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 Brand Identity:- Brand identity is defined as a unique set of brand
associations that a brand strategist aspires to create or maintain.
The associations basically represent the purpose of a brand and
imply a promise to customers from the organization’s perspective.
 Often brands do not have a brand charter that defines a
brand’s long term identity and uniqueness which disallows the
possibility of coming up with effective ad campaigns for the
brand.
 Defining a brand is absolutely necessary as this helps in
answering questions like whether a brand is appropriate in
sponsoring an event or a sport or whether a certain ad
campaign suits a particular brand.
 It can further answer questions like whether there is a possibility
to launch a new product within or outside a brand’s periphery
or can the brand change its style of communication without
altering the core values it stands for.
 The Concept of Identity:- The following questions get answered if a
brand is having a brand identity:
• What are my core values?
• What do I stand for?
• How do I want to be perceived?
• What are the important relationships in my life?
 Brand identity has been found to offer direction, purpose and
meaning to a brand. It is central to a brand’s strategic vision.
 Brand association is one of the key components of brand equity and
it is the identity that drives brand associations. Brand identity
brings in more value to a brand.
 Hence, to make a brand strong, scope of brand identity should
be broad rather than being narrow. The emphasis of building the
brand should not be tactically oriented but strategically
oriented. Moreover, there should be an internal as well as
external focus to brand creation.
 Brand identity as a concept has gained lots of importance in the
present day world.
 The concepts of brand image and brand positioning were known
previously but now the marketers have identified the fact that in
order to differentiate and sustain in today’s world, one need to
define its brand clearly and its purpose of existence.
 The society today is saturated with communication tools and
techniques plus communication costs have increased
manifold. In such circumstances, if communication tools and
techniques are not utilized optimally, chances of a brand’s
survival are bleak.
 Today’s society is mostly a ‘me-too’ society where there are too
many similarities between brands resulting in a constant
pressure on brands to innovate, and innovation is not possible
until and unless brands have a clear understanding of
themselves.
 It is from the understanding of brand identity that will enable
a marketer to differentiate and survive.
 Technology is another reason for brand identity to be
understood and developed as it is allowing easy copying of
product features and flushing in enhanced or improvised
products in the market place at reasonable prices.
 In such a scenario, developing customer-oriented brand
identities that appeal to customers has become extremely
important.
 While developing a durable identity, first the marketers should have
a proper understanding of the product category in which a
particular brand is supposed to exist as it is the determinant of
the nature of the effort to be put in.
 Effective segmentation of the market is the next important
contributor. The segments identified should be measurable and
profitable.
 The next important factor that marketers should consider is the
positioning statement for the brand. The brand should be
strongly cemented in one of the most preferred zones in the
customer’s perceptual territory as suitable positioning is the
precursor to top-of-mind recall for a brand.
 The blue print for marketing any brand is called the marketing
mix in which the product, price, place and promotion aspect
should be considered and suitably executed.
 The brand’s performance should be closely and consistently
monitored as this is the indicator for the marketer that whether he
is on the right track in building the brand’s identity.
Brand
Identity
Category
Understanding
SegmentationPositioning
Marketing
Mix
Brand
Performance
Fig: The Contributors of Brand Identity
 Brand identity is an effective input for any brand revitalization
process. Analyzing the brand’s potential identity is the precursor to
any believable brand repositioning or revitalization.
 Ideal Brand Identity: The Building Blocks:- Brand identity plays
a defining role in building durable brands as they offer a certain
character to a brand that goes on to create distinct and
indelible impression in the mind of target audience.
 A Brand identity that is desired by each and every brand and
that each and every organization tries to achieve for its
brand(s) that enables a brand to achieve the tag of “greatest of
great brand(s)” is known as Ideal Brand identity.
 There are several components that contributes to Ideal Brand
identity viz. Vision, Meaning, Authenticity, Differentiation,
Sustainability, Coherence, Flexibility, Commitment and Value.
Differentiation
Coherence
Flexibility
Meaning
Authenticity
Vision
Sustainability
Commitment
Value
Fig: Elements of Ideal Brand Identity
i. Vision:- Ideal brand identity results from a compelling vision by
an effective, articulate and passionate leader. Such a leader
will serve as an inspiration for brands.
ii. Meaning:- Ideal brands stand for something. In other words they
have a definite meaning for their existence. They are shaped
out of a big idea, have a strategic position and stand for a
definite set of values.
iii. Authenticity:- Ideal brands will be authentic and the authenticity
will be possible only when an organization has clarity about its
market, positioning, value proposition and competitive
difference.
iv. Differentiation:- There will be several brands in each product
category and each will vie for the target customer’s attention. But
then brands with ideal brand identity will easily differentiate
themselves from the rest of the brands.
v. Sustainability:- It is about the longevity in an environment that
is continuously dynamic and where many things will happen
which will be beyond the predictions of companies.
