Classroom ManagementDescribe the importance of classroom managementand its impact on academic learning time. Describedifferences in the approach to classroommanagement from a behavioral, cognitive, andhumanistic perspective. Name and describe threegeneral categories of the events of classroommanagement from a behavioral perspective, givingexamples of specific teacher activities for eachcategory.Developed by W. Huitt, 1999
Classroom ManagementPrimary purpose is to gain control of theclassroomGood classroom management results inhigh levels of student engaged time
Classroom ManagementBrophy (1983) states there are 3 generalprinciples for good classroom management:Brophy, J. (1983). Effective classroom management. The SchoolAdministrator, 40(7), 33-36.• Willingness of the teacher to acceptresponsibility for classroom control• Long-term, solution-oriented approaches toproblems (rather than short-term, desist/control responses
Classroom ManagementBrophy (1983) states there are 3 generalprinciples for good classroom management:Brophy, J. (1983). Effective classroom management. The SchoolAdministrator, 40(7), 33-36.• Check to see if symptomatic behavior iscaused by underlying personal problems(impulsivity, lack of awareness, homeproblems, etc.)
Classroom ManagementBrophy (1983) also cites 3 theoreticalorientations to classroom management:• Self-concept/personal adjustment -- theteacher encourages discouraged students,builds self-esteem by arranging for andcalling attention to success, improving peerrelationships, etc.
Classroom ManagementBrophy (1983) also cites 3 theoreticalorientations to classroom management:• Insight (cognitive) -- teacher spends timewith problem students individually, gettingto know them personally, attempting toinstruct and inform them
Classroom ManagementBrophy (1983) also cites 3 theoreticalorientations to classroom management:• Behavioristic -- teacher offers incentives,negotiates contracts, calls attention to andreinforces desirable behavior
Classroom ManagementThis presentation will focus on theapplication of principles from behaviorialpsychology, especially the application ofconsequences to modify behavior.
Behavioristic ApproachThere are 3 major categories of actions totake in establishing a behaviorally-orientedclassroom management program:• Structuring/Selecting and ArrangingActivities• Monitor Student Behavior• Reinforce Positive Behavior/Redirect Inappropriate Behavior
Behavioristic ApproachStructuring/Selecting and Arranging Activities• Establish rules and procedures early
Establishing RulesGeneral Recommendations• Select 4 or 5 rules that you will use to setguidelines and limits for behavior in yourclassroom.• State the rules in terms of positiveexpectations of behavior you want to see. Becareful about stating rules in the form of"Dont.”
Establishing RulesGeneral Recommendations• Think about specific examples of behaviorthat would demonstrate each rule.• Post the rules in your classroom.• Teach the rules just as you would academiccontent using the discussed previously.
Establishing RulesSample Rules For The Elementary Level• Be polite and helpful.• Take care of your school.• Behave in the cafeteria.• Do not hit, shove or hurt others.• Keep the bathroom clean.
Establishing RulesSample Rules For The Secondary Level• Bring all needed materials to class.• Be in your seat and ready to work when thebell rings.• Obtain permission before speaking or leavingyour seat.• Respect and be polite to all people.• Respect other peoples property.
Establishing RulesRules Our Family Uses At Home• I will do what I am asked to do without anargument.•I will be kind and respectful to my parentsand other family members.•I will ask permission and accept the decisionwithout getting angry.• I will remain calm when I feel angry and talkabout how I feel.
Behavioristic ApproachStructuring/Selecting and Arranging Activities• Establish rules and procedures early• Establish consequences1. reinforcers (Premack principle)2. punishers
Establishing ConsequencesConsequences are environmental stimuli thatincrease or decrease the probability that abehavior will occur again.Rewards and punishers should be selected thatmatch the significance or meaningfulness of theexhibited action.We want to establish consequences that willeither reinforce or redirect behavior.
Establishing ConsequencesLevel ofSignificanceReward PenaltyMild• Smile• Compliment• Cheery note onassignment• Small amountof tokens tradedfor small reward• Eye contact• Have studentstate rule broken• Change seats• Isolation• Confiscation offorbidden objectsor notes
Establishing ConsequencesLevel ofSignificanceReward PenaltyExtensive• Field trips• Recognitionat awardsbanquet• Write up innewspaper• Trip toprincipals office• Loss of specialclass event (e.g.,field trip)
Establishing ConsequencesThe most important aspect of deliveringconsequences is the consistency of delivery.Especially in terms of punishers, anyinconsistency might actually increase ratherthan decrease the probability that thebehavior will occur again.
Behavioristic ApproachStructuring/Selecting and Arranging Activities• Establish rules and procedures early• Establish method of delivering reinforcers1. Token reinforcement programs2. Contingency contract programs• Establish consequences1. reinforcers (Premack principle)2. punishers
Behavioristic ApproachStructuring/Selecting and Arranging Activities• State expectations clearly• Focus on positive expectations• Practice "positive" behavior• Establish group cohesiveness and responsibility• Establish cues• Model appropriate behavior
Behavioristic ApproachMonitor Student Behavior• Physical layout: ability to see all students• Teacher movement: move around the room• Group focus: keep students involved• Overlapping: ability to supervise severalactivities at once
Behavioristic ApproachMonitor Student Behavior• Withitness: communicate to students you areaware of whats happening• Pacing/movement management: keep lessonsand students moving
Behavioristic ApproachReinforce Positive Behavior/Redirect Inappropriate Behavior• Anticipate occurrence of positive andinappropriate behavior• Provide specific feedback regardingbehavior and expectations• Focus on positive behavior; teacherattention to inappropriate behavior can bereinforcing• Hold students accountable
Behavioristic ApproachReinforce Positive Behavior/Redirect Inappropriate Behavior• Effective praise will:1. be contingent on display ofpositive behavior2. specify clearly the behaviors beingreinforced3. be believable by the student
Behavioristic ApproachReinforce Positive Behavior/Redirect Inappropriate Behavior• Methods of coping with inappropriatebehavior:1. Negative reinforcement2. Satiation3. Punishment
Behavioristic ApproachWhile there are viable alternatives to thebehavioristic approach to classroommanagement, it is clearly the most often usedin public schools today.Remember that the long-term goal of anyclassroom management program is self-management.