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Transmisiion line design concept

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Transmisiion line design concept

  1. 1. TRANSMISSION TOWER R.Saravanan, PGET, L&T, UAE R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 1
  2. 2. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 2
  3. 3. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 3
  4. 4. Power in UAE..? Production capacity – 18.74 GW. (lack in peak seasonal times) Lack of natural gas Gulf Cooperation Council – UAE, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia & Oman GCC began region-wide power grid – demand UAE has no spare power capacity Phase 3 of GCC grid to southern system of UAE In Dec’2009 $20 billion contract to Korean Electric Power – 4 nuclear reactors 1st reactor may 2017 – each reactor 1400 MW R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 4
  5. 5. Electric power transmission..? The bulk transfer of electrical energy, from generating power plants to substations Power is usually transmitted through overhead power lines Underground power transmission has a significantly higher cost and greater operational limitations - urban & sensitive areas Overhead Power lines..?  An electric power transmission line suspended by towers  It is the lowest-cost method of transmission for large quantities of electric energy (most of insulation by air)  The bare wire conductors on the line are generally made of aluminum R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 5
  6. 6. Transmission tower..?• Tall structure usually a Steel lattice tower, used to support an overhead power line• Electricity pylon – UK & parts of Europe• Ironman – Australia• Hydro tower in parts of Canada R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 6
  7. 7. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 7
  8. 8. TOWER GEOMENTRY EXTENSIONS BRACINGSANATOMY R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 8
  9. 9. Tower Anatomy  Peak - supports G.W  Cage - b/w peak & tower body  Cross Arm - Support Conductor/G.W  Boom – supports power conductors (horizontal)  Tower body – main portion, connects cage/boom to foundation/(leg/body )extensions R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 9
  10. 10. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 10
  11. 11. Bracings Provided for interconnecting the legs To afford desired slenderness ratio for economical tower design Framing angle b/w bracings & main leg members shall not be < 15 degree Patterns area) Single web systemb) Double web or warren systemc) Pratt systemd) Portal systeme) Diamond Bracing systemf) Multiple Bracing System R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 11
  12. 12. 1.Struts are designed 1.Tension diagonal 1.Shear carried byin compression & give eff.support to diagonal member(t)Diagonals in tension compression one @ 2.Large deflection2.NARROW BASE pt of connections under heavy loads 2.Used in both large 3.Unequal shears at3.66Kv single circuit and small towers top of four stubs for design R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 12
  13. 13. 1.1half of Horizontal 1. Similar to waran 1.Increse in strenghtmember in T & system reducing memberanother C 2.Horizontal member sizes2.Advantageous to carry no primary 2.Increase in No.ofuse it in BOTTOM loads designed as bolts, fabrication &panel redundant supports erection cost,3.Extensions & 3.Overal reduction inHeavy river crossing Wt & cost of steel R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 13
  14. 14. Body Extension Tower Extension Leg ExtensionBody ExtensionUsed to Increase the height of tower to obtain the reqd min Ground clearance & overroad crossings, river crossings, ground obstaclesBody extensions upto 7.5m height in steps 2.5m can be used & thus form a part ofstandard towerExtensions having greater heights (25m) the suitability is checked by reducing spanlength and angle of deviation. Practice in tower industry is also to specify negative bodyextension (portion of tower body is truncated) R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 14
  15. 15. Leg ExtensionTower Leg extensions are required when the tower was spotted in the undulatedsurface / Hilly terrain.While spotting the tower locations in hilly areas requires more benching or revetmentor both are involved , but suitable hill side (leg extensions) can be used to minimizebenching or revetment or both.Two types of Leg extension : i) Universal leg extension ii) Individual leg extension R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 15
  16. 16. Types of Tower1) Type of Insulator 5) No. of Circuits • Suspension • Single Circuit • Tension/Dead end • Double Circuit • Transposition • Multi-Circuit2) Type of Support 6) Deviation Angle. • Self Supporting • Ranges from 0 to 90 deg. • Guyed3) Shape at the base • Square • Rectangle4) kV Rating. • Ranges from 33 to 1200 kV • HVDC EDRC-TL Design R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE
  17. 17. Vertical Configuration Horizontal Configuration R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 17
  18. 18. Suspension Tower Tension Tower R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 18
  19. 19. Guy Towers R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 19
  20. 20. Conductor Configuration R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 20
  21. 21. 66 kv 132 kv 220 kv 400 kv R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 21
