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 Evaluating Effectiveness:- The final section in a campaign plan
is evaluating the effectiveness of the marketing
communication program or campaign.
Similarly, the final step in implementation is to assess the
outcome or results of the plan.
 Types and Stages of Evaluation:- Evaluation is done through
Testing, Monitoring, and Measurement.
 Testing is used to predict Results; Monitoring Tracks
Performance; and Measurement evaluates Results.
 In other words, advertisements typically are tested before they run
as a way to predict their effectiveness, a practice, called Copy
testing.
 Ideally, the results of evaluative research should be available
before large sums of money are invested in finished work or in
media buys.
 As a campaign unfolds, the performance is tracked to see whether
any element is needed to be changed.
 Diagnostic research also is used in all stages of a campaign to de-
construct an advertisement in-order to spot message
problems.
 There are four types of research in evaluation:-
1. Developmental Research through pre-testing, estimates the
likelihood that an ad idea will work or that one idea is better
than other.
2. Concurrent Research using tracking studies and test
marketing, monitors the way the campaign is unfolding and
how the messages and media are working.
3. Post Testing research evaluates the impact, after the campaign
is over or after the ad has run.
 In order for post campaign research to be useful, benchmark or
baseline studies are needed, to gauge the movement.
 These can be research company norms or they can be based on
previous campaigns by this particular brand.
4. Diagnostic Research de-constructs an ad to see that the various
elements are working properly or not.
 Researchers who evaluate commercials use frame-by-frame or
moment-by-moment analysis to identify strengths and
weaknesses in a commercial.
 Factors to be Evaluated:- Most advertisers would be happy if
evaluation could simply tell them how much the advertising
contributed to their sales effort.
But, that is difficult for a number of reasons:-
 There are factors other than the advertising that affect sales,
and that makes it hard to isolate advertising in order to
determine its impact.
 Moreover, advertising effects tend to be delayed, making it
difficult to link the advertising seen at one time, to a purchase
made days or weeks later.
 In some cases, such as direct–response advertising, sales can be
measured as a direct response to an advertising message.
 Usually, however, advertising is measured in terms of its
communication effects, which become surrogate measures for
sales impact.
Such factors are purchase intention, preference, and liking –
all suggest that the advertising message can make a positive
contribution to an eventual purchase decision.
 Good evaluation plans, and the objectives found in them, are based
on a model of human response to an advertisement – an idea
about how advertising works.
 Copy–Testing Services:- Copy–testing companies have different
specialties focusing on different effectiveness dimensions.
• The most successful of these companies have conducted a huge
number of tests and have developed their own norms for
common product categories.
• In other words, after they pretest the ad, they are able to
compare its score with others that reflect how comparable ads
perform on the factors they test.
• Norms allow the advertiser to tell whether a particular
advertisement is above or below the average for the brand or its
product category.
 Stages of Copy Testing:- Copy testing is a general term that
describes various kinds of research used at different stages in
the advertising process – Before, During and After an
advertisement or campaign has run.
1. Message Development Research:- Research is needed to develop
and test alternative message strategies, because deciding what
facts to convey in advertisements is not easy.
2. Message Strategy:- Planners conduct research with members of
the target audience to develop the message strategy and test
the relative effectiveness of various selling premises – hard–sell
or soft–sell, informational or emotional, and so forth.
• Insights into consumer motivations and purchasing decisions
help solve the often–difficult puzzle of selecting the most
relevant information and motivating promise, as well as the
emotional appeal that best engages the audience.
3. Concept Testing:- Advertising and other marketing communication
messages usually incorporate a “Big Idea”, a creative concept
which should be attention getting and memorable.
• Research in concept testing Compares the effectiveness of
various creative ideas.
• This testing often relies on a key concept card, which is an artist’s
drawing of the visual idea with a sentence underneath, that
captures the essence of the idea.
• A researcher may use a pack of three, five, or more idea cards
to elicit consumer responses in a mall or through discussions
in a focus group.
