Stq 05


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In issue 05, we look at how stories continue to have a profound impact on our lives. In the era of social, stories are meta-morphed into a tool that empowers people. Marketers and brand managers utilize stories every day across their campaigns, communities and commerce-related activities.

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Stq 05

  1. 1. Social TechnologyQuarterlyFacebook’sOpenGraph&SocialFeedbackWhyPeopleNeedStoriesCapturingPeople’sStoriesthroughDigitalMediaSTQVol. 2 Issue 2
  2. 2. 3Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 22STQSocialTechnologyQuarterlyCampaignsWhyPeopleNeedStoriesDiarmaidByrneTheStorytellingMandalaGauravMishraWhat’sNextforWebsiteDesign?AmitMirchandaniNLPandSocialMedia:ASemanticPerspectiveVandanaU.CommerceLeveragingFacebook’sOpenGraphandSocialFeedbackSystemKaushalSardaApparelCommercethroughDigitalStorytellingMalikaV.KashyapGiftsattheClickofaButtonVandanaU.ThePsychologyofBrandLoyaltyDiarmaidByrneCommunitiesTheEVolutionofVisualStorytellingAnindyaKunduCapturingPeople’sStoriesthroughDigitalMediaNahalShahAmbientSocialAppsKaushalSardaRediscoveringourDIYSpiritPayalShah4814172227303337454852OverviewThe universe is made of stories. We live in them. Big and small,told and heard, stories have profound impact on our lives.Storytelling is perhaps one of the oldest human pastimes, andnow, in the era of social, it is being meta-morphed into a tool thatempowers people. Wherever a story originates from, the retellingof it pays it forward across the social web, emulating the impactof the butterfly effect.The butterfly effect has become a metaphor for the existence ofthe seemingly small things that can bring in great transformations.Stories have similar powers and are being utilised by marketersand brand managers every day across their campaigns,communities and commerce-related activities. To reflect thisimportance we decided to focus this issue on storytelling with are-imagined butterfly effect on the cover.The articles reflect the power of stories aligning with trends insocial technology across diverse fields. We hope you enjoyreading it as much as we enjoyed while creating, writing, designingand implementing it.Team KulizaThe Social Technology Quarterly is a research publication fromKuliza that helps brands leverage latest research and trends insocial media and social technologies.
  3. 3. 4 5Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2KulizaWhy PeopleNeed StoriesCampaignsby Diarmaid ByrnePhoto Credit:LauraFulmerPeople spend a large amount of theirday in stories; gossiping and storytellingconsumes much of our time; the averageAmerican watches TV for 4 hours perday. Storytelling is one of the few humantraits that is universal across culturesthroughout history, from Sanskrit andGreek folktales to contemporary booksand movies. Anthropologists believethat familiar and predictable storystructures provide order and certaintyfor people, and allow us to understandand organize our world.Technology has changed how peoplediscover, listen and tell stories.However, people’s desire for storieshas not changed with new technology.Irrespective of the technology,everything starts in the brain and thatstill responds to narratives and stories.From an advertising or social mediacampaign perspective, brands need tostand out from the noisy crowd. They04Our need for stories is never satisfied. It is through storiespeople have connected with one another. Stories have thepower to create phenomenal changes and influence beliefs.Photo Credit: uffizu.chuStories CommunicateStories are the primal form ofcommunication for people. They connectpeople to each other and function aslinks to historical and religious traditions,legends, symbols and narratives. Storiesalso serve to unify people and values toa nation and national ideal.Stories EducateFrom Stone Age paintings to Greekphilosophers, Aesop’s fables tocommunications in our digital andsocial age, stories educate. It ishow we communicate our valuesand behaviours to guarantee theyendure. Steven Pinker opines thatstories are an important tool forlearning and developing relationswithin social groups; as our ancestorsstarted living in groups they had tomake sense of increasingly complexsocial relationships. By exploring howreaders felt about protagonists andantagonists in 19th century Britishnovels, Carroll, Johnson, Krugerand Gottschall found that stories(specifically 19th century Britishnovels) promote and bind people tocommon human values. In a sense,a story can be viewed as a trainingground for people to understand howto interact with others and learn aboutthe customs and rules of society.Stories Develop EmpathyEmpathy is crucial to social interaction.Stories trigger our imagination and allowus to become participants in a narrative.By living through events and emotionswe may not yet have experienced,stories enable us to develop empathyfor people and circumstances, thusincreasing society’s tolerance andunderstanding. Mar and Keith Oatley’sresearch indicates that fiction increasespeople’s ability to connect with others.On tests of empathy, heavy fictionreaders outperformed heavy non-fictionachieve this through stories. Whenthey create a story, they establish aconnection with their audiences, createmeaning and purpose that people canbelieve, identify and participate with.Emirates has done this well in its recent‘Hello Tomorrow’ campaign. In the autoindustry, Volkswagen and Ford havehad popular campaigns with their DarthVader and Doug adverts respectively.Away from brands, a major reason forthe success of social networking sitesis that they allow people to create andcurate their own stories on Facebook,Path, Instagram and others.That people are so immersed in storieseveryday, that they are drawn to andengage with them, suggests they willcontinue to play a crucial social functionin our lives.readers. This increased empathy wasseen in kids as young as 4 who wereexposed to a large number of booksand films.Stories Teach MoralsStories educate people not onlyabout society and values, but alsoeducate people about the type ofmorals that are expected of them. Oneelement of standard story plots is that‘goodness’ and learning is rewardedPhoto Credit: jabbuschwhile malevolence is punished. Thisis seen in everything from children’sfairytales to contemporary movies.Even antiheroes such as John Cleese’sBasil Fawlty are not allowed a happyending. Psychologist Marcus Appelargues that people have to believein the idea of justice for a society tofunction properly. This was humorouslyshown in The Simpsons episode “Bart’sInner Child”. From his research Appelfound that people who believe thatthere is punishment or reward based
  4. 4. 6 7Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2KulizaReferencesJeremy Hsu,The secrets of storytelling:Why we love a good yarn, ScientificAmerican,September 18,2008Jonathan Gottschall, Why fiction isgood for you, The Boston Globe, April29,2012Eric Barker, Do stories rule our lives?Would that be good or bad?,,May 6,2012About Diarmaid ByrnePhoto Credit: Andrew Huthon behaviours are those who read a lotof fiction. As Erik Barker writes, “Fictionseems to teach us to see the worldthrough rose-coloured lenses…[andthis] seems to be an important part ofwhat makes human societies work.”Stories MotivateStories have the power to motivatebecause they appeal to our emotions.People typically focus on their negativeexperiences in life. The seven basicstory plots often show characters ina desperate situation and how theymanaged to reverse and improve theircircumstances. Whether in Greeklegends or a friend’s story, people canassociatewiththetrialsandtribulationsofthe characters and their circumstances,find a connection between their ownstories or experiences and the story theyare reading or listening to, and becomemotivated to overcome their problems.Stories PersuadeStories can mould and change people’sPhoto Credit: autopoietImage Credit: The Pie Shopbeliefs, feelings and decisions. Theyhave always been used in advertising topersuade audiences about a particularproduct or brand position. JenniferEdson Escalas found that peoplerespond more positively to narrativeadverts than adverts that argue a case fortheir products. Similarly with nonfiction,people are critical and skeptical, readingwith their shield up. However, a storyPsychologist, interested in socialbehaviours and behaviour change and.ChiefPeopleOfficeratKuliza.Writesoncommunities and commerce.Twitter: @diarmaidbmoves people emotionally. Apple didthis very successfully with their “ThinkDifferent” campaign. Stories are alsoused to convince people of a specificpolitical view or to influence theiropinions and behaviours, from Fox Newsand propagandists to government spindoctors and corporate communicationdepartments.Photo Credit: Idealog
