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Types of polyhouses

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  1. 1. K. Gopi kumar RHM/07 - 25 AP Horticultural University
  2. 2. Introduction • In open field conditions, there is no control over the environmental factors like temperature, light and relative humidity. • The advent of modern greenhouse technology opened up the avenues to precisely control the environmental parameters favourable for the cultivation of a particular crop. • Growing ornamental crops in protected environment (greenhouse/polyhose) ensures the best microclimate around the plant so that the plant can exhibit its full potential.
  3. 3. What is Polyhouse ? A polyhouse is a specially constructed structure like a building for growing plants under controlled conditions. It is covered with a transparent material as such permits entry of natural light. A polyhouse or greenhouse is actually the same thing. Traditionally the greenhouses were constructed on wooden frames where glass was used as a covering material. On the advent of the plastic technology, it became possible to replace the glass with plastic material. As the polythene material, being the most popular, the greenhouses came to kwon as polyhouses in recent times.
  4. 4. Advantages of Growing Ornamental Crops in Polyhouse  The productivity per unit area is very high in polyhouses.  The produced flowers will be of high quality without any blemishes and are suitable for export.  Insect, pest and disease control is relatively easy in protected structures than in open.  Production during off season is possible only under polyhouses.  Efficient intensive propagation of high value ornamental crops is feasible in protected structures.  Polyhouses provide the right environmental conditions for conservation, intensive cultivation and exploitation of rare ornamental plants.
  5. 5. Types Greenhouses  Gothic arch  Curvilinear  Curved eave  Dome The most important feature of greenhouse is how to design to take advantage of sun light in available land position. The basic types of greenhouses are:  Even-span  Uneven-span  Lean-to  Quonset
  6. 6. Even-span Type
  7. 7. Uneven-span Type
  8. 8. Lean-to Type
  9. 9. Gothic arch Type
  10. 10. Ridge-and-furrow Type
  11. 11. Barrel-vault Type
  12. 12. Saw-tooth Type
  13. 13. Types Greenhouses To the extent of environmental control, the existing green house structures can be classified as: • High cost (fully controlled greenhouse) • Medium cost (partially controlled) • Low cost (without any controls)
  14. 14. Planning and Designing a Low Cost Polyhouse •A greenhouse should be designed to withstand the load of the covering' material, other structural components, wind velocity; intensity of rain, hanging­weights included in the polyhouse etc. •Adequate quantity of sunlight for crop production is required. The structure should require minimum energy to maintain the desired crop microclimate. •Local climate conditions and locally available materials must be taken into account to arrive at the most appropriate greenhouse design. •Therefore, the structure is location specific and crop specific.
  15. 15. Site selection A good site can make all the difference in the functional and environmental operations of a polyhouse. • The soil should have pH of 5.5-6.5 and EC of 0.5-0.7 Mmhs. • Availability of continuous source of quality water. • The pH of the irrigation water should be 5.5-7.0 and EC between 0.1-0.3 Mmhs. • Good supply of electricity. • A ground slope for drainage is an important factor to divert surface water way from the green house. • Greenhouses should be located away from the buildings and trees to avoid obstruction to sunlight. And should be pollution free. • Facility of good road transport to near markets. • Easy and cheap availability of labourers. • Communication facility should available at site.
  16. 16. Orientation Orientation of the greenhouses could be in any direction when they are in single spans. Multi­span greenhouses should be oriented in north­ south direction only, to avoid continuous shading of certain­portions of the greenhouse by its structural members.
  17. 17. MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR GREEN HOUSE : SIZE : 28 X 20 m = 560 Sq. Mt. Particulars Dia/Unit (mm) Length of Pipe (Mtrs.) Qty. Total (Mtrs.) No. of Pipes Required (6 Mt. Each) Insert Pipe 40 NB 1.2 30 36 6 Column 50 NB 6 14 84 14 Column 50 NB 4 16 64 16 Bottom Bottom 50 NB 50 NB 8 4 5 18 40 72 5 18 Arches 32 NB 5.7 28 160 28 Contd…2.