Sustainability will one major element for brands with ideal brand
identity.
vi. Coherence:- A customer’s experience with a brand should offer
familiarity and should have the desired effect. Consistency does
not need to be rigid or limiting in order to feel like one company.
vii. Flexibility:- Brands with ideal brand identity will position the
company for future change and growth. It would support an
evolving marketing strategy of the company.
viii. Commitment:- Organizations should be committed to manage
their brand assets like brand names and trademarks along with
integrated sales & marketing systems and standards.
ix. Value:- Ideal brand identities will create awareness, increase
brand recognition, communicate uniqueness and quality of a
brand and this will create measurable results that will offer
value to both customers as well as companies.
 Brand Identity Vs Brand Image:-
Brand Identity
Other sources
of inspiration
• Mimicry
• Opportunism
• Idealism
Signals
Transmitted
Brand
Image
Sender Media Receiver
Competition and Noise
Fig: Brand Identity & Brand Image
 The Sources of Brand Identity:- The various sources of a brand’s
identity are:-
i. Product:- Product is one of the primary sources of a brand’s identity
as there are several features associated with the product and
any branding process starts with creating differentiation
based on product features.
 A brand actually injects its values in the manufacturing and
distribution process as well as in the additional services offered at
the point of sale.
 The brand’s values need to be embedded within the products
being endorsed by the brand. There are certain products that
standout as identifiers of the brand.
 That means, a mere mention of the brand name automatically allows
customers to name a product which they feel is most relevant to the
brand.
Ex:- A mere mention of the word Colgate will propel customers
to say ‘toothpaste’ although the brand has also toothbrushes and
mouthwashes.
 Strong brand identity is mostly developed when physical
attributes of the product are well defined and unique.
Ex:- What separates Nestle’s Polo mint with other brands of mint
available in the market is the hole at the centre of the product.
ii. Brand Name:- Brand names go a long way in revealing the true
intentions of the brand. Many times, the brand names give a
hint about what the brand does or what it is meant for or what
it contains and when it is to be used.
 Such names facilitate in shaping the character of the brand.
Names of online brands like yatra.com or makemytrip.com clearly
speak about the nature of the brand. The same thing goes with
brands like, Fair & Lovely, Himani Fast Relief etc.
 Just like brand identities, brand names too need to be managed
effectively so that they keep contributing to the overall equity
of the brand.
iii. Brand Characters:- Brand characters are the next important
element that offers substance to a brand’s identity.
 Brand characters help to identify and recognize the brand, offer
guarantee to the brand, offer durability to brands and further
they help to differentiate and personalize the brands.
 Many times, it so happens that customers do not recall a brand
name by product category or other triggers but when they see a
particular character associated with the brand they do so
correctly.
Ex:- The Pug in the Hutch ad.
iv. Visual Symbols and Logos:- Visual symbols and logos help
customers to understand the culture and personality of the
brand. They often are an integral part of a brand’s identity.
 The logo of Mercedes Benz, Jaguar, McDonald’s are examples that
actually shaped the brand’s character and people could understand
the quality or offering through the logos and symbols.
 And this is why, when brands are about to undergo a radical
transformation, they go for a change in logo and visual
symbols.
v. Geographical and Historical Roots:- Some brands draw their
identity and differentiation from their geographical or
historical roots.
Ex:- Singapore Airlines and British Airways are examples
where brands draw inspiration and seek sustenance by associating
themselves with their country of origin.
 Brands often benefit by such associations as the positives
associated with the culture of a country get translated and
embedded as values the brand possess.
 The positives of Asian culture get embedded in Singapore Airlines.
Similarly, the regal or royal aspects associated with British get
translated into the service expectations of British Airways.
vi. The Brand’s Creator:- Lifestyle brands often draw the source of
their identity from their creator. It is the brand’s creator and the
values he stands for that play an integral role in shaping the
brand’s identity.
Ex:- Tommy Hilfiger as a brand of apparels and accessories.
vii. Content and Form of Advertising:- Content and form of
advertising also have a bearing on shaping the identity of a brand.
 The rustic, cowboy and ‘give it a damn’ attitude associated with
Marlboro cigarettes was due to the years of consistent advertising
efforts.