  5. 5. 8 9Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2KulizaTheStorytelingMandalaCampaignsby Gaurav MishraImage Credit: Julianna CoutinhoMarketers have always used stories to share information,change opinions and influence decisions. Now, as peoplecreate, consume and share brand stories in new ways,marketers need to go beyond the 30-sec product ad or the300-word press release, and tell purpose-inspired transmediastories that inspire, organize and energize people.Six Trends in StorytellingLet’s start by recapturing six important trends that are reshapinghow people create, consume and share brand stories:• Short attention spans: People are consuming newsand entertainment in byte-sized pieces, increasingly onsmartphones and tablets, often on-the-go.• Narrow interest graphs: People are selectively payingattention to the topics and sources they are most interestedin and filtering out the rest.• Social serendipity: People are discovering new contentbased on what is shared by their networks, or by otherpeople like them, via sophisticated algorithms.• Community curation: People are forming on-the-flycommunities around a shared passion or purpose bycurating content around hashtags and trending topics.• Remix in context: People are remixing photos, videos, art08and music and sharing their creative work in the context ofa time, place or event.• Emergent storylines: People are curating their ownFacebook or Twitter timelines as work-in-progress stories,with emergent narrativesThese six trends play an important role in the narrative arcwe will draw next: from Hero’s Journey to Heroes to EverydayHeroes.From Hero’s Journey to Heroes to EverydayHeroesHero’s Journey: StorytellingThe Hero’s Journey is a good example of a monomyth or auniversal story that cuts across all types of stories, includingmyths, movies, novels, and ads.According to Joseph Campbell, all stories follow the samethree-part narrative structure of the Hero’s Journey. In‘Departure’, the hero listens to the call of adventure and leavesthe “known world” for the “unknown world”. In ‘Initiation’, hemeets guides and allies, falls in love, undergoes a series oftests and trials, discovers the answer and receives the gift. In‘Return’, he reluctantly returns home, survives a near-deathexperience, and shares his wisdom and power with the restof the world.Source: Joseph Campbell FoundationJoseph Campbell’s Hero’s JourneyStorytelling that is purpose-inspired helpsbrands inspire people to participate in ashared purpose.
  6. 6. 11Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 210The Hero’s Journey has been used by filmmakers to createfranchises like Lord of the Rings, Star Wars and Matrix, andby marketers to tell compelling stories about brands, mostoften through 30-second ad films.However, the six trends that are reshaping how people create,consume and share brands stories are also reshaping boththe nature of the universal stories themselves and the art ofhow these stories are told.the three-part narrative structure of the Hero’s Journey,they expand it, by incorporating multi-layered intertwiningnarratives, complex social networks of characters, andstorylines that unfold over hundreds of hours.In fact, we don’t really consume popular culture anymore,certainly not as a linear narrative. Instead, we co-create it, bydeconstructing plot twists in elaborate blog posts, contributingto extensive fan wikis that delve into the motivations of eachcharacter, and creating our own parallel narrative in virtualworlds and alternative reality games built around films andTV shows.As popular culture becomes more layered, brands have hadto rethink marketing. Increasingly, ads attract audiences tobranded “story worlds”, which try to retain their interest overthe long term, and convert them first into passionate fansand then into paying customers, much like movie trailers withentertainment franchises. P&G’s Old Spice Man is not onlyone of the most memorable marketing campaigns in recenttimes, but also an entertainment franchise in the making.Everyday Heroes: Purpose-Inspired StorytellingNow, let’s look at the nature of universal stories itself.CNN Heroes in the US and CNN-IBN Real Heroes in Indiaare good examples of purpose-inspired storytelling abouteveryday heroes acting as change agents, with a clear callfor participation and action. The phenomenal popularity ofthe TED conference is another example of our innate need tocelebrate everyday heroes with “ideas that matter”.These stories about everyday heroes who are changing theworld share some elements with the Hero’s Journey, butdiverge from it in important ways. First, each one of us is ahero with a different call for adventure, a different journey, anda different reward, which means that the idea of the monomythitself is problematic. Second, the most important journey is thejourney within, into the “unknown world” of our own hiddenpotential, to search for our own best self. Third, our biggestbattles are the ones we fight with ourselves and the only waywe can win is by helping everyone else win too.As people have become better at filtering out the 30-secondtell-and-sell product ad, brands have had to rediscover theirreason for being and tell stories that inspire, organize andenergize people around a shared passion or purpose. GE’sEcomagination and Healthymagination initiatives are powerfulexamples of a brand telling purpose-driven stories that inspireparticipation and action.The Storytelling MandalaThe Storytelling Mandala is designed to help brands tell storiesthat inspire, organize and energize people to participate andact around a shared purpose. The inner circle consists of anew three-part universal story that articulates the purpose ofthe brand, the change it wants to catalyze and the quest it hasundertaken. The outer circle focuses on the art of transmediastorytelling, including the role of content, the sources ofcontent, the role of channels and the role of paid, owned andearned media.Question 1:The Universal StoryTo inspire, organize and energize people around a sharedpurpose, brands need to tell their story in three parts, insequence: why (purpose), what (change) and how (quest).• Why (Purpose): Who are we and what is our reason forbeing? What is our shared purpose, our Social Heartbeat,Heroes:Transmedia StorytellingFirst, let’s look at the art of storytelling.NBC’s hit TV series Heroes is a good example of transmediastorytelling, where TV shows, graphic novels, video games,mobile applications, offline experiences and online communitiesexplore different aspects of the same ‘story world’.While many transmedia “story worlds” exhibit elements ofImage Credit: Ben FredericsonImage Credit: Peter Hellberg