  18. 18. MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION Hockey With Member 40 NB 6 24 144 24 Member 25 NB 2.3 28 32 14 25 NB 2 28 84 10 15 NB 1.06 14 15 3 Tie Bar 25 NB 6 8 48 6 Cross Bracing 25 NB 5 8 40 8 Purline 32 NB 4 80 320 80 Curtain Pipe 15 NB 6 18 108 18 Runner Aluminum Mtrs. 4 96 384 Zig Zag Springs Plastic coated 2 MM Lumpsum 800   Contd…3.
  19. 19. MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION Gutter Coil (600 mm 1.0 thick) Kgs. Lumpsum 180 180   Polyfilm Sq. Mtr. Lumpsum 1300 1300   Shading Net Sq. Mtr. Lumpsum 400 400   Clamps & Hardware - Lumpsum 560 560   Door Frame 1 x 2 Mtrs. Lumpsum 1 1   Insect net (40 Mesh) 2.00 Mtr X 100 Mtrs. Lumpsum 200 M2   Fogging & Drip System   Lumpsum 1 1 Source: Dept. of Horticultre, Govt. of AP
  20. 20. MATERIALS FOR DRIP IRRIGATION SPECIFICATIONS FOR GREEN HOUSE IRRIGATION AREA OF POLYHOUSE 560 Sq. Mtr. Dripline Spacing 1.2 Mtrs. Dripline Spacing 16mm with 0.3 Mtrs. Spacing with 2 LPH discharge. Sl. No . Material Unit Qty. A. HEAD UNIT     1 Dis. Filter 1.5" Nos. 1 2 Plastic Ball valve 2" Nos. 1 3 Pressure guage Nos. 1 4 Fertilizer Injector/Ventury Assembly Nos. 1 5 1" Air release cum vaccum breaker valve Nos. 1 Contd….
  21. 21. MATERIALS FOR DRIP IRRIGATION B supply manifold 1 RPVC 50 MM/ 6 Kg/CM2 Mtrs. 12 2 RPVC 40 MM/ 6 Kg/CM2 Mtrs. 48 3 RPVC & G I fitting Lumpsum C DRIP MANIFOLD 1 Dripline 2016 X 0.3 Mtrs. X 2 LPH Mtrs. 1000 2 Lateral 16 mm Mtrs. 300 3 Cool Net fogger four way (Anti leak) 75 4 Star Nipple 16 mm Nos. 75 5 Rubber Gromet Nos. 75 6 Reducer 17/16 mm Nos. 75 7 PPBV 50 mm/PVC ball valve 50 mm Nos. 2 8 PVC sub main flush valve 2" Nos. 4 9 Pressure regulator 1.5" (Bypass) Nos. 1 Source: Dept. of Horticultre, Govt. of AP
  22. 22. Construction of Low cost Polyhouse 20mts 28mts
  23. 23. Construction of Low cost Polyhouse 1. COLUMN 6.0 m, 50 NB ( 60 mm OD) 2 mm THICK 2. COLUMN 3.8 m, 50 NB ( 60 mm OD) 2 mm THICK. 3. BOTTOM 8.0 m & 4.0 m, 50 NB ( 60 mm OD) 2 mm THICK 4. CORRIDOR/HOCKEY 40NB ( 48 mm OD) 2 mm THICK. 5. TOP CHORD 6.4 m, 32 NB ( 42 mm OD) 2 mm THICK. 6. SMALL CHORD 5.7 m, 32 NB ( 42 mm OD) 2 mm THICK. 7. PURLIN 4.0 m, 32 NB (42 mm OD) 2 mm THICK 8. GUTTER PURLIN 32 NB (42 mm OD) 2 mm THICK 9. BRACING – 25 NB (33 mm OD) 2 mm THICK. 10. G.I. WIRE 11. CURTAIN OPENING SHOFT 15 NB (3 mm OD) 2 mm THICK. 12. POLYETHELENE UV STABLIZED 800 GUAGE/ 200 MICRONS. 13. INSECT NET / 35% WHITE / WHITE SHADENET ALL AROUND 3 mts. HEIGHT FROM TOP NET. 14. 50% WHITE / WHITE SHADENET ON TOP. DETAIL SKETCH AND SPECIFICATIONS OF FLORICULTURE POLY HOUSE SIZE 20 M X 28 M = 560 M2 3
  24. 24. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR POLY HOUSE 1. AREA: The Polyhouse of 560 Sq. Mt./ size: 20x28mts Which is the minimum for growing commercial flowers for local/retail market. 2. DESIGN: Aerodynamic, galvanized tubular structure and Naturally Ventilated 3. HEIGHT UNDER GUTTER: Gutters are necessary to drain off the rainwater and to prevent the rainwater penetration in to the Green House. The height under gutter should be minimum about 4 Mtrs. The trapezoidal shape aluminum sheet/ G.I sheet of 1 mm thick and 600 mm wide should be provided all along the length of the Green House without any joint. 4. CENTRAL HEIGHT: 6 Mtrs. A central height of 6 Mtr. with top ventilation should be provided to manage the temperature. 5.FOUNDATION: The footing of foundation should rest on undisturbed soil at a depth of about 0.6 Mtrs. and with a diameter of 0.4 Mtrs. below the ground surface. It is not necessary to build through foundations below the sidewalls and gables but only concrete (P 1: 3 : 6) point foundation of 0.19 cu. Mtr. below the vertical stanchions. Foundations has to
  25. 25. Construction of Low cost Polyhouse Line diagram for foundation