4. Pretesting:- Another type of evaluative research called pretesting
helps marketers to make final go / no–go decisions about
finished or nearly finished ads.
• Pretesting differs from concept testing or message strategy
research, which reveals the strengths and weaknesses of
different versions of a concept or approach as marketers develop
them.
• Pretesting assesses the strength of the finished message and
predicts how well it will perform.
• In terms of print advertisements, the ideas to be tested are often
full mockups of the advertisement.
• In television, advertisers can test the commercials as storyboard
idea or photo-boards (still photos arrange as a storyboard), but
more often commercials are in the form of annimatics
(drawings or still photos shot on videotape synchronized with a
rough version of the audio track).
• Advertisers can show these versions of the commercial to
individuals, to focus groups, or to groups in a theater testing
situation. They follow the viewing of the advertisement with a
survey, a more open–ended interview, or a set of questions for a
group discussion.
5. Diagnostics:- Many advertisers and agencies are moving away
from copy–testing methods that rely on single scores to
evaluate an ad and are turning to methods that are more
focused on diagnosing strengths and weaknesses.
• The reason is that they believe an advertisement is too complex to
be reduced to one factor and one simple score.
• Instead they are using research methods that are designed to
diagnose strengths and weaknesses of their advertising ideas in
order to improve the work while it is still in development or to
learn more from the ad in order to improve subsequent
advertisements.
Ex:- In theater tests for TV commercials, respondents may have a
black–box device and can press a button to record different types of
responses – indicating what they liked or didn’t like or how long they
paid attention by letting up on the button when their attention
shifts.
6. Moment–by–Moment Test:- Moment–by–moment test of
commercials, as described in the matter of Practice box, provide
an analysis of the impact of the internal logic of the
commercial.
• The procedure includes showing a clutter reel (a group of
commercials that includes the test commercial and competitors’
commercials as well as others), and conducting interviews
afterward.
• The viewers receive a deck of key frames from the commercial
and are asked to sort them into images they remember seeing
and ones they don’t remember.
• Then they sort them into five categories from strong positive to
strong negative.
• Researchers tabulate the sets to depict a flow of impact for both
attention and emotion. In particular, they want to analyze key
moments in the commercial such as the solution to a problem,
or the introduction of the brand, and analyze them in terms of
viewers’ attention and emotion.
 During Execution: Concurrent Testing:- Concurrent testing
takes place while the advertising is actually being run.
 There are three primary techniques: Coincidental Surveys,
Attitude Tests, and Tracking Studies.
 The Coincidental Surveys & Attitude Tests assess
communication responses and Tracking studies evaluate actual
behavior.
 The coincidental survey technique is most often used with
broadcast media.
 Random calls are made to individuals in the target market. By
discovering what stations or shows people are watching or
hearing, the advertiser can determine whether the target
audience is getting the message and, if so, what information or
meaning the audience members receive.
 This technique can be useful in identifying basic problems.
Ex:- Several years ago Pepsi discovered that the use of Madonna
as a spokesperson was a terrible mistake.
 Tracking Studies:- Studies that follow the purchase activity of a
specific consumer or group of consumers over a specified
period of time.
• These in–market studies combine conventional marketing
research data with information on marketing communication
spending and provide a more complete view of the market.
• Researchers use market tracking for both concurrent testing and
post–testing. It may serve two basic objectives:-
i. To show how the marketer’s product sales or market share
compares with the competition after implementing some
marketing communication.
ii. To conduct reassessment – that is, to help the marketer
understand how the market responds to changes made, in the
marketing communication strategy.
 Tracking studies evaluate copy and media against changes in
sales. The higher the sales, the better the strategy.
 Tracking studies lead to decisions such as pulling advertising to
changing copy to altering a campaign strategy.
 Because spending information enters the analysis, much of the
focus of tracking studies is on the target market, the selection
of media vehicles, the schedule, the marketing communication
mix, and the media mix.
