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 Advertising in Tourism / Leisure Industry:- Advertising has
emerged as a key marketing tool in the tourism & leisure industry,
where potential customers have to base their buying decisions
upon material images of product offerings, rather than being
able to physically sample alternatives.
 Its role is aimed at influencing the attitudes & behaviour of
audiences in three main ways:
i. To confirm & Reinforce;
ii. To create new patterns of behaviour & attitude; or,
iii. To change attitudes & behaviours.
 That is why Tourism & Leisure operators use images to portray
their products in brochures, posters & media advertising, that
will force it into the potential tourist’s evoke set, or destination
short list, leading to a purchase decision.
 When it is effective, communications (and advertising in particular)
moves customers along a continuum from awareness of a product to
reinforcing post- purchase satisfaction.
• Stage – 1 – Awareness:- The target market needs to be aware of the
product – particularly when it is a new product or new market.
• Stage – 2 – comprehension:- Once they are aware of the product,
potential customers need to understand its features and benefits.
 This can be challenging where product parity exists (for instance,
between destinations) and substitution threatens.
• Stage – 3 – Acceptance:- Potential customers must decide that the
product can meet their needs – Advertising plays a vital role here.
• Stage – 4 – Preference:- Advertising messages must offer a
compelling reason for potential customers to think that the product
meets their needs (ideally in a unique way that reduces brand
substitution).
• Stage – 5 – Purchase:- Advertising motivates customers to action or
to buy the product. (often this objective is linked to sales
promotions).
• Stage – 6 – Reinforcement:- One of advertising’s key role is to
confirm customers’ choice and create a sense of satisfaction about
their actions or purchase.
 The above six stages are known as ‘The Hierarchy of Effects
Model’, since it reflects the audience’s stages of reaction to
advertising.
 A more useful way of understanding how advertising works, is
to look at the four key models employed in planning Advertising in
the present era:
i. The Sales Response Model.
ii. Persuasion Model.
iii. Involvement Model.
iv. Saliency Model.
i. The Sales Response Model:- It is a simple price–based strategy
which encourages the purchase of a product purely on the basis
of its price.
ii. Persuasion Model:- It is widely used and demonstrably successful
advertising technique.
 This takes the advertisement at its starting point and believes
that, if it is effectively compiled, its impact and message
should persuade the audience that the product presented is the
most desirable among the available ones.
 Persuasion is extremely important where the ‘Brand advantage’
is sought through emotional rather than rational appeals.
 Brand advantage can also be secured through a series of
advertisements where each highlight a specific benefit of a
product, culminating in an overall impression of a superior
brand.
iii. Involvement Model:- This is a technique which aims to interest
and engage the consumer.
 Once their interest is aroused, a self–referent relationship is
created with the audience – they imagine themselves within the
advertisement’s frame-work and feel good about the brand.
 The next progression is a commitment to the brand, resulting
in increased sales.
iv. Saliency Model:- This model stands at the leading edge of
developments in advertising.
 It is more than a simple ‘Brand’ awareness strategy as it attempts
to move the target audience emotionally closer to the brand
product.
 Saliency is hence connected with the product’s presence in the
audience’s consciousness, generating a feeling of ‘that product is
for me’.
 The concept of Saliency is at the heart of current thinking on
advertising impact.
 In the 1980s, advertising was regarded as a tool which contributed
significantly to direct sales.
 However, in the 1990s, this assumption become disputed and it was
argued that this ‘rush out and buy’ impact was usually only
applicable to new products or variations in products with an
obvious competitive advantage.
 Among today’s advertising practitioners, it is argued that its value
lies in improving the consumer’s attitude towards brands, thus
leading to long–term sales.
 In this way, the real effect of advertising is not at the point of
sale but at the point of consumption.
 The Role of Creativity & Planning for Success:- Creativity and
planning plays a major role in the success of an advertising
because 90% of the advertising are bad, goes unnoticed and fails.
 No matter how often an ad is run, if it is uninspired, dull,
boring and mediocre, the audience will ignore it, even worse,
frequent exposure to an irritating ad actually annoy the
consumers.
 Advertising has become a critical part of marketing – the fact is,
the future of many brands to a large extent currently depends
on the quality of a series of 30 second television advertisement.
 Hence, creativity today has become the entry ticket to the
contemporary advertising market–place, which is shaped by
technological innovation and clutter.
