Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Women in hinduism

301 views

Published on

The discussion in this assignment includes the status of women in Hindu religion. How was the status in the early ages and how is it now is the topic of discussion. I have highlighted how the status of Hindu women has changed over the time. It also includes discussions about the existing laws for Hindu women in Bangladesh.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Women in hinduism

  1. 1. The Post-Vedic age extends from 1000 B.C. to 500 B.C. The Early Vedic begins from 1500 B.C.
  2. 2. From 4th century B.C to 3rd century B.C. girls were given education. There existed the initiation ceremony or Upanayana, for both girls and boys. If they wanted to pursue knowledge without getting married, they were allowed to do so, without any constraints.
  3. 3. The educators divided women into two groups Brahmavadinis - life-long students of theology and philosophy Sadyodvahas - the latter used to prosecute their studies till their marriage at the age of 15 or 16.
  4. 4. A young daughter who has observed Brahmacharya (i.e. finished her studies) should be married to a bridegroom who like her is learned. (Yajur-Veda VIII. 1)
  5. 5. Unmarried daughters had share in their fathers’ property. Daughter had full legal rights in the property of her father in the absence of any son.
  6. 6. Mother’s property, after her death, was equally divided among sons and unmarried daughters. However, married women had no share in father’s property.
  7. 7. As a wife, a woman had no direct share in her husband’s property. A widowed mother had some rights.
  8. 8. As per the marriage hymn of Rigveda, the wife is the co-owner of the family property along with her husband.
  9. 9. Stridhan- The term is used to denote property over which women are allowed to have their own absolute right in normal times. property like ornaments, jewellery, costly apparel etc.
  10. 10. Eight forms of marriages Brahma Daiva Prajapatya Arsha Gandharva Asura Rakshasa Paishacha
  11. 11. Scholars agree that in the Rig-Vedic period, it was unheard of that a girl should be married before the age of 16. The fact that a young marriage was not recommended.
  12. 12. An unmarried learned daughter should be married to a bridegroom who like her is learned. Never think of giving in marriage a daughter of very young age. (Rig Veda III 55:16)
  13. 13. The girls and boys of the Rig Vedic society had freedom to choose their partners in life Ancient and early medieval Hindu society did not practice Dowry or Sati During this time intercaste marriages took place in society. People were given absolute freedom to choose their caste
  14. 14. Monogamy was normal. Yet there are instances where polygamy is distinctly recorded. The rich, kings and ruling section of the society were practicing polygamy
  15. 15. As in the case of a widower, the widows are allowed to marry again. The funeral hymn in Vedas exhorts widow to marry the one who holds her hand is willing to marry Atharveda too mentions of women marrying second time.
  16. 16. The goddess is viewed as central in Shakti and Saiva Hindu tradition. The 10th chapter of the Rigveda for example, asserts the feminine to be the supreme principle behind all of cosmos, in the following hymn called as Devi Sukta.
  17. 17. Rig Vedic society was free from social evils like female infanticide, sati and childmarriage.
  18. 18. Women attended fairs and festivals and were free to move about with their husbands or loved ones. They were allowed to attend Sabhas or assemblies of the learned ones. Women never observed purdha in the Vedic period.
  19. 19. The woman was regarded as having an equally important share in the social and religious life because a man without woman was considered as an inadequate person
  20. 20. Women are mentioned and are participants in the philosophical debates of the Upanishads, as well as scholars, teachers and priestesses during the Vedic age. Exmp: Gargi and Maitreyi. Women not only composed hymns but were also well-versed in sacred texts. Women also used to learn music and dancing
  21. 21. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (800 BCE)- As a husband, man should cook rice for the wife.
  22. 22. In the Hindu epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, the role of women is mixed. In the Ramayana Sita is respected, honored and seen as inseparable beloved but presented as a homemaker. The Ramayana illustrates the Hindu ideal women of India.
  23. 23. In Mahabharata we find instances where women gave counsel and advice to men on social and religious issues. Women had an effective role in social and political life of the then society.
  24. 24. No man, even in anger, should ever do anything that is disagreeable to his wife; for happiness, joy, virtue and everything depend on the wife. Wife is the sacred soil in which the husband is born again, even the Rishis cannot create men without women. — Adi Parva, Mahabharata Book, 1.74.50-51