  27. 27. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR POLY HOUSE 5. VENTILATION: RIdge ventilation, permanent open top vent of 80 cm and two sides manually operated curtains. Very good ventilation is very important for the production of quality flowers throughout the year. The area of the ventilation openings should be more than 19% related to the floor area of the green house. The air exchange rate should be 50 - 60 times the green house volume per hour. The rollup ventilation has proved very efficient. The plastic film is fixed at the gutter and rolled up on a pipe. It is very important to fix the film exactly on the horizontal pipe at the beginning, so that the pipe remains horizontal during operation. The horizontal pipe with the film has to fit tightly at the vertical stanchions and must not move away from the construction by wind forces.   6. STRUCTURAL FRAME:    G.I. Pipes of 0.5 to 2.0 inches diameter. Trusses, Columns, beams as purlins made of G.I. pipes angle iron should have different load bearing capacities and should remain sound. The structure should withstand a wind velocity of 100 to 110 Km/Hr. All structure should be assembled by using nut bolt M 10 and M 6 size and clamps which are cold galvanized. All G.I. pipes should be ISI marked hard dip galvanized ( “ B “ Class), 2.00 mm thick.
  28. 28. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR POLY HOUSE A frame polyhouse structure End view General view
  29. 29. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR POLY HOUSE 8. Cladding Material: 3 Layered UV stabilized PE film with a thickness of 800 gauge 200 microns. Plastic film has to be fastened at the construction and fastened tightly. 9. Fastening Devices (Polylocks): Suitable Aluminum or steel devices by use of these devices the film can be quickly fastened and be removed from the structure. 10. Zig – Zag Springs 2 mm steel plastic coated/pup coated.   11. SHADENET: Plastic woven net (white/white colour) Shade percentage – 50%. The shade net has to be supported with GI wire of 2 mm thickness and the net should be foldable to one side with the help of a pulley system for smooth operation, 35/white/white shade net all around 3 Mtrs. Height from top net.   12. INSECT NET: (Rambo Net) : Plastic net ( 60 Mesh) will be provided under the curtains (permanently fixed). 13. Irrigation System: Drip and fogging system to be installed from reputed firms as per specifications.
  33. 33. Establishment of Low Cost Polyhouse Beds Aisle Longitudinal layout of polyhouse beds
  34. 34. Establishment of Low Cost Polyhouse Cross beding layout of polyhouse beds Aisles Beds
  35. 35. Establishment of Low Cost Polyhouse Peninsula arrangement of polyhouse beds/benches Beds/ Benches Aisles
  36. 36. Government Assistance to the Farmer 1. Area of Low cost Polyhouse: 560 M2 2. Size of the Polyhouse: 20 x 28 Mts. 3. Total cost of the structure Rs. 4,30,000/- 4. Subsidy – 50% or maximum of: Rs. 1,82,000/- 5. Farmer share: Rs. 2,48,000/-
  37. 37. Some Conditions of Tripartite Agreement for Availing Subsidy 1. That the First Party(the company) should complete the structure with in stipulated time of 30 days from the date of Agreement as per specifications, design given by Department of Horticulture. 2. That the First Party (the company) should take up post construction services when ever the Second Party required, up to one year on free of cost including materials, and for second year and third year onwards, cost of services free and material can be charged from Second Party. 3. That the Second Party (the farmer) is responsible for depositing the non- subsidy amount in bank within 15 days, if loan is not availed by Second Party. 4. The Second Party(the farmer) should under go training for 7 days in Training Institutes (Horticulture Training Centre, Hyderabad / Pune) 5. That the Third Party (Department of Horticulture ) should obtain agreement bond with Companies(first party) & Farmer (second Party). 6. If the project in not completed with in a stipulated time as per guidelines, the Third Party (Department of Horticulture) has empowered to cancel the project without any notice. 7. The Third Party is responsible for release of subsidy amount to the bank after fulfilling all stipulated conditions.