 New technology has opened a whole new Vista for creativity
including: Computerized design tools, morphing & digital
special effects, digital video editing, holograms, virtual reality,
multimedia presentations, public relations planning software
and interactive media.
 There are a number of steps, clients and agencies can take to break
through the clutter:
1. Producing a tightly defined, research–based advertising brief.
2. Precisely targeting the audience.
3. Harnessing creative energy released by revolution, anarchy
and the shattering of convention.
4. Being interesting, surprising & relevant.
5. Inventing indelible imagery – such as Coca-Cola, Sony etc.
6. Perfecting timing.
7. Having a consistent approach – as exemplified by Volkswagen.
8. Appearing effortless – good ads provide the audience with
intense experiences, delivered with the maximum of cool.
 The best creativity is built on solid foundations. To create a Synergy
between creativity & strategy, Top–Class advertising is informed by
an effective creative brief that is based on sound market research and
accurate goals.
 And, it is up to the client to provide explicit briefs because an
advertising agency cannot be expected to deliver good work if it is
not clear about what the client wants their advertising to achieve.
 To produce a good brief, organizations require up-to-date market
research. They need to think about:
1. What is happening in the market–place and what is likely to
happen in the near future?
2. Who is the campaign aimed at?
3. Does enough information exist to profile the target market or
is more required?
4. What needs to be done to get this information?
 In addition to effective research, a brief needs clearly expressed goals
that answer:
1. What should the advertising achieve?
2. How does an advertiser wants to influence consumers?
3. Does the advertiser wants to raise their awareness?
4. Does the advertiser want to change their perception?
5. Who is the brand competing against?
6. How does the brand stack up against them?
7. How can it be truly differentiated from the rest?
 The answers to such questions must be incorporated into an
advertising brief, which lays out the current position together
with the desired position.
 Clear briefs will help to deliver innovative ideas that will lead
to effective advertising, moving the brand forward.
 More than this, the brief should also enthuse the creative teams,
since the more realistic the expectations, the easier it will be to
evaluate the campaign’s success.
 Some creative briefs are developed in client–agency partnerships,
other are written solely by the client, but there must be sufficient
time to ensure that the brief is properly developed & addressed
before any advertising planning.
 Once the agency is confident that its advertising ideas meet the
client’s needs, it is in a position to make its presentation to the
client.
 At this stage, both the client & the agency need to be flexible
enough to make & accept improvements to the advertising
concept.
 Once the agreement has been achieved, the idea can be developed
into a number of advertising executions & then placed in the most
effective media slots – A process framed by an agreed budget & time
scale.
 Targeting the Advertising Message:- If the advertising is creative,
it is a plus, but the campaign’s success by no means is assured, since,
the world’s most creative ad will never sell if it is not aimed at the
appropriate consumer segments.
 Hence, one of the major challenge for advertisers is, selecting the
right media to reach their intended audience buying into these
media as cost-effectively as possible.
Ex:- Camino Real, a major Mexican hotel chain, launched a series
of highly creative & successful award- winning television ads in the
late 1990s – It goes that step further for its visitors.
This relatively simple idea was communicated in humorous &
entertaining executions that featured animals as the central
characters.
Animals selling hotels – sound strange, yet it worked superbly.
In ‘Mosquito’, a mosquito buzzes angrily in a guest room. It
lands next to the hotel guest’s pillow but instead of biting him
serenades him with a lullaby that sends him to sleep.
The message – ‘We go further for our guest’s comfort’.
In ‘Lobster’, the commercial opens with a lobster that is making
its way along a kitchen table. It climbs a ladder & stands poised on
the edge of a huge cooking pot. With a flourish & a wave to the
camera, it jumps into the pot – sacrificing itself for the guest’s
dinner.
Again, the message is – ‘We go further for our guests’.
 The eight new rules of the ad game are:
1. Emotional selling propositions are paramount.
2. Irrational appeals are legitimate & predominate.
3. Humor can & does work for many brand personalities.
4. Slogans are good but only if they are memorable.
5. You don’t always need to feature your logo.
6. You don’t always have to feature your product.
7. Ads in a campaign should be linked but don’t need to be
identical.
8. Creative ads do sell.
 While the rules might change, one fundamental premise remains
the same – each ad must be built around ideas. Also one should
remember that the ads do not have to be complex & ground-
breaking to be successful & effective.