 Account planners use several methods to collect tracking data:-
1. Attitude Tests:- A favorable or unfavorable disposition toward
a person, thing, idea, or situation and consumer behavior.
Researchers survey individuals who were exposed to the ad,
asking questions about the spokesperson, the tone of the ad,
its wording, and so forth.
• Results that show strong negative attitude scores may prompt the
advertiser to pull out an ad immediately. A favorable attitude
indicates that people are more likely to purchase a brand than they
would with an unfavorable attitude.
2. Wave Analysis:- Wave analysis looks at a series of interviews
during a campaign. The tracking begins with a set of questions
asked of a random sample of consumers on a predetermined
date.
• After the person is qualified as hearing or watching the ad, the
researcher asks a series of follow–up questions. The answers
serve as a benchmark and allow adjustments in the message
content, media choice, and timing.
• Say two months later, the researcher makes another series of
random calls and asks the same questions. The second wave is
compared with the first until management is satisfied with the
ad’s market penetration and impact.
3. Consumer Diaries:- Sometimes advertisers ask a group of
representative consumers to keep a diary during a campaign.
• The advertiser asks the consumers to record activities such as
brands purchased, brands used for various activities, brand
switches, media usage, exposure to competitive promotions,
and use of coupons.
• The advertiser then review these consumer diaries and determine
the factors such as whether the message is reaching the right
target audience and whether the audience is responding to the
message as intended.
• One common unfavorable finding from consumer diaries is
that no attitude or behavioral change occurred because of
exposure to the campaign.
4. Pantry Checks:- The pantry check provides much of the same
information as the diary method but requires little from the
consumer.
• A researcher goes to homes in the target market and asks what
brands or products they have purchased or used recently.
• In one variation of this procedure, the researcher counts the
products or brands currently stocked by the consumer. The
consumer may also be asked to keep empty packages, which the
researcher then collects and tallies.
5. Test Marketing:- A test marketing might serve to test product
variations, as well as elements of a finished ad, a campaign, or
a media mix in two or more potential markets.
• In a typical test market, one or more of the test cities serve as
controls while the others are the test.
• In the control markets the researcher can either:-
a. Run no advertising or ,
b. Continue to run the old advertisement.
• The new ad is used in the test cities. Before, during, and after
running the advertising, marketers compare sales results in
the test cities by checking inventories in selected stores,
representative of the target market.
 Post–Testing: After Execution Research:- Evaluative research
occurs after the ad has run to determine whether it has met its
objectives or not.
 The most common evaluative research techniques are:-
1. Memory Tests:- Memory tests are based on the assumption that
an advertisement leaves a mental residue with the person who
has been exposed to it.
• One way to measure an advertisement’s effectiveness, then, is to
contact consumers who saw the ad and find out what they
remember.
• Memory tests fall into two major groups: Recall Tests and
Recognition Tests.
• One way to measure memory is to show the advertisement to
people and ask them whether they remember having seen it
before. This kind of test is called Recognition Test.
• In a Recall Test, respondents who have read the magazine are
asked to report what advertisements or brands they remember
seeing.
• The interviewer may go through a deck of cards containing brand
names. If the respondent says, “Yes, I remember seeing an
advertisement for that brand.” the interviewer asks the
interviewees to describe everything they can remember about the ad.
• Similarly, a TV commercial is run on network television within a
regular prime–time program.
The next evening, interviewers make thousands of random phone
calls until they have contacted about 200 people who were watching
the program at the exact time the commercial appeared.
• The interviewer then asks a series of questions, such as:-
 Do you remember seeing a commercial for any luxury sedan?
 (If no) Do you remember seeing a commercial for Audi A8?
(Memory Prompt)
 (If yes to either of the above) what did the commercial say about the
product?
 What did the commercial show?
 What did the commercial look like?
 What ideas were brought out?
• The first type of question is called Unaided Recall because the
particular brand is not mentioned.
