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KWAME OWUSU-ANSAH OWUSU AFRAM
GHANA COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITY
HUMAN RESOURCES
LEARNING OBJECTIVE
After the session, you should be able to:
Understand the purpose of a report
Plan a report
Understand the structure of a report
Collect information for report
Organise your information
Use an appropriate style of writing
Present data effectively
Understand how to lay out information in an 6/4/2021
WHAT IS A REPORT?
6/4/2021
A report is a presentation of
information, usually in written form,
directed to a particular reader or
readers, to achieve a specific purpose.
 The word comes from the Latin word repertoire, meaning “to carry”.
 Report writing, therefore, is carrying information to someone for his /her use.
6/4/2021
To communicate a research process clearly and simply
To give a logical structure to the methods, results, and
findings of research
To inform the reader of the findings and possible
recommendations of the research
To be easy to read and navigate for the reader
To develop clear, concise communication and
documentation skills – useful for employment
6/4/2021
PRESENTATION OF
INFORMATION
1. Informing - so that
reader “knows”
2. Convincing - so
that reader
“believes”
3. Motivating - so that
reader acts in the
desired way
6/4/2021
ACHIEVE A SPECIFIC
PURPOSE.
1. State the purpose of the report
2. Include what the report will recommend
Example 1
The purpose of this report is to investigate the reasons behind the rise in corruption
among public servants. The report will also recommend preventive measures to
curve corruption.
6/4/2021
Reports provide information our key audiences
want or need to know
What does the future look like
Why we do something that way
We are proud that……
Reports support that actions we believe
Management should take
Provide funding to….
Employ more staff to……
Change medical policy so that………
6/4/2021
COMMON PROBLEMS WITH
REPORTS
Doesn’t answer the brief/terms of reference
Badly (poor or confusing) structured
Inappropriate writing style
Poor grammar and punctuation
Incorrect or inadequate referencing
Too much/too little/irrelevant material
Expression not clear
Doesn’t relate results to purpose
Unnecessary use of jargon
6/4/2021
 The difference in the types of report lies mainly in terms of
length, complexity of material, and format.
6/4/2021
1. The Semiformal Report
May usually be 3 to 15 pages long,
and has headings & subheadings.
Report can appear as a memo or can
be presented with a transmittal letter.
OR write the report & attach a cover
letter or memo.
Summary
Description of Incident
Investigation
Conclusions
Recommendations
6/4/2021
6/4/2021
This is usually long- ten or
more pages,
Has many parts or chapters
Often bound
Title Page
Transmittal letter
List of contents
Executive summary
Introduction
Body
Conclusions
Recommendations
Appendices
6/4/2021
Performance reports
Survey reports
Technical reports
Evaluation reports
Investigation reports
6/4/2021
6/4/2021
SEA LEVEL
INVISIBLE
BELOW SEA
LEVEL
ATTITUDE
KNOWLEDGE
&
SKILLS
5 %
95 %
THE ICEBERG
PRESENTATION
RESEARCH
ORGANISING
6/4/2021
Plan
Write
Edit
Present Report
Start
6/4/2021
6/4/2021
Analysis of the Situation Requiring a report:
 What is the subject of the report? (This should be based on the
thesis of your research.)
 For whom is this report intended?
 How do you intend the report to be used?
 What is the deadline date for the report and for tentative
implementation of the report solution?
6/4/2021
 The exact area to be covered (What) – what they want to find out (Purpose)
 To investigate the .…..
 To examine the .…..
 The intended outcome of the report, the objectives (Why)
 …… in order to recommend a more effective system.
 …… in order to decide on the most cost-effective policy.
Any limitations of the report.
This study does not examine .…..
 This report recognises that .…..
 Who requested the report (Who)
 This report was requested by …... 6/4/2021
Getting the right information and data
Where do I get the right information or data for my report
What materials do I need to make my case
What reference material is needed and where do I get
them
Any relevant research information?
How do I present my arguments
6/4/2021
1. Determine your objective
2. Analyze your readers
3. Gather and organize your data
4. Develop an outline plan or structure
5. Write a draft
6. Review the draft
7. Read and report empathetically
8. Type, proofread and distribute
6/4/2021
A report must not make assumptions about the readers’
understanding.