  7. 7. 12 13Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2Kulizabuzz, gossip and rumours.Question 3: Sources of ContentBrands need to recognize that creating content requirestime and resources and tap into three sources of content:create original content, crowdsource content, and curateconversations.• Create original content: Brands need to create a criticalmass of compelling original content, including almost allthe tent pole content like minisites, apps, games, films andreports and at least some of the content pegs like blogposts, video clips and infographics.• Crowdsource content: If brands are able to createcompelling original content, they can use it as aprovocation to crowdsource content pegs from influencersand community members, often by running crowdsourcingcontests.• Curate conversations: Finally, brands can curateconversations around their content tent poles and contentpegs into timelines (Storify) or collections (Pinterest), anduse them and content pegs, and even content tent poles.Marketers and agencies are increasingly hiring journalistsand filmmakers to create original branded content. Marketersare also creating contests to crowdsource everything frompersonal stories to Super Bowl ads. Finally, most mediacompanies, and many marketers, are curating conversationsand using them as content pegs.Question 4: Role of ChannelsOnce brands have created, crowdsourced or curated content,they need to organize them across channels, knowing thatsome channels work best for content repository, some forcontent aggregation, and some for content distribution.• Content repository: Channels like YouTube, SlideShareand Flickr are typically used for storing videos, documentsand photos respectively.• Content aggregation: Websites, blogs and Tumblr (andincreasingly social and mobile apps) are typically used foraggregating content and conversations.• Content distribution: Facebook, Twitter, Google+ andLinkedIn are typically used for distributing content tocommunity members and influencers.The purpose of the content repository channels is to pull inpeople deep into the content archive, while the purpose ofthe content distribution channels is to push out the latestcontent and create conversations. The purpose of the contentaggregation channel is to link pull and push, stock and flow,content and conversations.that can inspire people?• What (Change): What is the change we are trying tobring about? What does change mean for individuals,communities and the world?• How (Quest): What is the journey we must go through tocatalyze positive change in the world? What if the only waywe can win is if everyone wins?Even when brands want to tell purpose-inspired stories, theyinevitably find it difficult to abandon their tried-and-testedbenefit-driven tell-and-sell claims. Therefore, it’s critical tobuild a bridge between the benefit-driven claims that moveunits and the purpose-inspired stories that move hearts.Question 2: Role of ContentTo tell their story in a compelling manner, brands need tocreate three types of content, each with a different role: long-form tent pole content to pull in people, short-form contentpegs to push out stories to people, and ongoing two-wayconversations.• Tent pole content: Long-form content like minisites, apps,reports, games or films to showcase the full story in oneplace and pull in people.• Content pegs: Short-form content pegs like blog posts,infographics and video clips to highlight and push outdifferent aspects of the story.• Conversations: Ongoing two-way conversations to push outthe content pegs to pull in people to the tent pole content.• Think of a tent. The content tent pole holds up the tent andattracts people to it. The content pegs hold down the tentand support the content tent pole. The tent needs both thecontent tent pole and content pegs.Now, think of a movie. The movie itself is the content tent pole,while the trailers, interviews, announcements and reviews arecontent pegs, leading to different types of conversations likeQuestion 5: Role of MediaFinally, brands need to intentionally use paid, owned andearned media in sync to attract strangers, convert them intofamiliars and then into promoters.• Paid Media (for strangers): Targeted display, search orsocial ads to attract people who don’t know anything aboutthe brand, and seek their permission to join an ownedmedia platform.• Owned Media (for familiars): Private or public onlinecommunity platforms, social networking groups, or eventsto organize people who have given permission to the brandto share regular content with them.• Earned Media (for promoters): Ongoing conversations withcommunity members and influencers to trigger participationand action and energize them to become promoters.However, even as brands are investing in building permission-based, owned media assets, they are realizing that familiarsand even promoters sometime lapse into strangers and evencommunity members sometimes need to be reactivated withthe help of paid and earned media.Purpose-Inspired Transmedia StorytellingIn summary, brands need to tell new types of stories, purpose-inspired stories, and tell them in new ways via transmediastorytelling.If brands do this, they will inspire, organize and energizepeople to participate and act around a shared purpose; buildpermission based owned media assets that will increasinglylook like entertainment franchises; and thrive in a world inwhich media is fragmented, content is cheap, attention is thebiggest constraint, but storytelling can still win over heartsand minds.About Gaurav MishraRethinks purpose and participationand engages people throughstorytelling and crowdsourcing. AsiaDirector of Social at MSLGroup/Publicis GroupeTwitter: @gauravonomics
  8. 8. 15Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 214KulizaWeb 2.0 Design StyleWeb 2.0 was characterized by a simplicity and clarity indesign. It hailed a resurgence in commerce on the web.It built and nurtured online communities through socialnetworks and also leveraged new technologies to deliverbetter services. Its most notable features are listed below:1 Simplicity & SpeedVisual elements were reduced to the essentials withoutcompromising on effectiveness and the function of thesite. Central layouts were also preferred. This allowedfor a better connection between the user, the brand andthe service or product. Site loading speeds were alsocarefully considered and the use of slow loading modulessuch as flash intros were eliminated.2 Columns & NavsSites were organized in 2 or 3 column layouts, akin toprint media, and navigation was simplified to fewerlinks to communicate a sense of honesty. Graphics andimages were introduced within columns to introduce avisual lightness.3 Site StructureSites were structured such that they had a prominentheader, a bold logo, an often dynamic (and sometimesstatic) window area displaying a bold message orimage, the content area showcasing an overview of theservice or product features, and a prominent footer thatoften absorbed the function of a site map page (therebyeliminating the need for it).4 Strong Colours & Calls to ActionSites featured prominent contrasting areas against neutralsurfaces (sometimes textured) to highlight a call to action.The introduction of gradients and sometimes reflectionsalso made these call to action areas more appealing.Really engaging icons also added a visual richness.New Design StyleThe new design style seems to be pushing the messaging,structure and function of a website even further. Its mostnotable features are listed below:1 Single Page FormatIt’s obvious that sites are losing traffic every time youclick through to another page. In order to hold someone’sinterest, sites are switching to a single page layout. Theentire value proposition of the site is explained on onepage and the user simply scrolls down to see more.2 Columns & NavsThe 2 and 3 column layouts inspired by print mediaseem to have disappeared. They have been replaced bymodules that look like little posters within the larger webpage for a particular feature or product. Since contentfrom multiple pages is now featured on one page, thenavigation has dramatically reduced to even fewer links.3 Site StructureThe prominent header and bold logo seem to have beendramatically minimised to convey a quiet confidence inthe products and services the company offers.The window area displaying a message or image has theability to stretch across the entire browser window addinga dynamic feel and a subtle but confident call to action.This also signifies a change in the approach to a sitebeing conceived and limited to a set width.The content area now showcases not an overview, butthe actual products and features in a visually appealingposter-like presentation for each. This encourages theuser to stay on the page and keep scrolling.What’s Next forWebsite Design?Web 2.0 Style Site New Design Style SitePhoto Credit: Squarespace Photo Credit: New Squarespaceby Amit Mirchandani