  22. 22. 66 kv 132 kv 220 kv 400 kv R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 22
  23. 23. Tower NomenclatureSr. Nomenclature Deviation RemarkNo.1 A/DA/S/SLC/T0/TDL/QA/SA/V 0-20 Suspension Tower •Used Small angle tower.2 B/DB/AT/DLB/TD2/QB/X 0-300 • Used as a Section Tower • Used as Medium Angle3 C/DC/BAT/DLC/TD3/QC/CZ 30-60 Tower •Used as a Transposition 60- •Used as a large angle Tower4 D/DD/BAT/DE/TD6/TDT/QD/DE 900/Dead •Used as a Dead End End Tower R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 23
  24. 24. Height of Tower StructureHeight of tower is determine by- H h1 h2 h3 h4h1=Minimum permissible ground clearanceh2=Maximum sagh3=Vertical spacing between conductorsh4=Vertical clearance between earth wireand top conductor R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 24
  25. 25. ELECTRICAL CLEARANCESSr. Type of Clearance 132 kV 220 kV 400 kV 765 kVNo1 Ground Clearance 6.1 m 7.0 m 8.84 m 15.5 m2 Live Metal Clearance in mm Swing 132 / 400 / 220 765 •Suspension insulator 15 15 1530 1980 3050 4400 (25°) 30 30 1370 1830 1860 1300 (55°) 45 - 1220 1675 - 60 1070 - - •Tension Insulator 0 0 1530 2130 3050 •Jumper 10 20 1530 2130 3050 4400 20 40 1070 1675 1860 1300 30 - 1070 - - -3 Mid Span Clearance (m) 6.1 8.5 9.0 12.44 Shielding Angle (Deg) 30 30 20 205 Phase to Phase Clearance Vertical 3.9 m 4.9 m Horizontal 6.8 m 8.4 m R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 25
  26. 26. Right of Way : Sr. Type of Clearance 132 kV 220 kV 400 kV 765 kV No 1 ROW width 27 m 35 m 52 m 85 m R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 26
  27. 27. DESIGN PARAMETERSTransmission VoltageNumber Of CircuitsClimatic ConditionsEnvironmental and Ecological ConsiderationConductorEarth WireInsulatorsSpan R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 27
  28. 28. Economic Voltage of Transmission of Power L KVA E = Transmission voltage (KV) (L-L). E 5 .5 L = Distance of transmission line in KM 1 .6 150 KVA=Power to be transferred R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 28
  29. 29. Aluminum is usedit has about half the weight of copper for the Conductorsame resistance, as well as being cheaperTypes:AAC : All Aluminium conductors.AAAC : All Aluminium Alloy conductorsACSR : Aluminium conductors, Steel-ReinforcedACAR : Aluminium conductor, Alloy-ReinforcedBundle conductors are used to reduce coronaloses & audible noiseIt consists of several conductors cablesconnected by non-conducting spacersIt is used to increase the amount of currentthat may be carried in lineAs a disadvantage, the bundle conductorshave higher wind loadingSpacers must resist the forces due to wind,and magnetic forces during a short-circuit spacers R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 29
  30. 30. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 30
  31. 31. Earth Wire Earth wire provided above the phase conductor across the line and grounded at every tower. It shield the line conductor from direct strokes Reduces voltage stress across the insulating strings during lightning strokes Galvanized steel earth wires are used Aerial marker balls (>600mm dia) (Red, Orange, White) Shield angle  25 -30 up to 220 KV  20 for 400 KV and above R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 31
  32. 32. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 32
  33. 33. Insulators Insulator are required to support the line conductor and provide clearance from ground and structure. Insulator material-  High grade Electrical Porcelain  Toughened Glass  Fiber GlassType of Insulator-  Disc Type  Strut Type  Long Rod Insulator R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 33
  34. 34. single string Insulator Strings  Disc insulator are joint by their ball pins and socket in their caps to form string.  No of insulator disc is decided by system voltage, switching and lighting over voltage amplitude and pollution Double string level.  Insulator string can be used either suspension or tension.  Two suspension string in parallel used at railways, road and river crossing as statutory requirement.  Swing of suspension string due to wind has to be taken into consider. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 34
  35. 35. Design Span lengths1.Basic SpanMost economic spanLine is designed over level groundThe requisite ground clearance is obtainedat maximum specified temperature R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 35
  36. 36. 2.Ruling Span 3.Average SpanAssumed design span that will produce,between dead ends Mean span length between dead endsIt is used to calculate the horizontal It is assumed that the conductor iscomponent of tension (which is applied to all freely suspended such that eachspans b/w anchor pts) individual span reacts to change inTower spotting on the profile is done by tension as a single average spanmeans of sag template, (which is based onruling span) Average span = (L1+ L2+...+L6) /6Ruling span = √ ( L1^3 + L2^3 +….+L6^3 / L1 + L2 + … + L6) R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 36
  37. 37. 4.Wind Span 5.Weight SpanHalf the sum of the two spans, Horizontal distance between theadjacent to support lowest point of conductor, on the twoIt is assumed that the conductor is spans adjacent to the towerfreely suspended such that each The lowest point is defined as pointindividual span reacts to change in at which the tangent to sag curvetension as a single average span It is used in design of cross-arms Wind span = 0.5(L1 + L2) Weight span = a1 + a2 R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 37