All writers need to
Apply the ‘so what’ test
Explain why something is a good idea
Reports must be written in good English
Using short sentences with correct grammar and
spelling
Reports should have a time reference
6/4/2021
 A good report should have the following topics:
1. Title Page
2. A table of content
3. Executive Summary
4. The introduction
5. Methodology
6. Discussions of findings
7. Conclusions and Recommendations
8. References
9. Appendices
6/4/2021
1. Title Page
 Every report should contain a title, which is clearly stated at the title page.
 Write your title in the cen1ter of the page to include your name, the date and for
whom the report is written.
Report on Jobs & Organisation Structure Review Project.
Emmanuel Ainoo
8th April, 2010
6/4/2021
2. Table of Content
This is optional depending on the length of the report:
- A 2 to 3 page report probably wouldn’t have a table of
content, but a 10 to 20 page report should have a table
of content.
- You need to be clear and consistent throughout.
6/4/2021
3. Executive Summary
It is a brief overview of the report that is designed to
give the reader a quick preview of the report’s contents.
It contains the aims of the report, what was found and
any recommendations.
In a semi-formal report, include a summary/abstract.
6/4/2021
4. Introduction
It is a brief overview of the report that is designed to give
the reader a quick preview of the report’s contents.
Introduction provides a context, rationale and captures
readers attention.
The aims and objectives of the report should be explained
in detail.
Identify any problems or limitations in the scope of the
report, describe the methodology used, the parameters of
the research and include any necessary background
history.
6/4/2021
5. Methodology
 Explain procedures followed.
Relevant information on materials used,
including sources of materials and details of
any necessary preparation.
Refer to any problems encountered and
subsequent changes in procedure.
6/4/2021
6. Discussions of findings
This is the main body of the report and serves 2
purpose:
-To explain the conclusions
-To justify the recommendations
6/4/2021
 The main body of the report is where you discuss your material.
The facts and evidence you have gathered should be analyzed and
discussed with specific reference to the problem.
 Include a summary of the results of the investigation together
with any necessary diagrams, graphs or tables of collated data
that support your results.
 Consider section headings
 Your points should be grouped, arranged in an order that is logical
and easy to follow
 Use bullet points in an easy-to-follow list
6/4/2021
What makes a good report?
Content
The main argument is clear, consistent, and well
supported
All information is relevant to topic
Critical analysis is incorporated into discussions
Argument is direct and explicit
Each idea is fully developed, explained and
supported by literature. 6/4/2021
7. Conclusions and Recommendations
Demonstrate the overall significance of what has been
covered.
 You could remind the reader of the most important
points in the report or highlight what you consider to be
most central issues or findings.
No new materials in the conclusion.
6/4/2021
7. Conclusions and Recommendations
 Conclusion should be arranged so that the major conclusions come first
 Conclusion should identify the major issues relating to the case and should
give interpretation of them.
 Conclusion should be comprehensive and insightful
 Recommendations should be:
 Action-oriented
 Feasible
 Logically related to the discussions and conclusions
 Numbered
 Arranged in order of importance
 brief
6/4/2021
8. References
This is optional for semiformal reports,
however, for formal reports include a reference
section.
(e.g., APA)
Referencing style should be consistent and
correct. 6/4/2021
9. Appendices
Include in the appendices any essential
extra material, such as tables and graphs
(stats.) that support your research but not
directly related to the discussions of your
findings.
Refer to the appendices in the body of your
report (for eg: Appendix A, etc.)
6/4/2021
EXAMPLES OF A REPORT
6/4/2021
Report to the Local Council for new facilities for teenagers in Sawla Community.
6/4/2021
Clear title on the topic and to who
the report is being sent to.
I am writing this report on facilities for the teenagers.
I think that there is not enough facilities and in the
following report I will discuss with you this issue.
I will talk about the good and bad things of new
facilities, where and why we should create new
facilities and what we should include in the facilities.
6/4/2021
Make a short
paragraph
outlining the issue.
Make the purpose
clear
1) It will take the teenagers off the streets
2) It will create a place for teenagers to
socialize and meet friends
3) Teenagers will feel safe in the facilities if
they do not feel safe outside.
4) The new facilities will provide teenagers
a place to relax and feel at ease.
6/4/2021
Explain
each of
these in
detail.
WHAT FACILITIES
Sports facilities
Youth zones
Comic cons
Libraries
ICT centers
6/4/2021
WHERE?
We will build the new facilities in
places that are not used much.