 Sometimes simple ideas with basic appeal also can work
beautifully.
Ex:- Marriott U.K’s leisure breaks campaign, which won the Hotel
Marketing Association’s Best Leisure Marketing Campaign, (Run in
the national press & on the London Underground) the ads showed
30-odd couples enjoying themselves with the strap-line ‘Take a
Leisure Break’, followed by ‘When you’re comfortable you can
do anything’. – A simple campaign which increased sales across all
the group’s hotels by 20%.
 Media Planning:- Four steps to effective media planning are:
i. Where? :- Know your brand not just in terms of facts & figures but
its brand essence. i.e. How does it speak to consumers? Is it a Loud
or Soft brand – this will influence media choices.
ii. When? :- Know your brand’s consumers & their lifestyles. When is
the best time to reach consumers with your brand message – this
could be relatively straight forward in today’s era when large
amounts of consumer data are stored by the advertisers.
iii. How? :- In what ways can you speak to your consumers? Know when
to use the different media.
iv. What? :- Treat the media environment imaginatively but remember
that accountability in media planning & spending is vital.
 The main media vehicles are:
i. Newspapers & Magazines:- Newspapers and Magazine form the
backbone of tourism & leisure advertising.
 The attraction of newspapers & magazines are that they offer
advertisers the flexibility of targeting consumers in an area as small
as a group of postcodes or as large as an entire country.
 As a result, their advertiser client bases range from small bed &
breakfast operators to airlines, tourist boards & tour operators.
 Many of these advertisers tend to focus either on targeting the
affluent leisure traveler or the business traveler – the latter being a
prime money- spinner for the tourism industry.
 Since so many specialist publications are now available, advertisers
can reach any group provided they understand their reading habits.
 The attraction of magazines is that they can frequently offer
advertisers an up-market audience without wastage, where as the
newspapers offer an easy way to communicate message about a
place, including news about festivals or events.
 Business travelers generate significant revenues for travel & tourism
companies, particularly hotels & airlines.
Ex:- The 15% of British Airways’ passengers who travel on
business account, contribute for more than a third of the airline’s
total revenue.
During prime business hours, the business traveler spends on
and average 82 minuts and there are a wide range of media targeting
every leg of this consumer’s journey – the ride to the airport, the
check-in area, the departure lounge, the duty- free zone and the
flight itself are all covered by some medium or other.
While television does not really reach this busy, discriminating
consumer, there are a plethora of magazines for these executive
travelers.
 However, one of the major drawbacks with print ads is that there is
also a tremendous amount of clutter in this medium & a question
mark hangs over its effectiveness given the amount of information
overload experienced by the average consumer.
 Moreover, for all magazines & newspapers, there is some time- lag
between when the issue is bought & when it is read, although it
varies significantly between the types of magazines.
ii. Television, Cinema & Radio Advertising:- Though television is
now the dominant advertising medium, it is the second most
important medium for leisure and travel related advertisers, with
about a third of the travel ad spend, followed by Cinema & Radio,
which account for much smaller proportions of spend.
 The simple reason of television becoming the second most powerful
& successful ad medium is that it can reach a bigger audience more
quickly than any other.
 Also, as an audiovisual medium, it offers advertisers opportunities
for higher levels of creativity, and also enables a commercial to be
run as frequently as is required and also offers national &
international coverage across all income levels.
 Cinema & Radio, whilst only accounting for about 12% of advertising
are useful media vehicles for tourism & leisure advertisers seeking to
target specific niches.
 Today, Radio is a vibrant medium used by local, regional & national
advertisers specially after the FM radio stations came into existence.
 Cinema advertising has also become very popular, particularly with
leisure advertisers, as it offers marketers a captive audience as
television viewers can switch channels or head for activity during a
break; junk mails can be put unopened in the bin, but at the movies
the audience is tied – once they have a ticket, they are not likely to
leave.
 Not only is this audience captive, but it is also very attractive –
usually film goers are young & they have disposable income.
iii. Brochures & Other Print Literatures:- The most popular medium
used by travel & tourism advertisers is the travel brochures.
 It is said that, ‘The travel world is awash with brochures’, and for
many organizations the design, production & distribution of their
annual tourism brochure is the single most important and most
expensive item in the marketing budget.
