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041.011 kurt salmon retail white paper


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041.011 kurt salmon retail white paper

  1. 1. Retail Industry InsightsMaximisingInventory
  2. 2. 2 Retail Industry Insights: Maximising Inventory EfficiencyKURT SALMON Germany
  3. 3. Retail Operational ExcellenceThere is nothing like a recession to focus the mind on releasing cash by re-ducing inventory. Kurt Salmon analysis confirms that most retailers carrybetween 20% to 40% surplus inventory. The good news is that customer ser-vice improves when a stock turn improvement programme is properly imple-mented. A win-win solution, but what are the key elements of an effectivestock reduction plan?Inventory efficiency to build competitive rates, inventory as a percentage of sales, percent-advantage – retail operational excellence age end of season’s stock and percentage Kurt Salmon Kurt Salmon, the leading global management con-Retail operational excellence is the combination sulting firm specialising in the retail and consumerof four drivers: business growth, margin improve- goods sectors, has developed a complete set ofment, product performance and working capital approaches and tools to assist retailers in their in-and cost control. In periods of downturn, when ventory efficiency growth opportunities are limited and ini-tiatives on margin or product performance appearto take longer in delivering business benefits, re- Maximising inventory efficiency throughtailers tend to concentrate on working capital and three areas of supply chain optimisation:cost optimisation to sustain operational efficiency. Retailers can maximise inventory efficiency throughIn retail, where inventory typically accounts for 10% three types of initiatives:of sales, optimising working capital is an important • aking sure the product is right – this is about Mcomponent of performance improvement. The six assortment rationalisation, which has a positivekey indicators of inventory performance improve- impact on stock levels, but does not primarily fo-ment are stock turns, sell-through rates, shrink cus on them.EXHIBIT 1: Inventory Indicators Within Kurt Salmon’s Retail Operational Excellence Model Business Growth Retail Operational Margin Improvement Excellence = Return on Equity Product Performance Working Capital and Operating Cost Control Labour Costs Logistics Costs Stock Management Cash Management Property Costs Stock turns Inventory percent of sales Sell-through rates Percent end of season stock Shrinkage Percent Industry Insights: Maximising Inventory Efficiency Retail 3
  4. 4. • aking sure the delivery channels are correct M results in sales revenue increases, improved avail- – this is about product flow optimisation, which ability and decreased markdown, which also drives directly addresses the inventory question, but is the reduction of obsolete inventory. generally considered as a long-term initiative.• Making sure stock management is performed ac- Our approach uses deep assortment analysis cou- cording to best practices – this is inventory man- pled with product and consumer knowledge. Ex- agement excellence, an initiative which directly tar- amples of analysis include: gets the skills, art and science of managing pushed • dentifying and understanding SKU proliferation, I and pulled inventory, from the initial forecast to the to reduce the number of poor or underperfor- management of over-stocks and returns. ming products adding to stock management complexity. • nderstanding which products and segments U1. The Right Product of the range drive sales and profitability, in anAssortment Rationalisation attempt to focus working capital on the mostInventory efficiency is not the only benefit of as- profitable segments and refine service-level re-sortment rationalisation. In fact, it is often a side quirements.effect. In its entirety, Kurt Salmon defines assort- • omparing actual size selling to store receipts, in Cment rationalisation as a process and set of ana- order to avoid over-stocking the wrong productlytical tools used to understand past performance, declinations, generating end-of-season stock.providing directional feedback on the optimal as-sortment breadth. Our approach helps identifyopportunities to improve the assortment that will 2. The Right Channeldrive sales, margin, and inventory turns. Rational- Product Flow Optimisationised assortments are simpler to manage and result Assuming assortments are optimised, the next taskin consolidated demand, a reduced number of op- is to identify the best product flow network fortions, and therefore in an opportunity to reduce each product and supplier. Maximising inventoryoverall stocks. efficiency is about moving categories away from the DC stock channel to an alternative zero-stockKurt Salmon’s assortment rationalisation toolkit channel, such as cross-docking, bulk-pick-to-zerocombines a selection of tools and data analyses or understand the true opportunities for rational-ising the product offer, comparing retailers’ per- Channel selection is based on four key questionsformance to industry benchmarks. This method which need to be regularly revisited:EXHIBIT 2: Product Flow Optimisation Store (or multichannel) Balance of merchandising configurations with in-store logistics requirements requirements Alternative Select the best channel for each product range and review the consequences Product Flows Network Inventory Identifiy optimal distribution of stocks and review impacts on total supply Simulation chain inventory Highlight the impacts and identify whether the existing infrastructure will Infrastructure Capacities support the target channels and Costs4 Retail Industry Insights: Maximising Inventory EfficiencyKURT SALMON Germany