• The second question is an example of Aided Recall, in which the
specific brand name is mentioned.
• The answers to the third to sixth questions are written down
verbatim.
• The test requires that the respondent link a specific brand
name, or at least a specific product category, to a specific
commercial.
• If the commercial fails to establish a tight connection between
the brand name and the selling message, the commercial will
not get a high recall score.
2. Persuasion Tests:- This is also known as Attitude Change Test.
 The basic format is to ask consumers how likely they are to buy a
specific brand.
 Next they are exposed to an advertisement for that brand,
usually as part of a collection of brands.
 After exposure, researchers again ask them what they intend to
purchase.
 The researcher analyzes the results to determine whether intention
to buy has increased as a result of exposure to the
advertisement.
 This test sometimes also referred to as an Intend–to–buy or
Motivation Test.
 The validity of a persuasion test depends in part on whether
participants in the experiment represent a good sample of the
prospects, the advertiser is trying to reach.
Ex:- A dog food advertiser, would not be interested in responses
from people who do not own dogs.
3. Likability Tests:- A study by the Advertising Research
Foundation (ARF) compared a variety of different copy–testing
methods to see if any of them were better able to predict sales
impact.
 Surprisingly, it wasn’t awareness, recall, communication, or
persuasion measures that won out but rather Likability Tests.
 Likability, however, is not easy to measure because it’s difficult
to know if the consumer likes the ad, the brand, or some other
factor.
 A number of copy–testing companies do offer a likability score but
they suggest it needs to be interpreted relative to other
consumer responses.
 Questions that try to evaluate likability, investigate such things as
Personally Relevant, Important to me, Stimulates interest or
Curiosity, Creates warm Feelings, Enjoyable, Entertaining, and
fun.
4. Inquiry Tests:- Inquiry Tests measure the number of responses
to an advertisement.
 The response can be a call to a toll–free number, an e–mail or
Web site visit, a coupon return, a visit to a dealer, an entry in a
contest, a call to a salesperson, or an actual transaction.
 Inquiry tests are the primary measurement tool for direct–
response communication, but they are also used to evaluate
advertisements and sales promotions when the inquiry is built
into the message design.
 Inquiry tests also are used to evaluate the effectiveness of
alternative advertisements using a split–run technique in
magazines, where there are two versions of the magazine
printed, one with ad A and the other with ad B.
 The ad that pulls the most response is deemed to be the most
effective.
5. Scanner Research:- Many retail outlets, especially supermarkets,
use electronic scanners at the checkout to collect consumer
information.
 Each product one buys has an electronic bar code that contains the
name of the product and its price. The Regional Supermarket System
may decide to establish a consumer panel so it can track sales among
various consumer groups.
 In scanner research, one would be asked to join the panel,
which might contain hundreds of other customers.
One would complete a fairly extensive questionnaire and be
assigned an ID number. One might receive a premium or a discount
on purchases for one’s participation. Each time one make a purchase,
he also submit his ID number.
Therefore, if the Supermarket runs a two–page newspaper ad, it
can track actual sales to determine to what extent the ad worked.
 Various manufacturers who sell products to the said Supermarket
can do the same kind of testing.
 The panel questionnaire also contains a list of media that one
use, so media can also be evaluated.
6. Single–Source Research:- Thanks to scanners, combined with
computer technology and data and the use of electronic media
because of which researchers are closer to showing a causal
relationship between advertising and sales because of Single–
source research.
 Single–source research companies arrange to control the
television signal of a community’s households.
 The company divides the house holds into equivalently matched
groups. It then sends advertisements to one group but not to
the other and collects exact records of what every household
purchases.
 This information is collected through the scanners found at the
supermarket cash register.
 Because advertising is the only manipulated variable, the
method permits an unambiguous reading of cause and effect.
 The data collected in this way are known as single–source data
because advertising and product–purchasing data come from
the same source.
 Although fairly expensive, single–source data can produce
exceptionally dependable results.