 Benetton’s penchant for colour was due to years of innovative
advertising with colours and the positioning statement – United
Colours of Benetton.
 Way back in 1975, Liril as a brand of bathing soap was able to create a
sensation because of the freshness platform well established through
the model Karen Lunel and the visual of a girl bathing under a
waterfall.
 Brand Identity Prism:- Prof. Jean-Noel Kapferer developed a Brand
Identity Prism that mentioned six specific facets of a brand in
the year 1986.
 It is the outward expression of the brand including its name,
trademark, communications and visual appearance. The
brand’s identity is its fundamental means of consumer recognition
and symbolizes the brand’s differentiation from competitors.
 Differences between brand identity and image:-
 Professor Jean-Noël Kapferer represents brand identity
diagrammatically as a six sided prism:
PHYSIQUE
 The Brand Identity Prism is a hexagonal prism that has six facets:-
i. Physique or The Physical Facet:- The physical facet of any
brand is the major source of its identity and it relates to the
tangible added value of a brand.
 Often it is the packaging, or the shape, size, fragrance and colour of
the brand that contributes to its physical facet. i.e. all such aspects
of the brand that are visible and that can be touched, felt, seen
or smelt.
 Different brands have different description of their physical
assets.
For example, one can describe a brand of soap through its
packaging, colour, and fragrance.
ii. Personality facet:- It is the personality of the brand that makes
it appealing to customers and gives them a strong reason to
buy a brand.
 Personality of a brand is build up by the advertising techniques or
appeals used. By communicating the personality of a brand,
marketers build up the character of a brand.
 Celebrities impact brands by transferring their own character
to brands they endorse.
For example, the youthful bubbly feminine image of Hero
Pleasure as a brand has always been contributed through celebrities
who have represented the youth segment of the country.
iii. Culture / Values Facet:- It is the set of values that give the brand
a reason to exist in the market. It refers to certain basic
principles governing the brand by way of products and
communication.
 Often, values of a brand are derived from the country of origin
or the culture of the business house behind the development of
the brand.
For example, McDonald’s represent American culture and values
while Mercedes and Volkswagen represents German culture.
iv. Consumer Mentalisation or Self Image Facet:- The self-image
facet of a brand basically is the target customer’s internal
mirror.
 The attitude of the target market and the mentality develops a
certain type of inner relationship with the brand. That is why a
brand cannot mean everything to everyone, neither will it be
accepted by everyone.
 A certain profile of people with a certain set of attitudes and
beliefs will buy the core essence of a brand and that will be
governed by the customer mentalisation facet.
For example, throughout the brand life cycle of Bikini, it has been
observed that the Bikini has been mostly donned by those who were
rebellious and carefree in their thought process.
v. Reflected Consumer or Reflection Facet:- The reflection or the
reflected consumer facet represents the lifestyle of the target
market. While the self image facet is related to something deep
inside the minds of the customers, reflection facet is all about
what is visible to others.
 The kind of lifestyle lead by the target market who go for a
certain brand gives one the understanding why the target
customer likes the brand and when and how does he/she use
the brand.
vi. Relationship Facet:- The relationship facet of the brand speaks
about the kind of relationship the brand shares with the
society. It is about the kind of impact the brand creates on the
society in terms of attitudes, behaviours and lifestyles.
 There are brands that share an inspiring relationship with the
society while there are also brands which transport people to
the land of fantasies.
For example, while Lux as a brand of soap has inspired many
ordinary females to look gorgeous like the movie actresses endorsing
the brand, a brand like Disney has often transported people into the
land of fantasies.
 Applying the Brand Identity Prism:-
 The Brand Pyramid Model:- The brand pyramid model has been
developed by Doyle and Kapferer for analyzing and understanding
the concept of brand identity.
 The model consist of three tiers – The upper tier is called brand
core or brand kernel; The middle tier is called brand style while
the base or the lowest tier is called brand theme.
----------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------
Brand Core or Brand Kernel
Brand Style
Brand Themes
Culture
Personality Self-image
Physique Reflection
Relationship
Fig:- Brand Pyramid Model (Doyle & Kapferer)
 The Brand Core or Brand kernel remains fairly fixed over time,
acts as the source for a brand’s identity and is responsible for
imparting coherence and consistency to a brand.
 The middle tier relates to the style of the brand, speaks about
how the brand acts and the associated brand imagery and is
responsible for articulating the brand kernel in terms of the
culture, personality and self-image it conveys.
 The lowest tier represents brand themes which is all about
brand communication and positioning. It comprise the
physique of the brand, its reflection and the relationship
expressed.