Buildings which are not being used will
be transformed into newly furbished
facilities for teenagers. This will hugely
benefit the appearance of the town in
comparison to the current state.
6/4/2021
WHY?
I wish to do this because it will
attract the teenagers and this will
encourage them to stop hanging on
street corners and in alleyways. This
will benefit because there will be less
teenagers troubling the people who
walk past them.
6/4/2021
CONCLUSION
I hope that creating new
facilities for teenagers would be
good idea and I look forward to
discuss with you the proposal in
more detail.
6/4/2021
Write a concluding
paragraph by
summarizing up all the
points you have made
and suggesting what
should happen next.
Given below is a report submitted by the Student Head of the
Plastic Awareness Campaign to the Principal of his school, Holy
Family.
Mr. Daz, a teacher, along with other students are participating
in the campaign.
6/4/2021
6/4/2021
 Decide on an acceptable format
 Answer the relevant questions
•What is wrong?
•What do you propose to do?
•How will you do it?
•Why you?
•How much will it cost?
•What will the reader/customer get out of it?
 Be persuasive using facts and data
 Address all of the reader’s concerns
6/4/2021
Write your
report
 Benefits
 Qualifications
 Situation
 Method
 Costs
 Objective
6/4/2021
•What is wrong?
•What do you propose to do?
•How will you do it?
•Why you?
•How much will it cost?
•What will the reader or
customer get out of it?
All readers of your report - your present or potential customers
- expect that you will answer these six questions.
Match the headings on the right with the phrases on the left
 Benefits
 Qualifications
 Situation
 Method
 Costs
 Objective
6/4/2021
•What is wrong?
•What do you propose to do?
•How will you do it?
•Why you?
•How much will it cost?
•What will the reader or
customer get out of it?
All readers of external proposals - your present or potential customers - expect that
you will answer these six questions.
Match the headings on the right with the phrases on the left
6/4/2021
4Ps (Traditional approach, used in Academic writing)
Position (Background)
Problem (TOR)
Possibilities (Findings)
Proposal (Conclusion & Recommendations)
6/4/2021
A good report is:
clear
focussed
has a clear pathway of consequences
easy to understand
no ambiguities
easy to write
6/4/2021
Short sentences
Simple words
No unnecessary words
One idea per paragraph
Layout
No old-fashioned English
No clichés or hackneyed phrases
Limited use of words like quite, very
6/4/2021
don’t SHOUT
do use different fonts
do use bold
do give words space to breathe
6/4/2021
 Clear: message is clear, relevant, specific, no jargon, logical flow of information, not too
many points at once, main point up front, easy to understand, no ambiguities.
 Concise: short to the point, no waffling or padding, short words, sentences and
paragraphs this increases impact.
 Complete: identify what is main, supporting, or irrelevant information, include
everything the receiver needs to know, think ahead and anticipate what the receiver
will need or want to know.
 Correct: facts, language, communication fits receivers’ needs and wants.
 Courteous: people do business with people they like, be polite, friendly, especially in
difficult situations.
6/4/2021
BLADE (common business practice high impact
as solution presented first)
Bottom Line (Conclusion)
Action (Recommendations)
Details (TOR & Findings)
Extras (Background)
6/4/2021
MECHANICS OF WRITING A
REPORT
Size And Physical Design:
•Unruled paper of standard size
•If it is in hand written then use black or blue ink.
•Margin:
Right side: half inches.
Left side: One or One and half inches.
•Header and Footer:
One inches from the sides spaced should be left. 6/4/2021
Footnotes:
Footnotes serves two purposes:
a) Page Number:
There should be page number in the report, if
single side than page number page number should
be written in centre or at the right side at the
bottom of the page.
b) For Cross References:
Asterisk(*) sign may be used to prevent confusions
and supplement note related to particular word
should be mentioned below at that page. 6/4/2021
Abbreviations:
The following is the list of Most common abbreviations
frequently used in report writing:
bk., book
art., article
ch., chapter
ed., editor
ex., example
ill., illustration
MS., Manuscripts
pp page
post after
6/4/2021
Use of statistics, charts and graphs:
Statistics are usually presented in the form of tables, charts
bars and line-graphs and pictograms. Such presentation
should be self explanatory and complete it in itself.
6/4/2021
The final draft:
Revising and rewriting the rough draft of the report should be
done with great care before writing the final draft. For the
purpose, the researcher should put to himself questions like:
a) Are the sentences written in the report clear ?
b) Are they grammatically correct ?
c) Do they say what is meant ?
d) Do the various points incorporated in report fit logically ?