 Real advertisements are received under natural conditions in the
home and the resulting purchases are actual purchases made by
consumers.
 However, the method usually requires more than six months to
produce usable results.
 Critics also say that single–source research is better for short–
term immediate sales effects and doesn’t capture very well
other brand–building effects.

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Advertising effectiveness

  • 1.  Evaluating Effectiveness:- The final section in a campaign plan is evaluating the effectiveness of the marketing communication program or campaign. Similarly, the final step in implementation is to assess the outcome or results of the plan.  Types and Stages of Evaluation:- Evaluation is done through Testing, Monitoring, and Measurement.  Testing is used to predict Results; Monitoring Tracks Performance; and Measurement evaluates Results.  In other words, advertisements typically are tested before they run as a way to predict their effectiveness, a practice, called Copy testing.  Ideally, the results of evaluative research should be available before large sums of money are invested in finished work or in media buys.
  • 2.  As a campaign unfolds, the performance is tracked to see whether any element is needed to be changed.  Diagnostic research also is used in all stages of a campaign to de- construct an advertisement in-order to spot message problems.  There are four types of research in evaluation:- 1. Developmental Research through pre-testing, estimates the likelihood that an ad idea will work or that one idea is better than other. 2. Concurrent Research using tracking studies and test marketing, monitors the way the campaign is unfolding and how the messages and media are working.
  • 3. 3. Post Testing research evaluates the impact, after the campaign is over or after the ad has run.  In order for post campaign research to be useful, benchmark or baseline studies are needed, to gauge the movement.  These can be research company norms or they can be based on previous campaigns by this particular brand. 4. Diagnostic Research de-constructs an ad to see that the various elements are working properly or not.  Researchers who evaluate commercials use frame-by-frame or moment-by-moment analysis to identify strengths and weaknesses in a commercial.
  • 4.  Factors to be Evaluated:- Most advertisers would be happy if evaluation could simply tell them how much the advertising contributed to their sales effort. But, that is difficult for a number of reasons:-  There are factors other than the advertising that affect sales, and that makes it hard to isolate advertising in order to determine its impact.  Moreover, advertising effects tend to be delayed, making it difficult to link the advertising seen at one time, to a purchase made days or weeks later.  In some cases, such as direct–response advertising, sales can be measured as a direct response to an advertising message.  Usually, however, advertising is measured in terms of its communication effects, which become surrogate measures for sales impact. Such factors are purchase intention, preference, and liking – all suggest that the advertising message can make a positive contribution to an eventual purchase decision.
  • 5.  Good evaluation plans, and the objectives found in them, are based on a model of human response to an advertisement – an idea about how advertising works.  Copy–Testing Services:- Copy–testing companies have different specialties focusing on different effectiveness dimensions. • The most successful of these companies have conducted a huge number of tests and have developed their own norms for common product categories. • In other words, after they pretest the ad, they are able to compare its score with others that reflect how comparable ads perform on the factors they test. • Norms allow the advertiser to tell whether a particular advertisement is above or below the average for the brand or its product category.
  • 6.  Stages of Copy Testing:- Copy testing is a general term that describes various kinds of research used at different stages in the advertising process – Before, During and After an advertisement or campaign has run. 1. Message Development Research:- Research is needed to develop and test alternative message strategies, because deciding what facts to convey in advertisements is not easy. 2. Message Strategy:- Planners conduct research with members of the target audience to develop the message strategy and test the relative effectiveness of various selling premises – hard–sell or soft–sell, informational or emotional, and so forth. • Insights into consumer motivations and purchasing decisions help solve the often–difficult puzzle of selecting the most relevant information and motivating promise, as well as the emotional appeal that best engages the audience.