 Brand themes have been found to be more flexible compared to
brand styles and brand kernel and they change with fashion,
style and technology.
 The set of brand style and themes can be highlighted through a
six-sided identity prism. The prism emphasizes the identity of
brand as a structured whole of six integrated facets viz. culture,
personality, self-image, physique, reflection and relationship.
 The first three facets are to be found within the brand while
the later three facets are components of outward expression of
brand.
 Brand Identity Traps:- The brand identity traps represent the
approaches to create brand identity that are excessively
limiting or tactical and which can lead to ineffective or
dysfunctional brand strategies.
 Such approaches need to be avoided as an ineffectively developed
brand identity can lead to an ineffective perception of brand
image.
 There are four brand identity traps:-
i. Brand Image Trap:- The way customers perceive a brand is
called brand image and this provides useful and necessary
background information while developing the identity for a brand.
 When efforts to go beyond the brand image is lacking, it
results in the brand image trap. The brand image becomes the
brand identity rather than just one input to be considered.
 Brand Identity Vs. Brand Image Characteristics:-
ii. The Brand Position Trap:- It occurs when the search for a
brand’s identity becomes the search for a brand’s position.
 A brand’s position is actually the part of brand’s identity and
value proposition that is to be communicated and that should
demonstrate an advantage over the competing brands.
 Searching for a brand’s position rather than identity inhibits
the evolution of a suitable and holistic brand identity.
Brand Identity Brand Image
Is active, looks to the future and reflects
associations aspired for the brand.
Is passive and looks to the past
Is strategic and reflects a business strategy
leasing to sustainable advantage.
Tends to be tactical.
Reflects a brand’s enduring qualities. Might not be salient.
iii. Brand’s External Perspective Trap:- It occurs when firms fail to
understand that brand identities play the role of enabling
organizations to understand their basic purpose and values.
 When a company gets into this trap, employees of such a company
are often found to oppose the vision of the company since they do
not understand the vision and hence do not subscribe to it and work
towards it.
iv. The Product–Attribute Fixation Trap:- It occurs when the
strategic and tactical moves adopted by the company for the
brand are solely focused on product attributes.
 One has to understand that customer decisions regarding brands are
not solely based on attributes. There are more elements involved in
it.
 By focusing on product attributes only, companies fail to
differentiate their brand. Moreover their products are easily copied
by competitors. Further companies assume that customers are
largely rational. The trap reduces the strategic flexibility of the
company concerning the brand.
 The objective of brand strategists should be to consider various
brand elements and patterns that facilitates the clarification
and enrichment of a brand’s identity.
 Ideally, brands should be looked at from four different
perspectives to avoid getting into a trap:-
i. Brand as Product.
ii. Brand as Organization.
iii. Brand as Person.
iv. Brand as Symbol.
i. Brand as Product:- Product related associations are important
aspects of brand identity as they are directly linked to brand
choice decisions or to brand use or to the experience related to
using the brand.
 The brand as product perspective offers clarifications regarding the
following:
• The product scope.
• Product related attributes.
• Quality / Value.
• Association with use occasion.
• Association with users.
• Link to a country or region.
ii. Brand as Organization:- Here the focus is on the attributes of
an organization rather than attributes of a product.
 The concept is that organizational attributes are more enduring
and they are more resistant to competition compared to the
product attributes. Duplication of a product is easier compared
to duplication of an organization with unique people, values
and organization.
 Organizational innovation is difficult to be evaluated or
communicated and hence it is equally difficult for competitors
to demonstrate that they have overcome any perceived gap.
iii. Brand as Person:- Brand personality contributes to development
of stronger brands. It makes a brand richer in values and more
interesting compared to product or organizational attributes.
 Brand personality creates self-expressive benefit that becomes a tool
for a customer of a brand to express his / her personality. It serves as
the basis of relationship between a customer and a brand.
iv. Brand as Symbol:- This perspective offers cohesion and structure
to a brand identity and enhances the recognition and recall for
a brand.
 Symbol often becomes an integral part of brand identity. The
symbols can be of various types viz. visual imagery, metaphors
and heritage.
Ex:- The Golden Arches of McDonald’s or the Swoosh of Nike
are examples of visual imagery while the lightening of Rin or the
whitening of Tide are examples of metaphors. Brands like Amul,
Lifebuoy, Vicks, Horlicks which have stood the test of time are
examples of heritage.