 The advantages of brochures are their relatively low cost, flexibility &
portability. The brochure is arguably the key image-creating tool in
tourism and is described as, ‘Probably the most important single
item in the planning of tourism marketing’.
 Brochures are produced for both promotional & information
purposes and tend to involve the use of colour photographs and
prose laden with adjectives to sell attractive images of destinations,
resorts & hotels to potential customers.
 It is the tour operators & destinations, who rely most heavily on the
brochures, which is often a thick, glossy, full-colour catalogue,
designed to persuade people to purchase the product.
 The brochure is seen to be significant in the holiday destination
selection process and it is argued that potential consumers compare
brochures and on the basis of that comparison, make decision on
their preferred holiday destination.
 But, the fact is that people find it extremely difficult to explain their
decisions & the brochures seem to be used to confirm, rather than to
identify holiday choices.
 On top of this, the position of the brochure as a major travel medium
is threatened by new technology, such as CDs, Videos and the
Internet.
 As a result of this, the medium-term future of the brochures seem
unclear.
iv. Outdoor Media & Billboards:- Thought Billboards represent a
small proportion of leisure and tourism ad spend, it is still a popular
medium.
 It is a specially fixed medium and it can advertise nearby attractions
to road travelers.
 Airlines & Railways use them to advertise at airports, railway stations
& destinations and tour operators use them extensively in their ad
campaigns.
 Despite the fact that billboards are perhaps not as creative as they
could be, industry commentators suggest that this outdoor medium
has huge potential in an era of media fragmentation precisely
because it is the one medium guaranteed to reach a mass audience.
 Devid Berstein has developed a set of rules designed to generate
effective poster advertising:
1. Keep it simple.
2. Use a single dominant image.
3. Be bold.
4. Do not overload on text – use few words, with clean, legible &
large type.
5. Make use of eye- catching & contrasting colours.
6. Most of all, ensure that the poster design belongs to and
develops the brand.
 So far, the review of advertising media has focused on the traditional
sectors like newspapers, magazines, television, cinema, radio,
brochures & print literatures, and outdoor advertising, which
dominate most of today’s media schedules.
 But, this might not always be the case – particularly as newspaper
advertising revenue is increasingly threatened by the internet.
 Hence, one should always examine some of the newer trends in the
media to explore their potential for the leisure & tourism industries.
These include sponsorship & event marketing and public relations
related advertising.

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Tourism advertising

  • 1.  Advertising in Tourism / Leisure Industry:- Advertising has emerged as a key marketing tool in the tourism & leisure industry, where potential customers have to base their buying decisions upon material images of product offerings, rather than being able to physically sample alternatives.  Its role is aimed at influencing the attitudes & behaviour of audiences in three main ways: i. To confirm & Reinforce; ii. To create new patterns of behaviour & attitude; or, iii. To change attitudes & behaviours.  That is why Tourism & Leisure operators use images to portray their products in brochures, posters & media advertising, that will force it into the potential tourist’s evoke set, or destination short list, leading to a purchase decision.  When it is effective, communications (and advertising in particular) moves customers along a continuum from awareness of a product to reinforcing post- purchase satisfaction.
  • 2. • Stage – 1 – Awareness:- The target market needs to be aware of the product – particularly when it is a new product or new market. • Stage – 2 – comprehension:- Once they are aware of the product, potential customers need to understand its features and benefits.  This can be challenging where product parity exists (for instance, between destinations) and substitution threatens. • Stage – 3 – Acceptance:- Potential customers must decide that the product can meet their needs – Advertising plays a vital role here. • Stage – 4 – Preference:- Advertising messages must offer a compelling reason for potential customers to think that the product meets their needs (ideally in a unique way that reduces brand substitution). • Stage – 5 – Purchase:- Advertising motivates customers to action or to buy the product. (often this objective is linked to sales promotions).
  • 3. • Stage – 6 – Reinforcement:- One of advertising’s key role is to confirm customers’ choice and create a sense of satisfaction about their actions or purchase.  The above six stages are known as ‘The Hierarchy of Effects Model’, since it reflects the audience’s stages of reaction to advertising.  A more useful way of understanding how advertising works, is to look at the four key models employed in planning Advertising in the present era: i. The Sales Response Model. ii. Persuasion Model. iii. Involvement Model. iv. Saliency Model. i. The Sales Response Model:- It is a simple price–based strategy which encourages the purchase of a product purely on the basis of its price.