On these questions we do final drafting
6/4/2021
6/4/2021
6/4/2021
Questions??
6/4/2021
6/4/2021

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Format for report writing

  • 1. KWAME OWUSU-ANSAH OWUSU AFRAM GHANA COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY HUMAN RESOURCES
  • 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVE After the session, you should be able to: Understand the purpose of a report Plan a report Understand the structure of a report Collect information for report Organise your information Use an appropriate style of writing Present data effectively Understand how to lay out information in an 6/4/2021
  • 3. WHAT IS A REPORT? 6/4/2021
  • 4. A report is a presentation of information, usually in written form, directed to a particular reader or readers, to achieve a specific purpose.  The word comes from the Latin word repertoire, meaning “to carry”.  Report writing, therefore, is carrying information to someone for his /her use. 6/4/2021
  • 5. To communicate a research process clearly and simply To give a logical structure to the methods, results, and findings of research To inform the reader of the findings and possible recommendations of the research To be easy to read and navigate for the reader To develop clear, concise communication and documentation skills – useful for employment 6/4/2021
  • 6. PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION 1. Informing - so that reader “knows” 2. Convincing - so that reader “believes” 3. Motivating - so that reader acts in the desired way 6/4/2021
  • 7. ACHIEVE A SPECIFIC PURPOSE. 1. State the purpose of the report 2. Include what the report will recommend Example 1 The purpose of this report is to investigate the reasons behind the rise in corruption among public servants. The report will also recommend preventive measures to curve corruption. 6/4/2021
  • 8. Reports provide information our key audiences want or need to know What does the future look like Why we do something that way We are proud that…… Reports support that actions we believe Management should take Provide funding to…. Employ more staff to…… Change medical policy so that……… 6/4/2021
  • 9. COMMON PROBLEMS WITH REPORTS Doesn’t answer the brief/terms of reference Badly (poor or confusing) structured Inappropriate writing style Poor grammar and punctuation Incorrect or inadequate referencing Too much/too little/irrelevant material Expression not clear Doesn’t relate results to purpose Unnecessary use of jargon 6/4/2021
  • 10.  The difference in the types of report lies mainly in terms of length, complexity of material, and format. 6/4/2021 1. The Semiformal Report May usually be 3 to 15 pages long, and has headings & subheadings. Report can appear as a memo or can be presented with a transmittal letter. OR write the report & attach a cover letter or memo.
  • 12. 6/4/2021 This is usually long- ten or more pages, Has many parts or chapters Often bound
  • 13. Title Page Transmittal letter List of contents Executive summary Introduction Body Conclusions Recommendations Appendices 6/4/2021
  • 14. Performance reports Survey reports Technical reports Evaluation reports Investigation reports 6/4/2021
  • 16. SEA LEVEL INVISIBLE BELOW SEA LEVEL ATTITUDE KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS 5 % 95 % THE ICEBERG PRESENTATION RESEARCH ORGANISING 6/4/2021
  • 19. Analysis of the Situation Requiring a report:  What is the subject of the report? (This should be based on the thesis of your research.)  For whom is this report intended?  How do you intend the report to be used?  What is the deadline date for the report and for tentative implementation of the report solution? 6/4/2021
  • 20.  The exact area to be covered (What) – what they want to find out (Purpose)  To investigate the .…..  To examine the .…..  The intended outcome of the report, the objectives (Why)  …… in order to recommend a more effective system.  …… in order to decide on the most cost-effective policy. Any limitations of the report. This study does not examine .…..  This report recognises that .…..  Who requested the report (Who)  This report was requested by …... 6/4/2021
  • 21. Getting the right information and data Where do I get the right information or data for my report What materials do I need to make my case What reference material is needed and where do I get them Any relevant research information? How do I present my arguments 6/4/2021
  • 22. 1. Determine your objective 2. Analyze your readers 3. Gather and organize your data 4. Develop an outline plan or structure 5. Write a draft 6. Review the draft 7. Read and report empathetically 8. Type, proofread and distribute 6/4/2021
  • 23. A report must not make assumptions about the readers’ understanding. All writers need to Apply the ‘so what’ test Explain why something is a good idea Reports must be written in good English Using short sentences with correct grammar and spelling Reports should have a time reference 6/4/2021