Brand Identity
Brand as
Product
Brand as
Organization
Brand as
Person
Brand as
Symbol
* Product scope
* Product attributes
* Quality / Value
* Usage
* Users
* Country of origin
•Organization
attributes (e.g.
innovation,
genuine consumer
concern,
trustworthiness)
* Local Vs. Global
•Personality
(energetic,
rugged)
•Brand customer
relationships
(friend, advisor)
* Visual Imagery
and Metaphors
* Brand heritage
Fig:- Avoiding Brand Identity Traps: Perspectives Involved

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brand identity

  • 1.  Brand Identity:- Brand identity is defined as a unique set of brand associations that a brand strategist aspires to create or maintain. The associations basically represent the purpose of a brand and imply a promise to customers from the organization’s perspective.  Often brands do not have a brand charter that defines a brand’s long term identity and uniqueness which disallows the possibility of coming up with effective ad campaigns for the brand.  Defining a brand is absolutely necessary as this helps in answering questions like whether a brand is appropriate in sponsoring an event or a sport or whether a certain ad campaign suits a particular brand.  It can further answer questions like whether there is a possibility to launch a new product within or outside a brand’s periphery or can the brand change its style of communication without altering the core values it stands for.
  • 2.  The Concept of Identity:- The following questions get answered if a brand is having a brand identity: • What are my core values? • What do I stand for? • How do I want to be perceived? • What are the important relationships in my life?  Brand identity has been found to offer direction, purpose and meaning to a brand. It is central to a brand’s strategic vision.  Brand association is one of the key components of brand equity and it is the identity that drives brand associations. Brand identity brings in more value to a brand.  Hence, to make a brand strong, scope of brand identity should be broad rather than being narrow. The emphasis of building the brand should not be tactically oriented but strategically oriented. Moreover, there should be an internal as well as external focus to brand creation.
  • 3.  Brand identity as a concept has gained lots of importance in the present day world.  The concepts of brand image and brand positioning were known previously but now the marketers have identified the fact that in order to differentiate and sustain in today’s world, one need to define its brand clearly and its purpose of existence.  The society today is saturated with communication tools and techniques plus communication costs have increased manifold. In such circumstances, if communication tools and techniques are not utilized optimally, chances of a brand’s survival are bleak.  Today’s society is mostly a ‘me-too’ society where there are too many similarities between brands resulting in a constant pressure on brands to innovate, and innovation is not possible until and unless brands have a clear understanding of themselves.  It is from the understanding of brand identity that will enable a marketer to differentiate and survive.
  • 4.  Technology is another reason for brand identity to be understood and developed as it is allowing easy copying of product features and flushing in enhanced or improvised products in the market place at reasonable prices.  In such a scenario, developing customer-oriented brand identities that appeal to customers has become extremely important.  While developing a durable identity, first the marketers should have a proper understanding of the product category in which a particular brand is supposed to exist as it is the determinant of the nature of the effort to be put in.  Effective segmentation of the market is the next important contributor. The segments identified should be measurable and profitable.  The next important factor that marketers should consider is the positioning statement for the brand. The brand should be strongly cemented in one of the most preferred zones in the customer’s perceptual territory as suitable positioning is the precursor to top-of-mind recall for a brand.
  • 5.  The blue print for marketing any brand is called the marketing mix in which the product, price, place and promotion aspect should be considered and suitably executed.  The brand’s performance should be closely and consistently monitored as this is the indicator for the marketer that whether he is on the right track in building the brand’s identity. Brand Identity Category Understanding SegmentationPositioning Marketing Mix Brand Performance Fig: The Contributors of Brand Identity
  • 6.  Brand identity is an effective input for any brand revitalization process. Analyzing the brand’s potential identity is the precursor to any believable brand repositioning or revitalization.  Ideal Brand Identity: The Building Blocks:- Brand identity plays a defining role in building durable brands as they offer a certain character to a brand that goes on to create distinct and indelible impression in the mind of target audience.  A Brand identity that is desired by each and every brand and that each and every organization tries to achieve for its brand(s) that enables a brand to achieve the tag of “greatest of great brand(s)” is known as Ideal Brand identity.  There are several components that contributes to Ideal Brand identity viz. Vision, Meaning, Authenticity, Differentiation, Sustainability, Coherence, Flexibility, Commitment and Value.