  • 4. ii. Persuasion Model:- It is widely used and demonstrably successful advertising technique.  This takes the advertisement at its starting point and believes that, if it is effectively compiled, its impact and message should persuade the audience that the product presented is the most desirable among the available ones.  Persuasion is extremely important where the ‘Brand advantage’ is sought through emotional rather than rational appeals.  Brand advantage can also be secured through a series of advertisements where each highlight a specific benefit of a product, culminating in an overall impression of a superior brand. iii. Involvement Model:- This is a technique which aims to interest and engage the consumer.  Once their interest is aroused, a self–referent relationship is created with the audience – they imagine themselves within the advertisement’s frame-work and feel good about the brand.
  • 5.  The next progression is a commitment to the brand, resulting in increased sales. iv. Saliency Model:- This model stands at the leading edge of developments in advertising.  It is more than a simple ‘Brand’ awareness strategy as it attempts to move the target audience emotionally closer to the brand product.  Saliency is hence connected with the product’s presence in the audience’s consciousness, generating a feeling of ‘that product is for me’.  The concept of Saliency is at the heart of current thinking on advertising impact.  In the 1980s, advertising was regarded as a tool which contributed significantly to direct sales.
  • 6.  However, in the 1990s, this assumption become disputed and it was argued that this ‘rush out and buy’ impact was usually only applicable to new products or variations in products with an obvious competitive advantage.  Among today’s advertising practitioners, it is argued that its value lies in improving the consumer’s attitude towards brands, thus leading to long–term sales.  In this way, the real effect of advertising is not at the point of sale but at the point of consumption.  The Role of Creativity & Planning for Success:- Creativity and planning plays a major role in the success of an advertising because 90% of the advertising are bad, goes unnoticed and fails.  No matter how often an ad is run, if it is uninspired, dull, boring and mediocre, the audience will ignore it, even worse, frequent exposure to an irritating ad actually annoy the consumers.
  • 7.  Advertising has become a critical part of marketing – the fact is, the future of many brands to a large extent currently depends on the quality of a series of 30 second television advertisement.  Hence, creativity today has become the entry ticket to the contemporary advertising market–place, which is shaped by technological innovation and clutter.  New technology has opened a whole new Vista for creativity including: Computerized design tools, morphing & digital special effects, digital video editing, holograms, virtual reality, multimedia presentations, public relations planning software and interactive media.  There are a number of steps, clients and agencies can take to break through the clutter: 1. Producing a tightly defined, research–based advertising brief. 2. Precisely targeting the audience.
  • 8. 3. Harnessing creative energy released by revolution, anarchy and the shattering of convention. 4. Being interesting, surprising & relevant. 5. Inventing indelible imagery – such as Coca-Cola, Sony etc. 6. Perfecting timing. 7. Having a consistent approach – as exemplified by Volkswagen. 8. Appearing effortless – good ads provide the audience with intense experiences, delivered with the maximum of cool.  The best creativity is built on solid foundations. To create a Synergy between creativity & strategy, Top–Class advertising is informed by an effective creative brief that is based on sound market research and accurate goals.  And, it is up to the client to provide explicit briefs because an advertising agency cannot be expected to deliver good work if it is not clear about what the client wants their advertising to achieve.
  • 9.  To produce a good brief, organizations require up-to-date market research. They need to think about: 1. What is happening in the market–place and what is likely to happen in the near future? 2. Who is the campaign aimed at? 3. Does enough information exist to profile the target market or is more required? 4. What needs to be done to get this information?  In addition to effective research, a brief needs clearly expressed goals that answer: 1. What should the advertising achieve? 2. How does an advertiser wants to influence consumers? 3. Does the advertiser wants to raise their awareness?
  • 10. 4. Does the advertiser want to change their perception? 5. Who is the brand competing against? 6. How does the brand stack up against them? 7. How can it be truly differentiated from the rest?  The answers to such questions must be incorporated into an advertising brief, which lays out the current position together with the desired position.  Clear briefs will help to deliver innovative ideas that will lead to effective advertising, moving the brand forward.  More than this, the brief should also enthuse the creative teams, since the more realistic the expectations, the easier it will be to evaluate the campaign’s success.  Some creative briefs are developed in client–agency partnerships, other are written solely by the client, but there must be sufficient time to ensure that the brief is properly developed & addressed before any advertising planning.