  • 7. 3. Concept Testing:- Advertising and other marketing communication messages usually incorporate a “Big Idea”, a creative concept which should be attention getting and memorable. • Research in concept testing Compares the effectiveness of various creative ideas. • This testing often relies on a key concept card, which is an artist’s drawing of the visual idea with a sentence underneath, that captures the essence of the idea. • A researcher may use a pack of three, five, or more idea cards to elicit consumer responses in a mall or through discussions in a focus group. 4. Pretesting:- Another type of evaluative research called pretesting helps marketers to make final go / no–go decisions about finished or nearly finished ads.
  • 8. • Pretesting differs from concept testing or message strategy research, which reveals the strengths and weaknesses of different versions of a concept or approach as marketers develop them. • Pretesting assesses the strength of the finished message and predicts how well it will perform. • In terms of print advertisements, the ideas to be tested are often full mockups of the advertisement. • In television, advertisers can test the commercials as storyboard idea or photo-boards (still photos arrange as a storyboard), but more often commercials are in the form of annimatics (drawings or still photos shot on videotape synchronized with a rough version of the audio track). • Advertisers can show these versions of the commercial to individuals, to focus groups, or to groups in a theater testing situation. They follow the viewing of the advertisement with a survey, a more open–ended interview, or a set of questions for a group discussion.
  • 9. 5. Diagnostics:- Many advertisers and agencies are moving away from copy–testing methods that rely on single scores to evaluate an ad and are turning to methods that are more focused on diagnosing strengths and weaknesses. • The reason is that they believe an advertisement is too complex to be reduced to one factor and one simple score. • Instead they are using research methods that are designed to diagnose strengths and weaknesses of their advertising ideas in order to improve the work while it is still in development or to learn more from the ad in order to improve subsequent advertisements. Ex:- In theater tests for TV commercials, respondents may have a black–box device and can press a button to record different types of responses – indicating what they liked or didn’t like or how long they paid attention by letting up on the button when their attention shifts.
  • 10. 6. Moment–by–Moment Test:- Moment–by–moment test of commercials, as described in the matter of Practice box, provide an analysis of the impact of the internal logic of the commercial. • The procedure includes showing a clutter reel (a group of commercials that includes the test commercial and competitors’ commercials as well as others), and conducting interviews afterward. • The viewers receive a deck of key frames from the commercial and are asked to sort them into images they remember seeing and ones they don’t remember. • Then they sort them into five categories from strong positive to strong negative. • Researchers tabulate the sets to depict a flow of impact for both attention and emotion. In particular, they want to analyze key moments in the commercial such as the solution to a problem, or the introduction of the brand, and analyze them in terms of viewers’ attention and emotion.
  • 11.  During Execution: Concurrent Testing:- Concurrent testing takes place while the advertising is actually being run.  There are three primary techniques: Coincidental Surveys, Attitude Tests, and Tracking Studies.  The Coincidental Surveys & Attitude Tests assess communication responses and Tracking studies evaluate actual behavior.  The coincidental survey technique is most often used with broadcast media.  Random calls are made to individuals in the target market. By discovering what stations or shows people are watching or hearing, the advertiser can determine whether the target audience is getting the message and, if so, what information or meaning the audience members receive.  This technique can be useful in identifying basic problems. Ex:- Several years ago Pepsi discovered that the use of Madonna as a spokesperson was a terrible mistake.
  • 12.  Tracking Studies:- Studies that follow the purchase activity of a specific consumer or group of consumers over a specified period of time. • These in–market studies combine conventional marketing research data with information on marketing communication spending and provide a more complete view of the market. • Researchers use market tracking for both concurrent testing and post–testing. It may serve two basic objectives:- i. To show how the marketer’s product sales or market share compares with the competition after implementing some marketing communication. ii. To conduct reassessment – that is, to help the marketer understand how the market responds to changes made, in the marketing communication strategy.