  • 8. i. Vision:- Ideal brand identity results from a compelling vision by an effective, articulate and passionate leader. Such a leader will serve as an inspiration for brands. ii. Meaning:- Ideal brands stand for something. In other words they have a definite meaning for their existence. They are shaped out of a big idea, have a strategic position and stand for a definite set of values. iii. Authenticity:- Ideal brands will be authentic and the authenticity will be possible only when an organization has clarity about its market, positioning, value proposition and competitive difference. iv. Differentiation:- There will be several brands in each product category and each will vie for the target customer’s attention. But then brands with ideal brand identity will easily differentiate themselves from the rest of the brands.
  • 9. v. Sustainability:- It is about the longevity in an environment that is continuously dynamic and where many things will happen which will be beyond the predictions of companies. Sustainability will one major element for brands with ideal brand identity. vi. Coherence:- A customer’s experience with a brand should offer familiarity and should have the desired effect. Consistency does not need to be rigid or limiting in order to feel like one company. vii. Flexibility:- Brands with ideal brand identity will position the company for future change and growth. It would support an evolving marketing strategy of the company. viii. Commitment:- Organizations should be committed to manage their brand assets like brand names and trademarks along with integrated sales & marketing systems and standards. ix. Value:- Ideal brand identities will create awareness, increase brand recognition, communicate uniqueness and quality of a brand and this will create measurable results that will offer value to both customers as well as companies.
  • 10.  Brand Identity Vs Brand Image:- Brand Identity Other sources of inspiration • Mimicry • Opportunism • Idealism Signals Transmitted Brand Image Sender Media Receiver Competition and Noise Fig: Brand Identity & Brand Image
  • 11.  The Sources of Brand Identity:- The various sources of a brand’s identity are:- i. Product:- Product is one of the primary sources of a brand’s identity as there are several features associated with the product and any branding process starts with creating differentiation based on product features.  A brand actually injects its values in the manufacturing and distribution process as well as in the additional services offered at the point of sale.  The brand’s values need to be embedded within the products being endorsed by the brand. There are certain products that standout as identifiers of the brand.  That means, a mere mention of the brand name automatically allows customers to name a product which they feel is most relevant to the brand. Ex:- A mere mention of the word Colgate will propel customers to say ‘toothpaste’ although the brand has also toothbrushes and mouthwashes.
  • 12.  Strong brand identity is mostly developed when physical attributes of the product are well defined and unique. Ex:- What separates Nestle’s Polo mint with other brands of mint available in the market is the hole at the centre of the product. ii. Brand Name:- Brand names go a long way in revealing the true intentions of the brand. Many times, the brand names give a hint about what the brand does or what it is meant for or what it contains and when it is to be used.  Such names facilitate in shaping the character of the brand. Names of online brands like yatra.com or makemytrip.com clearly speak about the nature of the brand. The same thing goes with brands like, Fair & Lovely, Himani Fast Relief etc.  Just like brand identities, brand names too need to be managed effectively so that they keep contributing to the overall equity of the brand.
  • 13. iii. Brand Characters:- Brand characters are the next important element that offers substance to a brand’s identity.  Brand characters help to identify and recognize the brand, offer guarantee to the brand, offer durability to brands and further they help to differentiate and personalize the brands.  Many times, it so happens that customers do not recall a brand name by product category or other triggers but when they see a particular character associated with the brand they do so correctly. Ex:- The Pug in the Hutch ad. iv. Visual Symbols and Logos:- Visual symbols and logos help customers to understand the culture and personality of the brand. They often are an integral part of a brand’s identity.  The logo of Mercedes Benz, Jaguar, McDonald’s are examples that actually shaped the brand’s character and people could understand the quality or offering through the logos and symbols.  And this is why, when brands are about to undergo a radical transformation, they go for a change in logo and visual symbols.
  • 14. v. Geographical and Historical Roots:- Some brands draw their identity and differentiation from their geographical or historical roots. Ex:- Singapore Airlines and British Airways are examples where brands draw inspiration and seek sustenance by associating themselves with their country of origin.  Brands often benefit by such associations as the positives associated with the culture of a country get translated and embedded as values the brand possess.  The positives of Asian culture get embedded in Singapore Airlines. Similarly, the regal or royal aspects associated with British get translated into the service expectations of British Airways. vi. The Brand’s Creator:- Lifestyle brands often draw the source of their identity from their creator. It is the brand’s creator and the values he stands for that play an integral role in shaping the brand’s identity. Ex:- Tommy Hilfiger as a brand of apparels and accessories.
  • 15. vii. Content and Form of Advertising:- Content and form of advertising also have a bearing on shaping the identity of a brand.  The rustic, cowboy and ‘give it a damn’ attitude associated with Marlboro cigarettes was due to the years of consistent advertising efforts.  Benetton’s penchant for colour was due to years of innovative advertising with colours and the positioning statement – United Colours of Benetton.  Way back in 1975, Liril as a brand of bathing soap was able to create a sensation because of the freshness platform well established through the model Karen Lunel and the visual of a girl bathing under a waterfall.