  5. 5. • ow predictable is the product’s demand fore- H We have developed an approach and a series of cast? Demand is more predictable for products tools to simulate and identify the best product with stable demand patterns and large frequent flow network for a retail chain. order quantities (as opposed to erratic demand and small quantities). Zero-stock channels can Our approach takes a 360° view of all supply chain be preferred for predictable demand patterns, variables affecting product flow management: whereas DC stock should be kept for products • Store (or multichannel) requirements – allocation where demand patterns are unpredictable. and replenishment• ow critical is product availability in store? Not H • lternative product flows A all products are high-margin, traffic-builder prod- • etwork (supplier, consolidation centres, DCs N ucts that must be NOOS (Never Out-Of-Stock). and stores) inventory Low margin, easily substitutable products do not • nfrastructure capacities and costs. I require the same level of availability, and there- fore do not require the safety of a DC stock. Product flow optimisation is an enabler for mid- to• ow reactive are my suppliers? Supplier reac- H long-term decisions, generally used to design or tivity depends on their localisation, and on the validate major supply chain network infrastructure reliability of their internal operations. With reac- choices, or select the location of a distribution cen- tive suppliers, retailers are safer and can adopt tre or logistics partner. However, quick action and a zero-stock channel. Less reactive suppliers will fast results are possible by working in two areas: drive retailers to keep stock in their DC as a safety • ncreasing the flexibility of channel allocation. I measure against their poor delivery capabilities. Best-in-class retailers have flexible channels,• ow much stock can I hold in store? The ap- H which they adapt depending on the product life propriate inventory level in store depends on the cycle. Typically, retailers would deliver a newly product’s size and value, as well as the demand launched product using cross-docking, and then for that product. Retailers should choose to hold switch to the DC stock channel for replenishment. more stock in the DC for products which are too • Revisiting channel allocation by looking at four large or too expensive to be stored in store in key questions. Best-in-class have excellent fore- large quantities. For others, the combination of casting capabilities and a clear strategy regard- the inventory in store and the delivery frequency ing product availability requirements. They de- could allow them to reduce DC stock. velop advanced supply chain partnerships with their key suppliers, and maximise both the use ofThe combination of the four answers enables the store space and delivery delivery channel to be identified.EXHIBIT 3: Maximising Inventory Efficiency Collaboration between central merchandiser, stores and suppliers to best evaluate pushed quantities Best Practice Joint calendar for each promotion and new product introduction PUSH Exact match between execution and the agreed plan in terms of quantities and lead-time (based on Who is the best source? Stores, central merchandisers, or suppliers? How should these sources be best forecast) leveraged? Key Questions What flexibility should be given to stores? e.g. Can they refuse a central promotion? What is the best method for synchronising information sharing with suppliers and stores (i.e. align demand visibility with manufacturing plan)? Automated calculation of replenishment quantities based on sales results PULL Best Practice Advanced replenishment algorithms allowing flexible use of various calculation methods Optimisation based on multiple criteria (transportation costs, service, stock levels) (based on sales) What is the process for validating suggested order quantities? Is the store involved? Key Questions How and who decides the replenishment parameters? Should the stores be involved? Best Practice Flexible model which allows the hold and flow model to be managed dynamically and to be PUSH/PULL aligned with the product life-cycle (varies with product When do we have enough visibility of sales to switch from push to pull? lifecycle) Key Questions How can alerts be generated to indicate moving from pull to push (markdowns and liquidation)? Who makes these decisions? What is the role of the store vs. the central merchandising department? Industry Insights: Maximising Inventory Efficiency Retail 5