  9. 9. 1716KulizaAlso, the prominent footer continues to absorb thefunction of a site map page, but also appears more subtleand minimal.4 Colours & Calls to ActionSites continue to feature neutral surfaces (sometimestextured) with messaging and graphics to highlight acall to action, however everything appears more subtleand refined. The colours appear to be reserved for theimagery, giving the site greater flexibility to integrate morecolours. There seems to be a move away from gradientsand reflections except in images. Engaging icons continueto add to the visual richness.5 VideosThere is an introduction of a video presentation as alayered link. This is an important change that complementsthe move towards minimal one page sites, enabling theuser to learn more and see some of the features in action.6 Shorter Attention SpansThere appears to be a move to optimise for shorterattention spans of their users. People seem to besearching for more and more specific products andservices, and the site needs to engage with those usersbased on the specific selling points that they are lookingfor. Therefore content cannot be linked to within a site,rather all the content needs to be in plain sight, with anappealing graphic to engage users for the aspects thatmatter to them.ConclusionsIn short, the new design style of sites is moving towardsbeing simpler. Sites are now more neutral (therefore moreflexible with the messaging and imagery), faster to load,better organized, more video oriented, and encouragea user to visit for a longer time. This is a refreshingimprovement to website design as websites are beingprecise, thereby ensuring better understanding for userswho can now choose what information they need, decidewhere and how to get it.About Amit MirchandaniNLP andSocial Media:A SemanticPerspectiveCampaignsby Vandana U.Image Credit: OurHypnoSpaceA phenomenon that has added great value to marketing,communications and sales is the science of Neuro LinguisticProgramming (NLP). As you sit, scroll down and read thisarticle, explore this interesting angle, you will begin to noticevarious methods, and analyze what will work best for yourbusiness on social media.Now that’s a weird mix: NLP and Social Media. How do thetwo even meet?Before I answer this question, here is a brief introduction toNLP. Developed by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in the1970s at the University of Santa Cruz, California, it is based onthe relationships between language, thought, communication,and behavior. It is about subjective human experiencesand how powerfully language affects these experiences. Astrong foundation of NLP is its focus on behavioural states(determined, humorous, creativity, etc.). Simply put it is abouthow we think and how we behave. The purpose of it is togenerate positive outcomes. Just as how we believe “Wecannot not communicate,” NLP presupposes “We cannot notrespond,” which is actually true, because everyone respondsor reacts both consciously and unconsciously. The key pointI want to raise here is that as sellers we have been looking at17Chief Creative Officer atKuliza and Managing Directorat Lucid Design India. Writeson design, environments andsustainability.Twitter: @lucid_designNeuro Linguistic Programming has beeninfluentialinenablingpowerfulcommunicationon social media platforms.
  10. 10. 18 19Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2Kulizawhat we are doing; with the intervention of NLP there is alsothe avenue to revealing customers’ responses.Every marketer wants to persuade and influence people inorder to increase sales. Primarily every company exists to sellproducts, services and ideas, or for that matter even valuesand culture. To do so one is always seeking ways to influencebuying, loyalty, embed beliefs and be more persuasive in a lessobvious and more subtle manner. At a time when consumersare more discerning, clever advertising is not enough.Perhaps that is the reason, after plenty of market research,one realizes that one has to speak to the consumer in hisor her language and use psychological triggers to encouragethem to like one’s brand or product.Now, social commerce stands out from other ways of tradingand business and gives e-commerce a beating becauseit is more engaging, participative and can offer an entireexperience. This is the reason social media falls back a greatdeal on Neuro Linguistic Programming. While talking aboutsocial media it is an obvious turn towards talking about thesocial-ness of it. More and more retailers are using powerful,hypnotic language whilst creating content. The first aspect thatcan titillate any brand enhancement exercise is understandingsub-modalities.Modalities and SubmodalitiesExperiences are a result of the way we take in informationthrough our senses. Visual (what we see), auditory (what wehear), kinesthetic (touch and feelings), olfactory (smell), andgustatory (taste): these are modalities. Submodalities are ourpreferred way of taking in information and representing it.Some people are visual. They need to see things or visualizea picture in their mind. Some are more convinced by a touch ora feeling, are kinesthetic and others need to hear, or representthings by the way they sound; these people have an auditorysense of information.In a typical social media update, retailers use words thatusers use every day; that itself is the catch. Engineered well,viewers are subconsciously motivated to take an interest inyour brand or product.Having a mix of theVAKFor fans who are visual, posts in terms of maps, pictures,diagrams and the use of picturesque language is the rightmix. Usually posts include words like see, look, bright, clear,picture, view, reveal, imagine, an eyeful, take a peek, peek-boo, paint a picture, etc.Users who are very auditory will be most affected by acampaign that makes good use of sound. This could be amusic remix competition or plenty of vox pops. Make sureyour campaign ‘rings a bell’ by using auditory words andphrases like hear, tell, sound, resonate, listen, silence, deaf,squeak, hush, roar, melody, make music, harmonize, tune in /out, rings a bell, voice an opinion, give me your ear, loud andclear, etc.For people who go by touch, or the feel of something, abrand’s updates can be constructed around words like pull,make contact, do you feel, experience, sense, think, get intouch, give a hand, hang in there. The language used needsto offer these experiences.A good mix of all the three elements will create that “win-win”situation brands hope for.We have just begun with the thrilling, delighting use of words.There are magic words that can craft your social mediacampaign, making it go viral.Magic wordsNLP is a great deal about linguistics or language. It may comeas a shocker to many as I reveal the power of verbs. Theseare the part of speech that we understand as “action words”but do not really realize the power of action. It reminds me ofthe age old-mantra of advertising to create AIDA: Attention,Interest, Desire and Action. With social media you can take adirect leap into action and a really simple way is to use verbs.Advertising and marketing tactics in terms of languageuse enormous amounts of adjectives and adverbs. Mostcampaigns are filled with them. With social media however,using verbs is what induces that necessary action. Because itand on the same wavelength.One relied upon tactic of building rapport is by asking questionsabout consumers. This shows you are approachable, thatyou want to listen to your customers, shows that you are onthe same level as they are, and it makes them feel cared for(getting back to VAK). Your questions can be constructedusing double binds so that comments and posts remain in apositive tone and are seemingly open-ended. Brands shouldcomment on posts in similar tones. Rapport can help you paceand lead your fans. Some of Ford’s Facebook posts reveal therapport it builds with its consumers.All three posts follow the VAK pattern in order to build rapport.The first one concentrates on the auditory and the followingtwo posts are kinesthetic in language.Double bindThis is a deadly covert technique that