  • 16.  Brand Identity Prism:- Prof. Jean-Noel Kapferer developed a Brand Identity Prism that mentioned six specific facets of a brand in the year 1986.  It is the outward expression of the brand including its name, trademark, communications and visual appearance. The brand’s identity is its fundamental means of consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand’s differentiation from competitors.  Differences between brand identity and image:-
  • 17.  Professor Jean-Noël Kapferer represents brand identity diagrammatically as a six sided prism: PHYSIQUE
  • 18.  The Brand Identity Prism is a hexagonal prism that has six facets:- i. Physique or The Physical Facet:- The physical facet of any brand is the major source of its identity and it relates to the tangible added value of a brand.  Often it is the packaging, or the shape, size, fragrance and colour of the brand that contributes to its physical facet. i.e. all such aspects of the brand that are visible and that can be touched, felt, seen or smelt.  Different brands have different description of their physical assets. For example, one can describe a brand of soap through its packaging, colour, and fragrance. ii. Personality facet:- It is the personality of the brand that makes it appealing to customers and gives them a strong reason to buy a brand.
  • 19.  Personality of a brand is build up by the advertising techniques or appeals used. By communicating the personality of a brand, marketers build up the character of a brand.  Celebrities impact brands by transferring their own character to brands they endorse. For example, the youthful bubbly feminine image of Hero Pleasure as a brand has always been contributed through celebrities who have represented the youth segment of the country. iii. Culture / Values Facet:- It is the set of values that give the brand a reason to exist in the market. It refers to certain basic principles governing the brand by way of products and communication.  Often, values of a brand are derived from the country of origin or the culture of the business house behind the development of the brand. For example, McDonald’s represent American culture and values while Mercedes and Volkswagen represents German culture.
  • 20. iv. Consumer Mentalisation or Self Image Facet:- The self-image facet of a brand basically is the target customer’s internal mirror.  The attitude of the target market and the mentality develops a certain type of inner relationship with the brand. That is why a brand cannot mean everything to everyone, neither will it be accepted by everyone.  A certain profile of people with a certain set of attitudes and beliefs will buy the core essence of a brand and that will be governed by the customer mentalisation facet. For example, throughout the brand life cycle of Bikini, it has been observed that the Bikini has been mostly donned by those who were rebellious and carefree in their thought process. v. Reflected Consumer or Reflection Facet:- The reflection or the reflected consumer facet represents the lifestyle of the target market. While the self image facet is related to something deep inside the minds of the customers, reflection facet is all about what is visible to others.
  • 21.  The kind of lifestyle lead by the target market who go for a certain brand gives one the understanding why the target customer likes the brand and when and how does he/she use the brand. vi. Relationship Facet:- The relationship facet of the brand speaks about the kind of relationship the brand shares with the society. It is about the kind of impact the brand creates on the society in terms of attitudes, behaviours and lifestyles.  There are brands that share an inspiring relationship with the society while there are also brands which transport people to the land of fantasies. For example, while Lux as a brand of soap has inspired many ordinary females to look gorgeous like the movie actresses endorsing the brand, a brand like Disney has often transported people into the land of fantasies.
  • 22.  Applying the Brand Identity Prism:-
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  • 26.  The Brand Pyramid Model:- The brand pyramid model has been developed by Doyle and Kapferer for analyzing and understanding the concept of brand identity.  The model consist of three tiers – The upper tier is called brand core or brand kernel; The middle tier is called brand style while the base or the lowest tier is called brand theme. ---------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- Brand Core or Brand Kernel Brand Style Brand Themes Culture Personality Self-image Physique Reflection Relationship Fig:- Brand Pyramid Model (Doyle & Kapferer)
  • 27.  The Brand Core or Brand kernel remains fairly fixed over time, acts as the source for a brand’s identity and is responsible for imparting coherence and consistency to a brand.  The middle tier relates to the style of the brand, speaks about how the brand acts and the associated brand imagery and is responsible for articulating the brand kernel in terms of the culture, personality and self-image it conveys.  The lowest tier represents brand themes which is all about brand communication and positioning. It comprise the physique of the brand, its reflection and the relationship expressed.  Brand themes have been found to be more flexible compared to brand styles and brand kernel and they change with fashion, style and technology.  The set of brand style and themes can be highlighted through a six-sided identity prism. The prism emphasizes the identity of brand as a structured whole of six integrated facets viz. culture, personality, self-image, physique, reflection and relationship.