  25. 25. Women are deprived of the Upanayana ceremony and thereby of education The saints encouraged women to read religious books and to educate themselves but they were deprived of any institutional education
  26. 26. The Smriti writers like Manu and Narada forbade a widow to inherit her husband's property. They gave the right of inheritance to sapindas or kinsmen.
  27. 27. Manu deprives women of her economic rights also. He says, “A wife, a son and a slave, these three are declared to have no property, the wealth which they earn is for him to whom they belong”.
  28. 28. Manu approved only three forms of marriage such as:- Brahma, where the father himself invites a learned man of Vedas to marry his daughter Daiva where the girl is married to a priest who conducts a sacrifice, and the Arsha where the bride groom offers a cow and bull or two pairs of the same to the father of the bride.
  29. 29. Remarriage was allowed for men:- If the wife was barren if she had only daughters if she was quarrelsome by nature A prudent man should not marry a maiden who has no brothers.
  30. 30. Manu even makes provisions for punishments of a woman by her husband, if ever she committed any faults. She should be beaten with a rope or a split bamboo.
  31. 31. Widow remarriage was forbidden. According to him a widow should remain faithful to her husband's memory. But a widower could marry again in order to conduct the sacrificial rites.
  32. 32. Child marriage was common. The childwidows were ill-treated by the society. They were forced to live a life full of restrictions. They were excluded from all auspicious ceremonies and were looked down upon as ominous beings.
  33. 33. Kautilya's Artha Sastra reveals the status of woman as a child-bearing machine. Thus the Rig Vedic concept of "Sahadharmini" or equal partner was replaced by the “Pativrata Dharma” or the duties of a chaste wife who would fulfill the wishes of her husband without questioning them.
  34. 34. Divorce was not granted. Dowryor Satipractices likely became widespread (sometime in the 2nd millennium CE)
  35. 35. In other verses Manusmriti declares that. “Women must be honored and adorned “ “Where women are revered, there the gods rejoice; but where they are not, no sacred rite bears any fruit ". “A woman must never seek to live independently".
  36. 36. During the time of Kautilya, women began to be treated as a chattel, had no separate identity of her own. By 200 B.C. pre-pubescent marriages became the order of the day. The general belief was that if women were given freedom, they would transgress the limits.
  37. 37. There arose a tendency to picture woman as a weak-minded individual who is prone to all infirmities, who needs protection and disciplining throughout her life. Women had no recognized place in society was revealed in the laws pertaining to marriage, divorce, property rights and right of inheritance
  38. 38. Manu insisted that a woman should never be allowed any freedom and that a woman should always worship her husband as a god.
  39. 39. “Father protects (her) in childhood, husband protects (her) in youth, and sons protect (her) in old age. A woman cannot be left unprotected.” (MS 9.3)
  40. 40. Panini III,2,36, which yields "Asuryampashya Raja-darah" which means those who do not see the sun, that is, the wives of a king.“
  41. 41. "A woman who goes out during day time, to sports or to see a woman or spectacle shall pay a fine of six panas.“ - Kautilya's Artha Sastra
  42. 42. A husband, even if he is wicked, should be worshipped by the wife as her lord and master. -Kautilya
  43. 43. Purdah Pratha, Sati Pratha, Child marriage system, Girl killing system, Polygamy etc. were the main social evils of this period.
  44. 44. During the 15th Century, the situation underwent some change. The Bhakti movement introduced new trends. The saints like Chaitanya, Nanak, Kabir, Meera, Ramdas and Tulsi stood for the right of women to religious worship.
  45. 45. The situation was like as Emily Dickinson ironically articulated in one of her poems: They put me in the closet because they liked me still.
  46. 46. According to Bangladesh Law Hindu women only get a limited share. They inherit life interest in the property. There are five female Sapindas according to the Dayabagha law (widow, daughter, mother, father's mother and the mother of father's father).
  47. 47. No other female relation is recognised as heir. A daughter cannot receive any property and cannot get life interest in the presence of son, grand son and great grand son.
  48. 48. The ‘Hindu Marriage Registration Bill-2012’ authorises government authorities to appoint a Hindu Marriage Registrar at every ward and upzilla across the country. The registrar will not register marriage of a woman below 18 years of age and a man under 21 years.
  49. 49. As per a 1946 law, Hindu women can file cases with courts to only regain the rights to conjugal life.
  50. 50. Hindu women can file cases under Family Court Ordinance 1985, Dowry Act 1980 and Women and Children Repression Act 2003.
  51. 51. Existing laws are too inadequate to protect the Hindu women's rights.

×