  • 24.  A good report should have the following topics: 1. Title Page 2. A table of content 3. Executive Summary 4. The introduction 5. Methodology 6. Discussions of findings 7. Conclusions and Recommendations 8. References 9. Appendices 6/4/2021
  • 25. 1. Title Page  Every report should contain a title, which is clearly stated at the title page.  Write your title in the cen1ter of the page to include your name, the date and for whom the report is written. Report on Jobs & Organisation Structure Review Project. Emmanuel Ainoo 8th April, 2010 6/4/2021
  • 26. 2. Table of Content This is optional depending on the length of the report: - A 2 to 3 page report probably wouldn’t have a table of content, but a 10 to 20 page report should have a table of content. - You need to be clear and consistent throughout. 6/4/2021
  • 27. 3. Executive Summary It is a brief overview of the report that is designed to give the reader a quick preview of the report’s contents. It contains the aims of the report, what was found and any recommendations. In a semi-formal report, include a summary/abstract. 6/4/2021
  • 28. 4. Introduction It is a brief overview of the report that is designed to give the reader a quick preview of the report’s contents. Introduction provides a context, rationale and captures readers attention. The aims and objectives of the report should be explained in detail. Identify any problems or limitations in the scope of the report, describe the methodology used, the parameters of the research and include any necessary background history. 6/4/2021
  • 29. 5. Methodology  Explain procedures followed. Relevant information on materials used, including sources of materials and details of any necessary preparation. Refer to any problems encountered and subsequent changes in procedure. 6/4/2021
  • 30. 6. Discussions of findings This is the main body of the report and serves 2 purpose: -To explain the conclusions -To justify the recommendations 6/4/2021
  • 31.  The main body of the report is where you discuss your material. The facts and evidence you have gathered should be analyzed and discussed with specific reference to the problem.  Include a summary of the results of the investigation together with any necessary diagrams, graphs or tables of collated data that support your results.  Consider section headings  Your points should be grouped, arranged in an order that is logical and easy to follow  Use bullet points in an easy-to-follow list 6/4/2021
  • 32. What makes a good report? Content The main argument is clear, consistent, and well supported All information is relevant to topic Critical analysis is incorporated into discussions Argument is direct and explicit Each idea is fully developed, explained and supported by literature. 6/4/2021
  • 33. 7. Conclusions and Recommendations Demonstrate the overall significance of what has been covered.  You could remind the reader of the most important points in the report or highlight what you consider to be most central issues or findings. No new materials in the conclusion. 6/4/2021
  • 34. 7. Conclusions and Recommendations  Conclusion should be arranged so that the major conclusions come first  Conclusion should identify the major issues relating to the case and should give interpretation of them.  Conclusion should be comprehensive and insightful  Recommendations should be:  Action-oriented  Feasible  Logically related to the discussions and conclusions  Numbered  Arranged in order of importance  brief 6/4/2021
  • 35. 8. References This is optional for semiformal reports, however, for formal reports include a reference section. (e.g., APA) Referencing style should be consistent and correct. 6/4/2021
  • 36. 9. Appendices Include in the appendices any essential extra material, such as tables and graphs (stats.) that support your research but not directly related to the discussions of your findings. Refer to the appendices in the body of your report (for eg: Appendix A, etc.) 6/4/2021
  • 37. EXAMPLES OF A REPORT 6/4/2021
  • 38. Report to the Local Council for new facilities for teenagers in Sawla Community. 6/4/2021 Clear title on the topic and to who the report is being sent to.
  • 39. I am writing this report on facilities for the teenagers. I think that there is not enough facilities and in the following report I will discuss with you this issue. I will talk about the good and bad things of new facilities, where and why we should create new facilities and what we should include in the facilities. 6/4/2021 Make a short paragraph outlining the issue. Make the purpose clear
  • 40. 1) It will take the teenagers off the streets 2) It will create a place for teenagers to socialize and meet friends 3) Teenagers will feel safe in the facilities if they do not feel safe outside. 4) The new facilities will provide teenagers a place to relax and feel at ease. 6/4/2021 Explain each of these in detail.