  • 28.  The first three facets are to be found within the brand while the later three facets are components of outward expression of brand.  Brand Identity Traps:- The brand identity traps represent the approaches to create brand identity that are excessively limiting or tactical and which can lead to ineffective or dysfunctional brand strategies.  Such approaches need to be avoided as an ineffectively developed brand identity can lead to an ineffective perception of brand image.  There are four brand identity traps:- i. Brand Image Trap:- The way customers perceive a brand is called brand image and this provides useful and necessary background information while developing the identity for a brand.  When efforts to go beyond the brand image is lacking, it results in the brand image trap. The brand image becomes the brand identity rather than just one input to be considered.
  • 29.  Brand Identity Vs. Brand Image Characteristics:- ii. The Brand Position Trap:- It occurs when the search for a brand’s identity becomes the search for a brand’s position.  A brand’s position is actually the part of brand’s identity and value proposition that is to be communicated and that should demonstrate an advantage over the competing brands.  Searching for a brand’s position rather than identity inhibits the evolution of a suitable and holistic brand identity. Brand Identity Brand Image Is active, looks to the future and reflects associations aspired for the brand. Is passive and looks to the past Is strategic and reflects a business strategy leasing to sustainable advantage. Tends to be tactical. Reflects a brand’s enduring qualities. Might not be salient.
  • 30. iii. Brand’s External Perspective Trap:- It occurs when firms fail to understand that brand identities play the role of enabling organizations to understand their basic purpose and values.  When a company gets into this trap, employees of such a company are often found to oppose the vision of the company since they do not understand the vision and hence do not subscribe to it and work towards it. iv. The Product–Attribute Fixation Trap:- It occurs when the strategic and tactical moves adopted by the company for the brand are solely focused on product attributes.  One has to understand that customer decisions regarding brands are not solely based on attributes. There are more elements involved in it.  By focusing on product attributes only, companies fail to differentiate their brand. Moreover their products are easily copied by competitors. Further companies assume that customers are largely rational. The trap reduces the strategic flexibility of the company concerning the brand.
  • 31.  The objective of brand strategists should be to consider various brand elements and patterns that facilitates the clarification and enrichment of a brand’s identity.  Ideally, brands should be looked at from four different perspectives to avoid getting into a trap:- i. Brand as Product. ii. Brand as Organization. iii. Brand as Person. iv. Brand as Symbol. i. Brand as Product:- Product related associations are important aspects of brand identity as they are directly linked to brand choice decisions or to brand use or to the experience related to using the brand.  The brand as product perspective offers clarifications regarding the following:
  • 32. • The product scope. • Product related attributes. • Quality / Value. • Association with use occasion. • Association with users. • Link to a country or region. ii. Brand as Organization:- Here the focus is on the attributes of an organization rather than attributes of a product.  The concept is that organizational attributes are more enduring and they are more resistant to competition compared to the product attributes. Duplication of a product is easier compared to duplication of an organization with unique people, values and organization.  Organizational innovation is difficult to be evaluated or communicated and hence it is equally difficult for competitors to demonstrate that they have overcome any perceived gap.
  • 33. iii. Brand as Person:- Brand personality contributes to development of stronger brands. It makes a brand richer in values and more interesting compared to product or organizational attributes.  Brand personality creates self-expressive benefit that becomes a tool for a customer of a brand to express his / her personality. It serves as the basis of relationship between a customer and a brand. iv. Brand as Symbol:- This perspective offers cohesion and structure to a brand identity and enhances the recognition and recall for a brand.  Symbol often becomes an integral part of brand identity. The symbols can be of various types viz. visual imagery, metaphors and heritage. Ex:- The Golden Arches of McDonald’s or the Swoosh of Nike are examples of visual imagery while the lightening of Rin or the whitening of Tide are examples of metaphors. Brands like Amul, Lifebuoy, Vicks, Horlicks which have stood the test of time are examples of heritage.
  • 34. Brand Identity Brand as Product Brand as Organization Brand as Person Brand as Symbol * Product scope * Product attributes * Quality / Value * Usage * Users * Country of origin •Organization attributes (e.g. innovation, genuine consumer concern, trustworthiness) * Local Vs. Global •Personality (energetic, rugged) •Brand customer relationships (friend, advisor) * Visual Imagery and Metaphors * Brand heritage Fig:- Avoiding Brand Identity Traps: Perspectives Involved