  6. 6. “The Kurt Salmon team was very good to work with. Theyreally knew what they were doing and challenged us,while still managing to work within our culture and values.They showed honesty and integrity, putting our interests first.”Head of Retail HR, UK top 5 grocer3. Excellence in Inventory Management and amounts. The analysis uses daily or weeklyOnce product assortments and delivery channels store-level unit sales, markdown rates and timingare defined, retailers can bring inventory efficiency to analyse the sales and stock impact of mark-further by adopting best-in-class inventory man- downs and their timing, in order to best adjustagement practices. Kurt Salmon’s complete inven- markdown practices.tory management toolkit assesses retailer perfor-mance and develops quick-win improvement plansin five key areas: Examples of project results:• Forecast accuracy. Understanding the accuracy of the demand forecast can help drive accurate End-to-end supply chain re-engineering for replenishment decisions. A comparison of the global top 20 retailer: Improved underlying original product forecast versus daily or weekly operating model by over $1 billion annually, sales results can help determine the accuracy of including reducing over 160 DCs to fewer than the demand forecast and opportunities to im- 25 and implementing a new buying model. prove supply chain performance. Supply chain change programme, optimi-• ptimisation of visual presentation. Determin- O sing balance of availability, stock-holding ing the optimal initial fixture fill quantity that and costs: Identified 30% stock reduction in satisfies demand and is visually appealing to the stores and DCs. customer is essential. Weekly store-level unit nd-to-end supply chain programme – new E sales, presentation standards, assortment levels, product flows, inventory optimisation and and zone store assignments are taken as inputs gap analysis with existing infrastructure: In- to identify opportunities to increase or decrease creased availability by 9%, £41m stock reduc- store inventory to better fulfill demand. tion, ability to manage 3-year growth without• ptimisation of hold and flow model. The objec- O investment, reduced DC costs. tive in this area is to define the optimal push/pull/ Range rationalisation, including workshops push strategy for all relevant product categories. and assortment optimisation model resulting The simulation uses historical and forecasted in action plans to improve range profitability: weekly sales and receipts by style or colour, safe- 10% to 25% reduction in SKU’s, increased range ty stock variables, and presentation standards by profitability, 8% increase in margin with main- store cluster to best calibrate the quantities and tained sales. timing of the push/pull/push process.• llocation effectiveness. The objective in this A area is to align store-based allocation quanti- ties against actual demand. Our simulation uses style-level allocation units or store-level receipt units, and daily or weekly store-level unit sales, to evaluate the allocation variance achieved. We also simulate the result that would have been achieved with alternative allocation techniques, in order to identify the most appropriate one.• Markdown effectiveness. The objective in this area is to improve the efficiency of markdowns per category by optimising markdown timing6 Retail Industry Insights: Maximising Inventory EfficiencyKURT SALMON Germany
  7. 7. Industry Insights: Maximising Inventory Efficiency Retail 7
  8. 8. ©2011 Kurt Salmon Copyright Note:Kurt Salmon Germany GmbHKönigsallee 1140212 DüsseldorfT: +49 (0)211 7595 0 F: +49 (0)211 7595 111info@kurtsalmon.comwww.kurtsalmon.comAuthors:Dorothea Ern-StockumManaging DirectorKurt Salmon Germanydorothea.ern@kurtsalmon.comDr. Sven KromerSenior ManagerKurt Salmon Germanysven.kromer@kurtsalmon.comOur ServicesStrategy and transaction Operations• Brand Equity and Consumer Insights • Merchandising and Planning• Competitor, Channel and Category Analysis • Product Development and Sourcing• New Market Entry and Internationalization • Store Operations• Commercial Due Diligence and • Supply Chain and Logistics Post Acquisition Integration • Information Technology• Turnaround and Restructuring Formed by the merger of Kurt Salmon Associates and Ineum Consulting, Kurt Salmon is a global manage- ment consultancy of more than 1,600 consultants in 15 countries across five continents. Kurt Salmon is an industry specialist and in Germany focused on retail, consumer goods and financial services. Today‘s increasingly complex environment demands more than just a consultant — as a trusted advisor, Kurt Salmon works with industry leaders to design and then drive strategies and solutions that make a lasting and meaningful impact. Kurt Salmon is committed to delivering measurable results for its clients through executional excellence.