many use evenunwittingly. Double binds give consumers two choices thatlead to the same beneficial outcome. From a brand’s point ofview, one is giving the person two choices, but either of thechoices gives the brand the desired outcome. Double bindswork on presuppositions. They cleverly create the illusion ofchoice like “How would you like to pay, by card or cash?” (youanyway have to pay!) Heinz has been lauded several timesover for its successful campaigns on social media. Apart fromis not what you say to the users, it is what you make them do.The simplest of examples include like, share, buy, tweet,connect, follow, poke, blog, post. These are simple yetpowerful words and these are the outcomes one wants outof social media marketing. An effective tactic is when you canembed an action in a post.Comic Con India’s update embeds commands beautifully. Itfirst plays on loss – fans have missed out something. Thenas a solution to never miss out again, the update strategicallycommands the users, making it a simple action: stay, go,hover, select, magically appears and finally share. This is agood mix of VAK and therefore outcome achieved!Feeding these ‘magic’ words to users can help a great deal inbuilding rapport, a powerful tool and major principle of NLP.RapportA key element of NLP is building rapport, which is not onlya positive outcome but also a tool. The aim of any retaileron social media is to quickly build rapport, ensuring a largerfan base, more likes, shares and more word-of-mouse. Alsoone can suppose it is necessary to have an over-whelmingresponse or a business may begin to doubt the ROI andeffectiveness of social media.What is building rapport? You are indicating to the user that“You and I are the same! We come from the same place; wehave the same values.” A brand’s Facebook page begins tomirror its fans, their behavior and offer more on that basis.Rapport works on feeding back what users inform the brandthrough comments and likes. Importantly it is not subtle butobvious; however it works because both of you are in sync
  11. 11. 20 21Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2Kulizawill learn how to use for great sales.Another techn-ique is “the more… the more” pattern. The moreyou use NLP, the more you understand responses. We haveall had the experience where the more we got involved withsomething the more we learnt or realized. This is a structurethat can be very hypnotic, patterned as: The more you (x), themore you (y). How you can make it work is “x” is a processor action being done by your target group anyway and “y” iswhat you want them to do. For example: The more you readthrough this article the more you will understand how simplethis pattern is to use.Target provides a good example of using suggestibility in thispost to its fans. With the simplest of presuppositions with theword “like” being made synonymous with “birthday spankings”,it has managed to draw a huge 68,768 likes.So if you have begun to wonder if NLP is rocket science, sooneror later you will realize that it is an easy way to get what youwant, because you know that these are not the only techniquesto make NLP for social media a great success combination.About Vandana U.VAK strategies Heinz relies a great deal on this technique.You can see two examples above.As the campaign on the top left suggests, a user has tochoose between red and brown sauce as a part of “elections”.The illusion of choice easily clicks and a fan is made to thinkthat he or she is being offered a choice. Importantly, Heinzis winning as a true election would be between Heinz andanother brand.In the example on the top right , Heinz once again uses doublebinds to cleverly pre-suppose an action.Now don’t mistake this for a catch 22 situation. I am notattempting to create a “no-win” situation but merely suggestinghow you can create great sales, and a “win-win” situation.Using HypnosisHypnosis urges us to view altered states of mind. It involvesputting one in an absolutely relaxed state, because it is duringthis state that one is more suggestible and responsive, similarto how a movie on the big screen can move someone to tearsor elicit strong responses. Now I am not we aren’t talkingabout a strange, magical experience, but a state of trancewhere the unconscious takes over the conscious mind. Asyou read this with curiosity and interest I invite you to thinkover this. Have you ever driven to work or home and began todrive comfortably and upon reaching you don’t really recall theentire journey, how you got there, and you can only remembertiny bits? Have you ever been so engrossed while reading thatyou got “lost” in the book?All these are examples of entering into trance every day. Sowhy hypnosis now? The fact that hypnosis is an experienceand with social media making everything effortless andworking on the agenda of the consumer doing ‘relaxed,’easy shopping, it becomes necessary to view how hypnoticsuggestions are made to customers. There are times peoplehave got lost in the world of liking, sharing and tweeting.It is unfortunate that many people can get the wrong idea abouthypnosis. One need not be asleep in a state of hypnosis. WhatI am referring to here is conversational hypnosis or coverthypnosis. In this state people are awake and are definitelyaware of what is being fed to them in terms of information.They are not at the mercy of the hypnotist.As a part of hypnosis here are few techniques you couldemploy in order to make ‘suggestions’ subtly. A cause-effectpattern is a great way to start. You can use this pattern tomake implicit suggestions. If I tell you more about NLP, youMarketing&CommunicationsSpecialistat Kuliza and a certified Basic andMaster Practitioner in Neuro LinguisticProgramming. Writes on language andcommunication.
  12. 12. 22 23Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2KulizaLeveragingFacebook’s OpenGraph and SocialFeedback SystemCommerceby Kaushal SardaImage Credit:FacebookIt has always been evident thatconsumers like to get other people’sperspectives and opinions beforemaking a purchase. That is why wealways try to go to a mall in pairs orgroups. The dream of social commercehas been to provide the perfect platformto give instant feedback from peersand friends alike by creating socialshopping experiences for consumers,and retailers.Facebook’s new Open Graph is takingus in that direction by enabling Facebookapps to move beyond the customary‘like’ action and define new interactionssuch as ‘read’, ‘bought’, ‘want’, etc., andin turn allow brands and retailers to offertheir customers ways to connect withfriends. This will bring people togetheronline across an inherently socialactivity — shopping.SalientFeatures1At the heart of the Open Graph isfrictionless sharing. It is a shift from per-transaction sharing to one time opt-in.This enables automated sharing aroundany Facebook user interaction oractivity, resulting in a dramatic increasein sharing of social content.22Open Graph provides an amazing opportunity for brands totransform customer interactions into brand stories that canvirally reach and impact millions.Image Credit: Nanigans.com2Developers can now make interactionsviral by defining ‘actions’ and ‘objects’within their Open Graph Apps. Actionsconsist of verbs such as ‘watched’,“listened,” ‘cooked’ or ‘ran’. Objectsconsist of the nouns users connectto within an app like a ‘movie’, ‘artist’,‘recipe’ or ‘route’. These constructs helpdevelopers translate an interaction ontheir app into a sharable story.3When a user takes an action on anobject within the Open Graph App, theapp will automatically broadcast this asa story within the Facebook experienceto the real-time Ticker without theneed of a click. Stories broadcast onthe Ticker are accessible to a user’sfriends and include the app developer’scustomizable “Flyout” with more in-depth information.5Marketers can promote these in-appactions as sponsored stories to atargeted subset of the user’s friendsvia the new Graph Targeting capability.4Apps can also be part of a user’sTimeline, and showcased by developer-created aggregations that display auser’s actions taken within the app in avisually appealing way.