  38. 38. Determination of Base Width The base width(at the concrete level) is the distance between the centre of gravity at one corner leg and the centre of gravity of the adjacent corner leg. A particular base width which gives the minimum total cost of the tower and foundations. Ryle Formula The ratio of base width to total tower height for most towers is generally about one-fifth to one-tenth. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 38 38
  39. 39. Determination of Weight of towerRough approximationFrom knowledge of the positions of conductors & ground wire above ground level& overturning momentsRyle gives empirical formula in term of its height & maximum overturning momentat base Approximate values 132 kv – 1.7 metric tones 220 kv – 2.5 metric tones 400 kv – 7.7 metric tones 765 kv – 14 metric tones R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 39
  40. 40. LOADINGSLoads are applied in all three directions namely Transverse ( FX ), Vertical ( FY) and Longitudinal (FZ) direction.• Transverse loads consists of –  Wind on Conductor  Wind on Insulator  Component of Wire Tension in Transverse Direction (Deviation Load)  Wind on Tower Body• Vertical Load consists of –  Weight of Wire  Weight of Insulator  Weight of Line man & Tools  Self Weight of Tower• Longitudinal Load Consist of –  Component of Unbalanced pull of the wire in the longitudinal direction. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 40
  41. 41. Loads on Tower Normal Condition Broken Wire Condition R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 41
  42. 42. •Loads are calculated as per the guide lines furnished in specification/standard.•Standards for Calculation of Loads  IS – 802 – 1977  IS – 802 – 1995  DIN – VDE 0210  ASCE Manual  IEC – 826• The loads are calculated for following Conditions.  Reliability / Working condition  Security / Broken wire condition  Safety / Erection & maintenance Condition R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 42
  43. 43. ANALYSIS & DESIGN• Analysis is carried out by finite element software STAAD• Required FOS is provided in input file to find out ultimate force• The critical compression and tension in each member group is found out• Members and Connections are designed for these forces.• Iterations are carried out for the optimum usage of tower. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 43
  44. 44. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 44
  45. 45. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 45
  46. 46. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 46
  47. 47. Datas for foundation design FOUNDATIONIt costs 10-30 % of overall cost oftowerIt is the last step in designing processbut precedes the constructionOverload factors assumed in designsare 2.2 under Normal condition & 1.65under broken-wire conditions R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 47
  48. 48.  0.5 to 2m dia  Uplift loads are  Non-cohesive soil Shaft depth 3 to 15m resisted by undistrube  For non-cohesive soils Skin friction between material such as uncemented ground & shaft resists  Develop uplift load of sand or gravel uplift 2 to 3times that of an  Provide pad footing Used in usa, iidentical footing without undercut acceptance for wide without undercut  Usually followed in use in India INDIA at present R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 48
  49. 49.  Adopted in firm  Hybrid design  Augered footing with cohesive soils  Large uplift force are more than one bulb is Undercut on the pads to be resisted used to increase the Experience shows that  SBC is low uplift capacity this type of footing  35m long under develop resistance to reamed to 2.5 times uplift 2 to 3 times that dia of shaft given footing without  Clayey black cotton undercut soils & medium dense sandy soils R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 49
  50. 50.  In usa ,canada  Suitable in areas with  Special circumstances Steel corroded, rock out crop  River crossing towers periodic excavation &  Based on uplift, the & towers on maintanence anchor be single bar embankments Medium dry sand, clay or group of bars  The raft at bottom or sandy caly soils (no welded to tower leg makes the foundation special precautions  Vertical bars below substantially rigid to necessary) stub angle form cage minimize differential The steel is treated for footing settlement with one coat of  Grouted to a depth of bituminous paint & about 50 times dia top coat of asphalt into the rock R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 50
  51. 51. Pyramid chimney type foundationRaft foundation R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 51
  52. 52. Stub-setting Important steps in tower erection The stubs are set with the help of stub setting templates Excavated pits are lean concreted to correct level Stubs are placed on lean concrete pad Alignment is carried by four plumb bobs hung from centre of the horizontal bracing If any pit over excavated by mistake, the extra depth should be filled by concreting After the stub is set, the heel distance of four faces of the tower and two diagonals should be checked R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 52
  53. 53. R.SARAVANAN, PGET, L&T UAE 53

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