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Structured by Gender

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Structured by Gender

  1. 1. STRUCTURED BY GENDER: INEQUALITY FOR WOMEN IN THE WORKFORCE By Kumiko Sasa
  2. 2. Gender Roles Females-Femininity • intimate, emotional, caring and communal (Watson 2012) • They are told to value interconnectedness and nurturance. (Felmlee, Sweet and Sinclair 2012) • “Women are rated more highly than men on communal attributes such as emotional expressiveness, nurturance, interpersonal sensitivity, kindness, and responsiveness” (Ridgeway 2011:58) • Communication through communication Males- Masculinity • Men are portrayed as less emotional and more agentic. • They are taught to be more competitive, independent and aggressive (Felmlee, Sweet and Sinclair 2012) • “Men are rated more highly than women on agentic qualities such as instrumental competence, assertiveness, confidence, independence, forcefulness, and dominance” (Ridgeway 2011:58). • Communication through activities
  3. 3. What does gender structure? -Lifestyles & Priorities -Careers & Occupations - Style of Work - Responsibilities At Home It creates two barriers: 1. Occupational Segregation 2. Sex gap in pay In order to understand these we have to look at: 1. Glass ceilings 2. The Mommy Track 3. Glass Escalators
  4. 4. Barrier One: Occupational Segregation “if it is assumed that men are more aggressive and daring by nature, police officer and firefighter become “natural” male occupations. If women are assumed to be more compassionate and nurturing, nurse and schoolteacher become “natural” female occupations” (Marger 2014:340). Naturally male occupations: - Auto mechanics - Lawyers - Doctors - Truck drivers - Firefighters - engineers Naturally female occupations: - Teaching - Nursing - Dental hygienists - Waitressing - Social workers - Caretakers “this gender essentialism-the idea that there are unique male and female traits that make men and women naturally suited to different occupational roles—continues to drive women into the non-manual sector of the labor force and, conversely, men into the manual sector” (2014:341)
  5. 5. ACTUALITY OF OCCUPATION SEGREGATION- FEMALES ( United States Department of Labor 2013)
  6. 6. ACTUALITY OF OCCUPATION SEGREGATION- MALES Male-dominated occupations by share of women, 2004: CBS.com
  7. 7. BarrierTwo: Sex Gap in Pay On average women make 23% less than men! (77% of men’s earnings)
  8. 8. Looking at the Sex gap according to Occupation • female elementary or middle school teachers earned over 14% less than similarly employed men • female registered nurses, whom comprise the majority of the field, earn more than 5% less than those who were male • female physicians and surgeons earned 36% less than males in the same position • female lawyers typically earn 25% less than lawyers who are male • (U.S. Department of Labor 2010).
  9. 9. GLASS CEILINGS An invisible limit that constricts women’s opportunities for career advancements
  10. 10. MOMMY TRACK “a career path for women who are willing to forgo promotions, raises, etc. so as to spend more time with their children” (Dictionary.com 2014)
  11. 11. GLASS ESCALATOR • “THE PROMOTIONAL RIDE MEN TAKE TO THE TOP OF A WORK ORGANIZATION, ESPECIALLY IN FEMINIZED JOBS” (CONLEY 2013:314) • AREN’T HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR CARETAKING, BUT PROVIDING
  12. 12. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6iGoCz4pzo

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