  13. 13. 24 25Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2KulizaTop41. Elle TrendReportElle has launched ashoppable trend guideon Facebook. The guide,embedded as a tab onElle’s Facebook page,invited shoppers to navigateacross six editorially chosenspring trends, includingfloral, nautical and ladylike.Users can click ‘love’, ‘want’,‘own’ or ‘buy!’ on eachproduct page. By default,all interactions with the appwere shared automaticallyon users’ timelines, soeven if users did not makea purchase, they wouldinadvertently draw curiousfriends to interact with theapp. This Open Graphintegration allowed Elle toturn those interactions intomarketing promotions.2. Fab SocialShoppingFab took its social shoppingexperience one step furtherby offering members $10worth of creditsa month as an incentiveto activate their FacebookSocial Shopping App.Fab’s social shopping appused the action “bought”to automatically publishmember purchases to theirTimeline, Newsfeed andOpenGraph AppsTicker. Interestingly, Fabautomatically hide storieswhen users purchase anitem that was denoted as agift or an adult product. Theapp helped Fab reward itsmembers for their word ofmouth marketing efforts.1Get onto the graphCreate an app and / or attach your site tothe social graph via Facebook Connectand social plugins.2Level up on pagesGo beyond page engagement todetermine how to create a truly “socialby design” experience that conveys yourbrand identity via user interaction stories.4Understand users’ social behaviorDig deep into the patterns and trendsof your users, and how they create andengage with their friends’ stories. Usethe graph-rank algorithm in smarterways to drive additional discovery.Pluck out sponsored stories that mayresonate the most out of the Tickerin real-time and put into the NewsFeed to drive further engagement andinteractions.3Identify brand storiesGo beyond the verb ‘like’, think of newactions, whereby every type of brandexperience and action that is inherentlysocial can now be translated into userstories that is automatically shared withtheir social network.Top4 Tips forMarketersImage Credit: Emily Barney
  14. 14. 2726KulizaApparelCommercethrough DigitalStorytellingCommerceby Malika V. KashyapPhoto Credit: Style.BeatsThe business of fashion communicates through a visuallanguage; fashion shows, campaigns and editorials all exist tocreate a dream world which then must be marketed in order forone’s ‘dreams to come true’. This language is more powerfulstill, as it transcends mediums, finding a perfect connect in thedigital world. Interactive, immediate and accessible, it is easyto see why digital media threatens to take over the way thefashion business has traditionally operated.Perhaps the greatest example of digital storytelling supportingcommerceexiststhroughtheblogosphere.Byandlarge,fashionbloggers humbly started in the mid 2000s with aspirations nolarger than to express their personal views on fashion. Sincethen, their rapid ascent to the front rows of all the major runwayshows, collaborating with brands and influencing globalstyle leaves many wondering what they do, and how docompanies benefit?AdvertisementsFor many bloggers, the most classic form of monetization isthrough banner advertisement, the most desirable and easiestform of revenue generation. It is an easy equation that worksboth ways, ‘click to buy’ with minimal effort from the blogger.27About Kaushal Sarda3.TicketmasterTicketmaster created anew Facebook experienceby launching an eventrecommendation app thatsmartly uses Facebook’sOpen Graph capabilities.The app publishes eventsusers ”want to go to”,“recommend,” “attended,”and “RSVP’ed” to their friendnetwork, hence creatingtremendous viral awarenessabout the events. The appalso pulls a user’s Facebookmusic app activity fromservices such as Spotify or4. SneakpeeqSneakpeeq is a social buyingsite that lets its users checkout the merchandise beforetaking a peek at the pricetag, much like in a store.User activity within the appincluded: ‘earning’ badgesand discounts, “loving” aproduct, and ‘peeqing’ at aprice. All these actions werepublished onto Facebook’snews channels to encourageconversations and brandawareness.Technology evangelist, serialentrepreneur, Chief Evangelistat Kuliza, advisor to Hash Cube.Writes on commerce and CRM.Twitter: @ksardaRdio to recommend nearbyconcerts of artists based onwhat users actually listento, not just those you saythey like.A digital depiction of stories, apparel and thefashion industry at large.
