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  1. 1. Individual Behavior and Learning 2 C H A P T E R T W O
  2. 2. Assessing Competencies at EMC <ul><li>When EMC was about to dramatically expand its work force, an executive team at the enterprise storage products firm developed an “Employee Success Profile.” This list of generic competencies represented the traits of successful employees, such as goal-orientation and integrity. </li></ul>Courtesy of EMC Corp.
  3. 3. Model of Individual Behavior Individual Behavior and Performance Motivation Role Perceptions Situational Contingencies Ability
  4. 4. Types of Work-Related Behaviors <ul><li>Joining the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining with the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining work attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Performing required job duties </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibiting organizational citizenship </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definition of Learning <ul><li>A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior tendency) that occurs as a result of a person’s interaction with the environment. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Behavior Modification <ul><li>We “operate” on the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alter behavior to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operant versus respondent behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Law of effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>likelihood that an operant behavior will be repeated depends on its consequences </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. A-B-Cs of OB Modification Example Consequences What happens After behavior Employee receives attendance bonus Behavior What person says or does Employee attends scheduled work Antecedents What happens before behavior Attendance bonus system is announced
  8. 8. Contingencies of Reinforcement Behavior Increases/ Maintained Behavior Decreases Consequence is Introduced Consequence is Removed Punishment Positive reinforcement Extinction Punishment Negative reinforcement No Consequence
  9. 9. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Continuous reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed interval </li></ul><ul><li>Variable interval </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Variable ratio </li></ul>
  10. 10. OB Modification Limitations <ul><li>Can’t reinforce nonobservable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer tends to wear off </li></ul><ul><li>Variable ratio schedule is a form of gambling </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical concerns about perceived manipulation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Learning through Feedback <ul><li>Any information about consequences of our behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies role perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective feedback improves ability </li></ul><ul><li>Positive feedback motivates future behavior </li></ul>
  12. 12. Multi-Source (360 Degree) Feedback Evaluated Employee Co-worker Customer Subordinate Project leader Supervisor Co-worker Subordinate Subordinate
  13. 13. Giving Feedback Effectively Effective Feedback Specific Frequent Timely Relevant Credible
  14. 14. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Behavioral modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing and modeling behavior of others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning behavior consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing consequences that others experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcing our own behavior with consequences within our control </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Learning at International Forest Products <ul><li>At International Forest Products Ltd., employees receive hands-on, just-in-time learning from coworkers on the job site, not just in the classroom. </li></ul>Courtesy of International Forest Products Ltd.
  16. 16. Learning Through Experience <ul><li>Benefits of experiential learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps acquire tacit knowledge/skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows implicit learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practicing experiential learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize mistakes as part of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action learning -- investigating a real problem </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Individual Behavior and Learning 2 C H A P T E R T W O