  • 13.  Tracking studies evaluate copy and media against changes in sales. The higher the sales, the better the strategy.  Tracking studies lead to decisions such as pulling advertising to changing copy to altering a campaign strategy.  Because spending information enters the analysis, much of the focus of tracking studies is on the target market, the selection of media vehicles, the schedule, the marketing communication mix, and the media mix.  Account planners use several methods to collect tracking data:- 1. Attitude Tests:- A favorable or unfavorable disposition toward a person, thing, idea, or situation and consumer behavior. Researchers survey individuals who were exposed to the ad, asking questions about the spokesperson, the tone of the ad, its wording, and so forth. • Results that show strong negative attitude scores may prompt the advertiser to pull out an ad immediately. A favorable attitude indicates that people are more likely to purchase a brand than they would with an unfavorable attitude.
  • 14. 2. Wave Analysis:- Wave analysis looks at a series of interviews during a campaign. The tracking begins with a set of questions asked of a random sample of consumers on a predetermined date. • After the person is qualified as hearing or watching the ad, the researcher asks a series of follow–up questions. The answers serve as a benchmark and allow adjustments in the message content, media choice, and timing. • Say two months later, the researcher makes another series of random calls and asks the same questions. The second wave is compared with the first until management is satisfied with the ad’s market penetration and impact. 3. Consumer Diaries:- Sometimes advertisers ask a group of representative consumers to keep a diary during a campaign. • The advertiser asks the consumers to record activities such as brands purchased, brands used for various activities, brand switches, media usage, exposure to competitive promotions, and use of coupons.
  • 15. • The advertiser then review these consumer diaries and determine the factors such as whether the message is reaching the right target audience and whether the audience is responding to the message as intended. • One common unfavorable finding from consumer diaries is that no attitude or behavioral change occurred because of exposure to the campaign. 4. Pantry Checks:- The pantry check provides much of the same information as the diary method but requires little from the consumer. • A researcher goes to homes in the target market and asks what brands or products they have purchased or used recently. • In one variation of this procedure, the researcher counts the products or brands currently stocked by the consumer. The consumer may also be asked to keep empty packages, which the researcher then collects and tallies.
  • 16. 5. Test Marketing:- A test marketing might serve to test product variations, as well as elements of a finished ad, a campaign, or a media mix in two or more potential markets. • In a typical test market, one or more of the test cities serve as controls while the others are the test. • In the control markets the researcher can either:- a. Run no advertising or , b. Continue to run the old advertisement. • The new ad is used in the test cities. Before, during, and after running the advertising, marketers compare sales results in the test cities by checking inventories in selected stores, representative of the target market.
  • 17.  Post–Testing: After Execution Research:- Evaluative research occurs after the ad has run to determine whether it has met its objectives or not.  The most common evaluative research techniques are:- 1. Memory Tests:- Memory tests are based on the assumption that an advertisement leaves a mental residue with the person who has been exposed to it. • One way to measure an advertisement’s effectiveness, then, is to contact consumers who saw the ad and find out what they remember. • Memory tests fall into two major groups: Recall Tests and Recognition Tests. • One way to measure memory is to show the advertisement to people and ask them whether they remember having seen it before. This kind of test is called Recognition Test.
  • 18. • In a Recall Test, respondents who have read the magazine are asked to report what advertisements or brands they remember seeing. • The interviewer may go through a deck of cards containing brand names. If the respondent says, “Yes, I remember seeing an advertisement for that brand.” the interviewer asks the interviewees to describe everything they can remember about the ad. • Similarly, a TV commercial is run on network television within a regular prime–time program. The next evening, interviewers make thousands of random phone calls until they have contacted about 200 people who were watching the program at the exact time the commercial appeared. • The interviewer then asks a series of questions, such as:-  Do you remember seeing a commercial for any luxury sedan?  (If no) Do you remember seeing a commercial for Audi A8? (Memory Prompt)
  • 19.  (If yes to either of the above) what did the commercial say about the product?  What did the commercial show?  What did the commercial look like?  What ideas were brought out? • The first type of question is called Unaided Recall because the particular brand is not mentioned. • The second question is an example of Aided Recall, in which the specific brand name is mentioned. • The answers to the third to sixth questions are written down verbatim. • The test requires that the respondent link a specific brand name, or at least a specific product category, to a specific commercial. • If the commercial fails to establish a tight connection between the brand name and the selling message, the commercial will not get a high recall score.