  • 11.  Once the agency is confident that its advertising ideas meet the client’s needs, it is in a position to make its presentation to the client.  At this stage, both the client & the agency need to be flexible enough to make & accept improvements to the advertising concept.  Once the agreement has been achieved, the idea can be developed into a number of advertising executions & then placed in the most effective media slots – A process framed by an agreed budget & time scale.  Targeting the Advertising Message:- If the advertising is creative, it is a plus, but the campaign’s success by no means is assured, since, the world’s most creative ad will never sell if it is not aimed at the appropriate consumer segments.  Hence, one of the major challenge for advertisers is, selecting the right media to reach their intended audience buying into these media as cost-effectively as possible.
  • 12. Ex:- Camino Real, a major Mexican hotel chain, launched a series of highly creative & successful award- winning television ads in the late 1990s – It goes that step further for its visitors. This relatively simple idea was communicated in humorous & entertaining executions that featured animals as the central characters. Animals selling hotels – sound strange, yet it worked superbly. In ‘Mosquito’, a mosquito buzzes angrily in a guest room. It lands next to the hotel guest’s pillow but instead of biting him serenades him with a lullaby that sends him to sleep. The message – ‘We go further for our guest’s comfort’. In ‘Lobster’, the commercial opens with a lobster that is making its way along a kitchen table. It climbs a ladder & stands poised on the edge of a huge cooking pot. With a flourish & a wave to the camera, it jumps into the pot – sacrificing itself for the guest’s dinner. Again, the message is – ‘We go further for our guests’.
  • 13.  The eight new rules of the ad game are: 1. Emotional selling propositions are paramount. 2. Irrational appeals are legitimate & predominate. 3. Humor can & does work for many brand personalities. 4. Slogans are good but only if they are memorable. 5. You don’t always need to feature your logo. 6. You don’t always have to feature your product. 7. Ads in a campaign should be linked but don’t need to be identical. 8. Creative ads do sell.  While the rules might change, one fundamental premise remains the same – each ad must be built around ideas. Also one should remember that the ads do not have to be complex & ground- breaking to be successful & effective.
  • 14.  Sometimes simple ideas with basic appeal also can work beautifully. Ex:- Marriott U.K’s leisure breaks campaign, which won the Hotel Marketing Association’s Best Leisure Marketing Campaign, (Run in the national press & on the London Underground) the ads showed 30-odd couples enjoying themselves with the strap-line ‘Take a Leisure Break’, followed by ‘When you’re comfortable you can do anything’. – A simple campaign which increased sales across all the group’s hotels by 20%.  Media Planning:- Four steps to effective media planning are: i. Where? :- Know your brand not just in terms of facts & figures but its brand essence. i.e. How does it speak to consumers? Is it a Loud or Soft brand – this will influence media choices. ii. When? :- Know your brand’s consumers & their lifestyles. When is the best time to reach consumers with your brand message – this could be relatively straight forward in today’s era when large amounts of consumer data are stored by the advertisers.
  • 15. iii. How? :- In what ways can you speak to your consumers? Know when to use the different media. iv. What? :- Treat the media environment imaginatively but remember that accountability in media planning & spending is vital.  The main media vehicles are: i. Newspapers & Magazines:- Newspapers and Magazine form the backbone of tourism & leisure advertising.  The attraction of newspapers & magazines are that they offer advertisers the flexibility of targeting consumers in an area as small as a group of postcodes or as large as an entire country.  As a result, their advertiser client bases range from small bed & breakfast operators to airlines, tourist boards & tour operators.  Many of these advertisers tend to focus either on targeting the affluent leisure traveler or the business traveler – the latter being a prime money- spinner for the tourism industry.
  • 16.  Since so many specialist publications are now available, advertisers can reach any group provided they understand their reading habits.  The attraction of magazines is that they can frequently offer advertisers an up-market audience without wastage, where as the newspapers offer an easy way to communicate message about a place, including news about festivals or events.  Business travelers generate significant revenues for travel & tourism companies, particularly hotels & airlines. Ex:- The 15% of British Airways’ passengers who travel on business account, contribute for more than a third of the airline’s total revenue. During prime business hours, the business traveler spends on and average 82 minuts and there are a wide range of media targeting every leg of this consumer’s journey – the ride to the airport, the check-in area, the departure lounge, the duty- free zone and the flight itself are all covered by some medium or other. While television does not really reach this busy, discriminating consumer, there are a plethora of magazines for these executive travelers.