  • 41. WHAT FACILITIES Sports facilities Youth zones Comic cons Libraries ICT centers 6/4/2021
  • 42. WHERE? We will build the new facilities in places that are not used much. Buildings which are not being used will be transformed into newly furbished facilities for teenagers. This will hugely benefit the appearance of the town in comparison to the current state. 6/4/2021
  • 43. WHY? I wish to do this because it will attract the teenagers and this will encourage them to stop hanging on street corners and in alleyways. This will benefit because there will be less teenagers troubling the people who walk past them. 6/4/2021
  • 44. CONCLUSION I hope that creating new facilities for teenagers would be good idea and I look forward to discuss with you the proposal in more detail. 6/4/2021 Write a concluding paragraph by summarizing up all the points you have made and suggesting what should happen next.
  • 45. Given below is a report submitted by the Student Head of the Plastic Awareness Campaign to the Principal of his school, Holy Family. Mr. Daz, a teacher, along with other students are participating in the campaign. 6/4/2021
  • 47.  Decide on an acceptable format  Answer the relevant questions •What is wrong? •What do you propose to do? •How will you do it? •Why you? •How much will it cost? •What will the reader/customer get out of it?  Be persuasive using facts and data  Address all of the reader’s concerns 6/4/2021 Write your report
  • 48.  Benefits  Qualifications  Situation  Method  Costs  Objective 6/4/2021 •What is wrong? •What do you propose to do? •How will you do it? •Why you? •How much will it cost? •What will the reader or customer get out of it? All readers of your report - your present or potential customers - expect that you will answer these six questions. Match the headings on the right with the phrases on the left
  • 49.  Benefits  Qualifications  Situation  Method  Costs  Objective 6/4/2021 •What is wrong? •What do you propose to do? •How will you do it? •Why you? •How much will it cost? •What will the reader or customer get out of it? All readers of external proposals - your present or potential customers - expect that you will answer these six questions. Match the headings on the right with the phrases on the left
  • 51. 4Ps (Traditional approach, used in Academic writing) Position (Background) Problem (TOR) Possibilities (Findings) Proposal (Conclusion & Recommendations) 6/4/2021
  • 52. A good report is: clear focussed has a clear pathway of consequences easy to understand no ambiguities easy to write 6/4/2021
  • 53. Short sentences Simple words No unnecessary words One idea per paragraph Layout No old-fashioned English No clichés or hackneyed phrases Limited use of words like quite, very 6/4/2021
  • 54. don’t SHOUT do use different fonts do use bold do give words space to breathe 6/4/2021
  • 55.  Clear: message is clear, relevant, specific, no jargon, logical flow of information, not too many points at once, main point up front, easy to understand, no ambiguities.  Concise: short to the point, no waffling or padding, short words, sentences and paragraphs this increases impact.  Complete: identify what is main, supporting, or irrelevant information, include everything the receiver needs to know, think ahead and anticipate what the receiver will need or want to know.  Correct: facts, language, communication fits receivers’ needs and wants.  Courteous: people do business with people they like, be polite, friendly, especially in difficult situations. 6/4/2021
  • 56. BLADE (common business practice high impact as solution presented first) Bottom Line (Conclusion) Action (Recommendations) Details (TOR & Findings) Extras (Background) 6/4/2021
  • 57. MECHANICS OF WRITING A REPORT Size And Physical Design: •Unruled paper of standard size •If it is in hand written then use black or blue ink. •Margin: Right side: half inches. Left side: One or One and half inches. •Header and Footer: One inches from the sides spaced should be left. 6/4/2021
  • 58. Footnotes: Footnotes serves two purposes: a) Page Number: There should be page number in the report, if single side than page number page number should be written in centre or at the right side at the bottom of the page. b) For Cross References: Asterisk(*) sign may be used to prevent confusions and supplement note related to particular word should be mentioned below at that page. 6/4/2021
  • 59. Abbreviations: The following is the list of Most common abbreviations frequently used in report writing: bk., book art., article ch., chapter ed., editor ex., example ill., illustration MS., Manuscripts pp page post after 6/4/2021
  • 60. Use of statistics, charts and graphs: Statistics are usually presented in the form of tables, charts bars and line-graphs and pictograms. Such presentation should be self explanatory and complete it in itself. 6/4/2021
  • 61. The final draft: Revising and rewriting the rough draft of the report should be done with great care before writing the final draft. For the purpose, the researcher should put to himself questions like: a) Are the sentences written in the report clear ? b) Are they grammatically correct ? c) Do they say what is meant ? d) Do the various points incorporated in report fit logically ? On these questions we do final drafting 6/4/2021