  38. 38. INSURANCE -P. Subba Rao, Admn. Officer, Oriental Insurance Ltd   Oriental Insurance Ltd, offers a package under section-II of ‘Floriculture insurance scheme’. Under this section all the structures of polyhouse, cold storage facility, grading hall, packing facility, store room, drip irrigation facility etc. will be covered against perils like fire, lightning, machinery breakdown, riot, strike and malicious damage, explosion, terrorist damage etc. The rate of premium is Rs.1.10/mille/annum (additional premium @0.30/mille if cover extended to flood risk). -Indian Horticulture ‘2000, Vol:44, 4-5.
  39. 39. Establishment of Low Cost Polyhouse Economic Analysis of a Unit Farmer: Ch. Trinadha Srinivasa Rao S/o Satyanarayana Rao Vattigudipadu (V), Agiripalli (M). Krishna Dist. AP Total Extent holding: 5 Acres. Polyhouse unit Area: 560 Sq. mt. Year of construction: 2005 Crop grown: Carnations Crop Spacing: 22.5 x 22.5 Cms Total No. of plants: 12,800
  40. 40. Establishment of Low Cost Polyhouse Economic Analysis of a UnitI. Expenditure for construction Cost of construction of the unit: Rs. 4,30,000-00 Subsidy from Dept. of Horticulture: Rs. 1,82,000-00 Farmer share: Rs. 2,48,000-00 Total farmers expenditure for construction: Rs. 2,48,000-00  II. Expenditure for planting and maintenance: 1st year: Rs. 1,30,000-00 2nd year: Rs. 55,000-00 3rd year: Rs. 55,000-00 Total: Rs. 2,40,000-00 Total farmer’s expenditure for planting & maintenance: Rs 2,40,000-00 Total Expenses (I+II): Rs. 4,88,000-00
  41. 41. Establishment of Low Cost Polyhouse Economic Analysis of a Unit III. Yield : 1st year: 1,10,000 No’s flower stems 2nd year: 80,000 No’s flower stems 3rd year: 60,000 No’s flower stems Total: 2,50,000 No’s flower stems  IV. Marketing: Marketed at local market, Vijayawada, @ Rs. 5 to 7/- per stem during 3 years V. Returns: Total sale price at minimum rate (2,50,000 X 5): Rs. 12,50,000-00   Net income (12,50,000-4,88,000): Rs. 7,62,000-00
  42. 42. Establishment of Low Cost Polyhouse
  43. 43. Establishment of Low Cost Polyhouse Companies in Construction of Polyhouses: • Sriroz Consultants Pvt. Ltd., Pune. • Netafim Irrigation India Pvt. Ltd., Vododara • Green Field Industries., Bangalore. • Hytasu Corporation., Hyderabad. • Ginegar Plastic Products Ltd., Bangalore. • Rajdeep Agri Products Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. • srihari Greenhouses Pvt. Ltd., Pune • Pooja Greenhouse Industries., Pune.
  44. 44. Establishment of Low Cost Polyhouse References: 1. Horticulture Principles and Practices – George Acquaab. 2. Greenhouse Management for Horticulture Crops– S.Prasad & U.Kumar. 3. Greenhouse Operations and Management–Paul V Nelson. 4. Floriculture Today – March, 2003; 10–15. 5. Floriculture Today – January, 2005;7-10. 6. Floriculture Today – December, 2006; 56. 7. Indian Horticulture – 2000, Vol-44; 4-5. 8. Annual Action Plan-2007-08, Floriculture/250/06 of the Dept. of Horticulture, Govt. of A.P.
  45. 45. Future Greenhouse Inside a Floor