  15. 15. 28 29Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2KulizaReferencesImran Amed,The business of blogging | The Sartorialist,TheBusiness of Fasion,October 3,2011Vikram Alexei Kansara, The business of blogging | ElinKling,The Business of Fasion,August 30,2011Tim Arango, Soon, bloggers must give full disclosure, NewYork Times,October 9,2009Jacquelyn Lewis, The Man Repeller promotes Louboutin atSaks,,March 16,2012Maria Denardo, Fashion Fairchild Media buys popularblogger network,May 15,2012About Malika V. KashyapFounder of Border&, a designconsultancy and platform for creativesin fashion.Twitter: @MalikaVKBlogs with larger traffic stand to gain the most, though arguably,the brand equally wins out. Scott Schuman of Sartorialist.comis one of the earliest bloggers credited with bringing streetstyle photography into the digital age. He reports traffic of over13 million visitors a month and has stated that when retailersAmerican Apparel and e-tailer Net a Porter bought advertisingon his site: “Those two ads alone are a good fraction of amillion dollars: more than a quarter million and less than a halfa million.” With the print edition of American Vogue charging upto $150,000 for a one page ad and an audience of 11 millionreaders a month, Schuman’s influence in the world of fashionbecomes quite apparent. Another example is; created in 2011, it was developed to deliver the mostrenowned fashion blogs on one platform and has an estimatedtraffic of 1.2 million unique viewers a month. Currently prominently features their advertisements on thehomepage for an undisclosed amount.CampaignsIn 2009, Burberry enlisted the skills of Schuman to shoot photosfor their online campaign ‘Art of the Trench’. Branded as a livingcelebration and documentation of people wearing the famousBurberry trench coat, the site allows you to upload a photo ofyourself wearing their coat. Wildly successful, the campaigncontinues until today and can be found at This example of digital branding has generated asignificant amount of goodwill for the company, now widelyconsidered to be the most digitally literate luxury brand. In2011, Burberry tapped Indian blogger Manou from to shoot photos for the same campaign, turningit into a full fledged high profile event at the Oberoi Hotel inDelhi, home to one of their stores.In June 2011, Elin Kling of stylebykling.nowmanifest.comwas photographed in brand Marc by Marc Jacobs clothing,publishing the images on her blog. Links to MarcJacobs.comwere also featured as part of the ad campaign. The results wereapplauded: “The day of the launch, we served over 94,000impressions, drove over 2,000 unique visitors to, and for the two week duration [of the campaign] we sawa two percent click-through rate,” said Plenge, web and socialmedia manager at Marc Jacobs.Product PlacementOne of the most controversial of all combinations is havinga brand personally endorsed by a fashion blogger throughan outfit they photograph themselves in. If the brand fits withthe blogger, for example Prada potentially sending shoes toblogger Jane Aldridge of who loves towear Prada – product placement has immense value. Mosttop bloggers, including Rumi Neely of,are often sent clothes and accessories to include in their blogs.In an effort to make readers aware of this potential conflict ofinterests, the US Federal Trade Commission mandated thatby December 1 2011, “Bloggers who review products mustdisclose any connection with advertisers, including, in mostcases, the receipt of free products and whether or not they werepaid in any way by advertisers, as occurs frequently.”Offline PresenceBloggers with enough online clout are often invited into thereal world by requests of guest appearances and contracts tostyle fashion shows. When US luxury retailer Saks Fifth Avenuewanted to promote the 20th anniversary of world famous shoemaestro Christian Louboutin, who did they call? None otherthan The Man Repeller, also known as Leandra Medine, to tryon shoes, all while inside their store window. Fans watchingwould tweet shoe requests to Medine, who would then tryon the desired shoe. Of course, Saks was also covered, whose web traffic reportedly hovers around100,000 unique visitors a month. In another example, Swedishheavyweight retailer H&M joined hands with Kling to launch thefirst ever collaboration with a fashion blogger. Her collection,available in 10 Swedish locations was a sell-out.It is worth nothing that these traffic figures represent a verytargeted reader base, clearly with an immense perceived valueto brands. With active social media numbers, commerce andthe visual language of fashion remains a dynamic and engaginguser experience.
  16. 16. 30 31Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2KulizaHere are some gifting strategies I simplyloved for being simple, easy and effective.Social gifting as an experience hasbeen “wrapped” brilliantly by Wrapp. Itis a social gifting start-up with an appthat allows Facebook friends to buyeach other gift cards from participatingretailers either individually or by teamingup. This can be redeemed online,therefore one need not even budgean inch (physically). Furthermore,it sends users alerts for upcomingbirthdays ensuring that users find itmore convenient to buy and send giftsonline. It has amazingly followed themantra of maintaining shopping as asocial activity, as long as one stays putto just the computer screen, an Androidor iOS.With everything shared on Facebookwalls, this is also a strong friend-to-friendmarketing tactic. And it is exactly wherepotential customers are - Facebook.Plus it is on Facebook where peopleconnect.Target, through its “Give with Friends”app, has utilized the power of Facebookfor sharing anything and everything. Thephrase acts as a stimulus, as if finally asolution to the problem of “How to geteveryone together at the same placewithout compromising on convenience?”Customers choose an e-gift card desing,select the receiver and then have the op-tion of inviting friends to contribute.The three-step gifting process makes itsimple and ever-easy to get friends to-gether. It engages people and makes thegift-giving experience real.In both cases the gift card sent can beredeemed at a standard outlet or ane-store. The systems use Facebook’sbuilt-in friend lists and messages tocoordinate social gifting. Also, Targetbenefits from the additional marketingplus boosts sales at both its regularstores and online.The convenience social gifting offersis simple yet striking. Users, who wantto deliver a gift, can deliver somethingof value for free and the person whoreceives the gift gets something thatcan be used for an actual purchase ofone’s choice.Starbucks takes this a step ahead with itsgift card. One can buy a personalized giftcard in different denominations and adda message. Gifting someone a pre-paidcard - that will also earn them points formaking purchases - makes it a gift worthgiving and definitely worth taking.But this definitely is not the end of everygifting experience. Making it all the moreinteractive and engaging is the ideaof gifting points. Typically retailers usepoint rewards system to build loyalty.And accumulating those points havealways been important. Therefore whensomeone transfers points to another useras a “gift” it adds a tremendous value tothe gift. Starbucks allows it on its giftcards and so does JunoWallet.JunoWallet is a free mobile gift cardapp available for download by iPhoneand Android users. They can “gift” theirJunoPoints to other JunoWallet usersand vice versa, helping each other toGifts at the Clickof a ButtonCommerceby Vandana U.There was a time when teaming up orgetting people together was a herculeantask. However, social media has gone onto prove otherwise, revolutionizing theworld with its quickness in getting peopletogether on a common platform withoutreally getting them out of their chairs.Although (with due respect) Jodi Deanand others do not consider this ‘social’ or‘public’ in any way, it cannot be deniedthat social media has changed the waywe communicate with one another andvirtually get together. The Net springsseveral surprises, creating powerfultools such as share, like, tweet to the mostboggling of apps. The latest is social gifting.“Gift” by itself is a powerful word. It drawsgreat attention, for who would not liketo receive a gift? Buying “the ideal gift”has perpetually been an arduous task,but social media makes this almost an‘everyday task’. It proves the premisethat technology is driving towards making30Social gifting makes present buying easier for consumers and allowsbrands to reach more easier than ever.Social gifting works on e-gifting; one buysan electronic gift card from a retailer’swebsite and sends it to someone viaemail. This idea is elevated to the sociallevel, allowing Facebook friends to giveor receive promotional gift cards or tocontribute together to give joint presents.What’s more is the technique retailersuse to lure consumers into this trend.One, it is simple! The plug-in sits verystrategically on the website and with afew clicks customers can easily createa group gift directly from an online store.Two, Facebook makes it even simpler.Once you start typing the name of afriend from your Facebook list, thename and photo will populate the entryfield automatically. Those invited get amessage directly to either contribute anarbitrary amount or split the cost of thepre-selected gift.