  • 20. 2. Persuasion Tests:- This is also known as Attitude Change Test.  The basic format is to ask consumers how likely they are to buy a specific brand.  Next they are exposed to an advertisement for that brand, usually as part of a collection of brands.  After exposure, researchers again ask them what they intend to purchase.  The researcher analyzes the results to determine whether intention to buy has increased as a result of exposure to the advertisement.  This test sometimes also referred to as an Intend–to–buy or Motivation Test.  The validity of a persuasion test depends in part on whether participants in the experiment represent a good sample of the prospects, the advertiser is trying to reach. Ex:- A dog food advertiser, would not be interested in responses from people who do not own dogs.
  • 21. 3. Likability Tests:- A study by the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF) compared a variety of different copy–testing methods to see if any of them were better able to predict sales impact.  Surprisingly, it wasn’t awareness, recall, communication, or persuasion measures that won out but rather Likability Tests.  Likability, however, is not easy to measure because it’s difficult to know if the consumer likes the ad, the brand, or some other factor.  A number of copy–testing companies do offer a likability score but they suggest it needs to be interpreted relative to other consumer responses.  Questions that try to evaluate likability, investigate such things as Personally Relevant, Important to me, Stimulates interest or Curiosity, Creates warm Feelings, Enjoyable, Entertaining, and fun.
  • 22. 4. Inquiry Tests:- Inquiry Tests measure the number of responses to an advertisement.  The response can be a call to a toll–free number, an e–mail or Web site visit, a coupon return, a visit to a dealer, an entry in a contest, a call to a salesperson, or an actual transaction.  Inquiry tests are the primary measurement tool for direct– response communication, but they are also used to evaluate advertisements and sales promotions when the inquiry is built into the message design.  Inquiry tests also are used to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative advertisements using a split–run technique in magazines, where there are two versions of the magazine printed, one with ad A and the other with ad B.  The ad that pulls the most response is deemed to be the most effective.
  • 23. 5. Scanner Research:- Many retail outlets, especially supermarkets, use electronic scanners at the checkout to collect consumer information.  Each product one buys has an electronic bar code that contains the name of the product and its price. The Regional Supermarket System may decide to establish a consumer panel so it can track sales among various consumer groups.  In scanner research, one would be asked to join the panel, which might contain hundreds of other customers. One would complete a fairly extensive questionnaire and be assigned an ID number. One might receive a premium or a discount on purchases for one’s participation. Each time one make a purchase, he also submit his ID number. Therefore, if the Supermarket runs a two–page newspaper ad, it can track actual sales to determine to what extent the ad worked.  Various manufacturers who sell products to the said Supermarket can do the same kind of testing.  The panel questionnaire also contains a list of media that one use, so media can also be evaluated.
  • 24. 6. Single–Source Research:- Thanks to scanners, combined with computer technology and data and the use of electronic media because of which researchers are closer to showing a causal relationship between advertising and sales because of Single– source research.  Single–source research companies arrange to control the television signal of a community’s households.  The company divides the house holds into equivalently matched groups. It then sends advertisements to one group but not to the other and collects exact records of what every household purchases.  This information is collected through the scanners found at the supermarket cash register.  Because advertising is the only manipulated variable, the method permits an unambiguous reading of cause and effect.
  • 25.  The data collected in this way are known as single–source data because advertising and product–purchasing data come from the same source.  Although fairly expensive, single–source data can produce exceptionally dependable results.  Real advertisements are received under natural conditions in the home and the resulting purchases are actual purchases made by consumers.  However, the method usually requires more than six months to produce usable results.  Critics also say that single–source research is better for short– term immediate sales effects and doesn’t capture very well other brand–building effects.