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lecture 4.pptx

  2. 2. Objectives ■ Explain the difference between primary and secondary data ■ Identify the various sources of primary/ secondary data ■ Discuss close and open ended questions ■ Explain response rate in research
  3. 3. Sources of Data ■ Primary data: information obtained first hand by the researcher on the variables of interest for the specific purpose of the study. ■ Examples: individuals, focus groups, panels, survey ■ Secondary data: information gathered from sources already existing ■ Examples: company records or archives, government publications, industry analyses offered by the media, web sites, the Internet, and so on.
  4. 4. Primary sources of data ■ interview ■ research questionnaire ■ observation ■ participation ■ focus group ■ video conferencing ■ panels discussion ■ delphi technique
  5. 5. Personal Interviews ■ Unstructured interviews: – the interviewer does not enter the interview setting with a planned sequence of questions to be asked of the respondents. ■ Structured interviews: – Conducted when it is known at the outset what information is needed. – The interviewer has a list of predetermined questions to be asked of the respondents either personally, through the telephone, or via the computer.
  6. 6. Personal interview ■ Advantages – Can clarify doubts about questionnaire – Can pick up non-verbal cues – Relatively high response/cooperation – Special visual aids and scoring devises can be used ■ Disadvantages – High costs and time intensive – Geographical limitations – Response bias / Confidentiality difficult to be assured – Some respondents are unwilling to talk to strangers – Lack of trained interviewers
  7. 7. Telephone interview ■ Advantages – Discomfort of face to face is avoided – Faster / Number of calls per day could be high – Lower cost ■ Disadvantages – Interview length must be limited – Low response rate – No facial expressions
  8. 8. Data Collection Methods: Questionnaires ■ Definition A questionnaire is a pre-formulated, written set of questions to which the respondent records his answers ■ Steps 1. Determine the content of the questionnaire 2. Determine the form of response 3. Determine the wording of the questions 4. Determine the question sequence 5. Write cover letter
  9. 9. Self- administered questionnaires ■ Regardless of design, all questionnaires have a form for the participant to complete and return to the researcher by hand, mail, or electronically. ■ Asks a set of predetermined questions to be answered by hand or on the computer.
  10. 10. Self-administered questionnaire ■ Advantages – Lowest cost option – Expanded geographical coverage – Requires minimal staff – Perceived as more anonymous ■ Disadvantages – Low response rate in some modes – No interviewer intervention possible for clarification – Cannot be too long or complex – Incomplete surveys responds
  11. 11. Mailed Questionnaires ■ An example of questionnaire that is mailed to a sample and typically includes a letter of explanation and a return envelope. ■ Relatively inexpensive and allows the participant to complete it in his own time.
  12. 12. Challenges of Mailed Questionnaires ■ Participants may not return surveys as there is no personal connection between the participant and the research. ■ No opportunity for participants to ask questions. ■ Difficult to conduct follow up?
  13. 13. Electronic Questionnaires ■ Popular due to the potential to reach a large number of participants. ■ May be established with a web based source or email format. ■ Benefits include: – Reduced cost – Ease and speed of administration – Anonymity of participants – Access to larger samples – Ability to target minority populations
  14. 14. Disadvantages of Electronic Questionnaires ■ No meaningful connection between the researcher and the participants. ■ Multiple requests and follow-ups are to be expected.
  15. 15. Designing Survey Items ■ Items for a survey questionnaire should be accurate, unbiased, and easy for respondents to answer. ■ It is critical to tailor items that will result in meaningful data collection. ■ First consideration is determining the most appropriate question structure between open-ended and closed- ended questions.
  16. 16. Open-Ended Questions ■ The respondent is asked a question that provides an opportunity to give an answer. – Ex: What led you to attend KNUST? ■ May result in inadequate responses due to no interviewer available to encourage in-depth disclosure.
