surface.StretcherStretcher: a masonry unit laid: a masonry unit laidwith its greatest dimensionwith its greatest dimensionhorizontal and its face parallelhorizontal and its face parallelto the wall the wall face.HeaderShinerSoldierStretcherRowlockSailor
  20. 20. Stringing MortarStringing Mortar::procedure ofprocedure ofspreading enoughspreading enoughmortar on a bed tomortar on a bed tolay severallay severalmasonry unitsmasonry unitsTemper: to moistenand mix clay, plasteror mortar to a properconsistency
  21. 21. ToolingTooling: compressing and shaping the: compressing and shaping theface of a mortar joint with a specialface of a mortar joint with a specialtool other than a trowel.tool other than a trowel.Tuck pointingTuck pointing: filling in with fresh: filling in with freshmortar of cutout or defective mortarmortar of cutout or defective mortarjoint in masonry.joint in masonry.
  22. 22. VeneerVeneer: a single wythe of masonry for: a single wythe of masonry forfacing purposes, not structurallyfacing purposes, not structurallybonded.bonded.Wall tieWall tie: a bonder or metal piece: a bonder or metal piecewhich connects wythes of masonry towhich connects wythes of masonry toeach other or in other material.each other or in other material.