  • 17.  However, one of the major drawbacks with print ads is that there is also a tremendous amount of clutter in this medium & a question mark hangs over its effectiveness given the amount of information overload experienced by the average consumer.  Moreover, for all magazines & newspapers, there is some time- lag between when the issue is bought & when it is read, although it varies significantly between the types of magazines. ii. Television, Cinema & Radio Advertising:- Though television is now the dominant advertising medium, it is the second most important medium for leisure and travel related advertisers, with about a third of the travel ad spend, followed by Cinema & Radio, which account for much smaller proportions of spend.  The simple reason of television becoming the second most powerful & successful ad medium is that it can reach a bigger audience more quickly than any other.
  • 18.  Also, as an audiovisual medium, it offers advertisers opportunities for higher levels of creativity, and also enables a commercial to be run as frequently as is required and also offers national & international coverage across all income levels.  Cinema & Radio, whilst only accounting for about 12% of advertising are useful media vehicles for tourism & leisure advertisers seeking to target specific niches.  Today, Radio is a vibrant medium used by local, regional & national advertisers specially after the FM radio stations came into existence.  Cinema advertising has also become very popular, particularly with leisure advertisers, as it offers marketers a captive audience as television viewers can switch channels or head for activity during a break; junk mails can be put unopened in the bin, but at the movies the audience is tied – once they have a ticket, they are not likely to leave.  Not only is this audience captive, but it is also very attractive – usually film goers are young & they have disposable income.
  • 19. iii. Brochures & Other Print Literatures:- The most popular medium used by travel & tourism advertisers is the travel brochures.  It is said that, ‘The travel world is awash with brochures’, and for many organizations the design, production & distribution of their annual tourism brochure is the single most important and most expensive item in the marketing budget.  The advantages of brochures are their relatively low cost, flexibility & portability. The brochure is arguably the key image-creating tool in tourism and is described as, ‘Probably the most important single item in the planning of tourism marketing’.  Brochures are produced for both promotional & information purposes and tend to involve the use of colour photographs and prose laden with adjectives to sell attractive images of destinations, resorts & hotels to potential customers.  It is the tour operators & destinations, who rely most heavily on the brochures, which is often a thick, glossy, full-colour catalogue, designed to persuade people to purchase the product.
  • 20.  The brochure is seen to be significant in the holiday destination selection process and it is argued that potential consumers compare brochures and on the basis of that comparison, make decision on their preferred holiday destination.  But, the fact is that people find it extremely difficult to explain their decisions & the brochures seem to be used to confirm, rather than to identify holiday choices.  On top of this, the position of the brochure as a major travel medium is threatened by new technology, such as CDs, Videos and the Internet.  As a result of this, the medium-term future of the brochures seem unclear. iv. Outdoor Media & Billboards:- Thought Billboards represent a small proportion of leisure and tourism ad spend, it is still a popular medium.
  • 21.  It is a specially fixed medium and it can advertise nearby attractions to road travelers.  Airlines & Railways use them to advertise at airports, railway stations & destinations and tour operators use them extensively in their ad campaigns.  Despite the fact that billboards are perhaps not as creative as they could be, industry commentators suggest that this outdoor medium has huge potential in an era of media fragmentation precisely because it is the one medium guaranteed to reach a mass audience.  Devid Berstein has developed a set of rules designed to generate effective poster advertising: 1. Keep it simple. 2. Use a single dominant image. 3. Be bold. 4. Do not overload on text – use few words, with clean, legible & large type.
  • 22. 5. Make use of eye- catching & contrasting colours. 6. Most of all, ensure that the poster design belongs to and develops the brand.  So far, the review of advertising media has focused on the traditional sectors like newspapers, magazines, television, cinema, radio, brochures & print literatures, and outdoor advertising, which dominate most of today’s media schedules.  But, this might not always be the case – particularly as newspaper advertising revenue is increasingly threatened by the internet.  Hence, one should always examine some of the newer trends in the media to explore their potential for the leisure & tourism industries. These include sponsorship & event marketing and public relations related advertising.