  17. 17. Advantages of open-ended question format ■ Unbiased point of view ■ Additional insights ■ Complementary to closed question: for interpretation purpose
  18. 18. Closed-Ended Questions ■ The respondent is asked a question and provided a selection of answers. – Ex: Which of the following factors most contributed to your decision to attend KNUST? ■ Proximity to where I live ■ Reputation of the University ■ Family members who attended the University. ■ The cost of tuition
  19. 19. Advantages of closed-ended question format – Closed questions ■ Helps respondents to make quick decisions ■ Helps researchers to code
  20. 20. Question wording ■ Avoid double-barreled questions ■ Avoid ambiguous questions and words ■ Use of ordinary words ■ Avoid leading or biasing questions
  21. 21. Example of questions ■ Do you personally have an internet-enabled mobile device (e.g., smart phone, tablet)? [ ] Yes [ ] No ■ If your response to the above question is “Yes”, kindly use a 5-point scale ranging from “strongly disagree (=1)” to “strongly agree (=5)” to rate the device below: , Strongly disagree Strongl y agree It is comfortable using the device to browse the internet 1 2 3 4 5 It is friendly running/using mobile apps on the device 1 2 3 4 5 The device has excellent security features 1 2 3 4 5
  22. 22. Question wording ■ Use positive and negative statements – Eugenia delivers high quality banking service Eugenia has poor customer operational support – Avoid double negatives
  23. 23. Question sequence
  24. 24. Cover letter ■ The cover letter is the introductory page of the questionnaire ■ It includes: – Identification of the researcher – Motivation for respondents to fill it in – Confidentiality – Thanking of the respondent
  25. 25. Example of cover letter Dear Valued Survey Participant, Thank you for considering participating in this research which seeks to understand and enhance the use and benefits of mobile banking services in Ghana. In this study, mobile banking refers to a service that enables the customer to perform banking transactions using an internet-enabled mobile device (e.g., smartphone, tablet). The research is undertaken by a team of researchers from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. We want you to tell us your personal experiences and opinions regarding information technologies (e.g., internet) and mobile banking. Please, know that your honest responses are very important to this study's success. Also, you are not under any compulsion to accept to participate in the survey or complete the questionnaire. For confidentiality reasons, kindly do not indicate your name or contact anywhere in this questionnaire. We can assure you that your responses will be anonymized and used only for statistical and academic purposes. Thank you in advance for participating; your co-operation is much appreciated. By continuing, you are consenting to participate.
  26. 26. Response Rates 1 of 2 ■ The total percentage of questionnaires returned called response rate. ■ A high return rate is always the goal. ■ The higher the response rate, the greater chance that the results actually reflect attitudes, opinions, and experiences of the population. ■ Differences between the people who responded and those who choose not to is called non-response bias.
  27. 27. Response Rates 2 of 2 ■ A response rate of 25% is considered low. ■ A response rate of 75% or greater is considered high. ■ Response rates of 50% or higher are often found in published survey research. ■ To maximize response rate verify that individuals selected have knowledge of the area under investigation and are reasonably motivated.
  28. 28. Maximizing Survey Response Rates ■ Be certain that individuals targeted as participants are knowledgeable about the topic. ■ Pre-notify participants they will soon be receiving a survey. ■ Provide a cover letter, either written or electronic with the survey. ■ Decide upon and systematically implement follow up procedures. ■ Use incentives if possible to encourage participation.
  29. 29. Strategies to increase responds rate ■ Personal follow-up (individual or organisation premises) ■ Text Messages ■ WhatsApp messages ■ Telephone calls ■ Soft reminders through email
  30. 30. Limitations of Survey Research ■ Surveys are not useful for determining cause of a phenomena. ■ Results depend on participants truthfully and accurately reporting attitudes, opinions and behaviors. ■ Errors of omission, confusion, or false memory are impossible to avoid as are bias. ■ Survey data cannot substitute for expert judgments and analysis.
  31. 31. Steps for Conducting Survey Research Step 1: Decide what you want to learn. Step 2: Determine your population and sample selection procedures. Step 3: Determine the survey methodology and data collections procedures you will employ. Step 4: Develop a questionnaire or locate one used in previous research. Step 5: Pilot test the questionnaire. Step 6: Administer the questionnaire. Step 7: Analyze the data. Step 8: Write the report.
  32. 32. The secondary data sources ■ Secondary data is the data collected by other parties. The current researcher who uses secondary data has little knowledge about the original respondents, sampling methods, the method of data collection and the accuracy of the measuring instruments employed.
  33. 33. Sources of secondary data ■ The internet source ■ The online data ■ The library search ■ The book sources ■ The periodicals sources ( e.g,.professional journals and public opinion survey) ■ The government reports ■ Magazines ■ Newspapers ■ Abstracts
  34. 34. Advantages/ disadvantage of secondary data ■ Advantages ■ Availability ■ Accessibility ■ Disadvantages ■ Since the secondary data was not meant for the current research it suffers the following limitations. ■ Data already outdated ■ Context differences ■ Different units of measurement ■ Lack of evidence to verify its accuracy