  17. 17. 3332KulizaThe Psychologyof Brand LoyaltyCommerceby Diarmaid ByrnePhoto Credit: TumblrLoyal customers are the proverbial holy grail for brands. Brandloyalty is demonstrated by a consumer’s commitment to re-purchase a brand product or service and other behaviourssuch as word-of-mouth advocacy. Richard Oliver notes that itcan also extend to occasionally putting the interest of the brandahead of a person’s own interests. This type of loyalty is a greatasset to a company: customers re-purchase and evangelizethe products and services.How does Brand Loyalty develop?Our understanding and perception of the world is experiencedthrough our senses. Many decisions are driven by feelings. Inthe context of loyalty, a person’s purchase behavior is based onone’s emotions and how one feels about the brand.Two ways to understand how brand loyalty is built is by lookingat the communications model by Shultz and Barnes and asensory approach by Martin Lindstrom. The communicationsmodel explains how a person is impacted by messages on acontinuous basis. Messages are in the form of colours, shapes,sounds, etc. There is a sender of the message (brand), amedium (internet, TV, word-of-mouth, etc.), a filter that ignoresor processes the messages, the receiver, and our response to33About Vandana U.earn their $100 gift cards much sooner.Sharing and trading JunoPoints to helptheir friends get to the promised rewardalso acts as a reward. Taking loyalty astep ahead this sort of gifting promotesusers to share more, bringing in moreconsumers and fans for JunoWallet.What’s more; there are gift registries orwhat we may ‘nicely’ call wishlists all oversocial media sites that allow people toregister what they would like. Facebookagain comes to the rescue, for most ofthese registries allow Facebook users tocreate these lists. What caught my eyewas how users can add items via anonline shopping portal and if one cannotfind the desired gift in the portal all onehas to do is describe it. The final step isto make the list available to other users.Gifting couldn’t have got easier than this!Lastly,takesocialgiftingasanopportunityto reach out to your target buyers, foryou can promote your brand at almostno extra cost. Gift giving, either free orpurchased, can be made so temptingthat gifting and shopping become easier;all done with the click of a button andnot making your customer reach to you,but you reach to them. Isn’t that howgifting works?!Marketing&CommunicationsSpecialistat Kuliza and a certified Basic andMaster Practitioner in Neuro LinguisticProgramming. Writes on language andcommunication.The psyche behind brand loyalty is intriguing, forit is fundamental and complex at the same time.
  18. 18. 34 35Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2Kulizapurpose to life, an explanation for how people were createdand what will happen when we die. In the case of sports,teams give their fans an identity that they share with others– colours, clothes, chants and celebrations.• A sacred space (church, temple or stadium) that areplaces of repeated, frequent gatherings of large numberof people who come to worship and praise the efforts andachievements of other people.Both the communications model and the sensory approach,with the examples of religion and sports, show how controllingemotional thinking of consumers can lead to increased brandloyalty. While this works in many ways, there are psychologicalfactors that impede the ability to build brand loyalty, and thatbrands find difficult to control.Loyalty and Human PsychologyCognitive OverloadResearch by Freeman, Spenner and Bird indicates that thetraditional purchase funnel is fading due to cognitive overloadand is being replaced by a ‘tunnel’ process. In this scenariothe majority of consumers are not buying a product or serviceout of any form of loyalty, but are looking to simplify what is anincreasingly frustrating experience. They are overwhelmed bythe huge volume of messages they encounter daily and can notinterpret all of them. As mentioned earlier, the brain is limitedin how much it can process and what it chooses to process.By overwhelming it with purchase information the shoppingexperience becomes far more stressful.Based on their research, Freeman, Spenner and Bird foundthat decision simplicity – the ease at which consumers cancollect product information and compare pricing options – isthe biggest driver in building loyalty. Essentially, brands needto make the purchase decision as easy as possible and notoverload people with too much information.An interesting counterpoint to this view has been the experienceof JC Penney this year. Previously known for their large numberof promotions, they introduced a new, simplified pricing strategyin early 2012 to make purchase decisions easier for people; nomore coupons, discounts or price tags ending in 99c. However,it has not been a success. Consumers are used to what iscalled shrouding, follow-up costs that increase the original costof a product and confuse shoppers. Shoppers intuitively searchfor deals and with JC Penney no longer hosting sales, theydecided to look or wait for sales elsewhere.Reward ProgramsThe market is flooded with loyalty programs. Many people havemultiple loyalty cards but actively use less than half of them.Schemes similar to airline loyalty programs are typical of thetype of programs that retailers offer. There are a number ofreasons why people sign-up for these, but none that suggestthey cultivate long-term brand loyalists.People often sign up for membership or loyalty programsbecause it allows them to feel like they are getting a good deal:they have spent and saved money at the same time. This isaccentuated by increased dopamine activity that reinforcestheir satisfaction that they have received a good deal.The major form of money saving that loyalty programs offer isthrough rewards. This could be a free coffee after 10 purchasesin a café, a free upgrade for accumulating a certain number ofair miles, or a 10% discount for spending a minimum amountat a retailer. The affect here is that customers feel special and– in theory – lead to repeat purchases, brand advocacy andincreased loyalty. In effect it means that a customer may paymore for a flight because they are a member of that airline’sloyalty program rather than taking a cheaper flight with analternative airline. These types of programs are effective in theshort-term but do little to alter how a person feels about thecompany. Members are more loyal to the loyalty program thanto the brand.The reason they are more loyal to the program is sunk costfallacy. It is the resources (time or money) that a person investsinto a project or activity that they can not recover. Peopleworry excessively about what they will lose if they changeloyalty program, but do not worry enough about the costs ofnot changing. In the case of a loyalty program, people feelcompelled to utilize their points and continue adding to thembecause they are uncomfortable with the lost cost of not utilizingthem, something that is known as loss aversion. Games likethe message. Any message that is recognized, or considereda basis for a relationship, is stored in our memory. When wereceive a similar message from a brand that has the samerecognizable colour, sound, shape, etc., we respond to it and abrand relationship is born.Martin Lindstrom developed a sensory approach to brandbuilding with the goal of emotional engagement between theconsumer and brand. He postulates that sensory brandingstimulates a consumer’s relationship with the brand and thata brand should pursue an emotional relationship with theconsumer as emotions dominate a person’s rational thinking.He argues that a brand should focus on developing synergisticsensory touch points to strengthen the foundation of the brandand increase the brand relationship with consumers. In thecase of McDonald’s, this would be reflected in their logo intheir restaurants and on their packaging (visual), the sound ofcustomers ordering and food cooking (auditory), the feel of thepackaging and seating (tactile), the familiar smell (olfactory)and distinct taste of their products (gustatory).Both the communication model and Lindstrom’s sensoryapproach to brand loyalty building emphasize the importanceof targeting customers’ emotions over behavior. The idea is thatif a brand controls emotional thinking in consumers they willcontrol their buying behaviour. When researching products thatpeople are most loyal to, there are two that stand out for thedeep emotional connection that they build with people: religionand sports.Brand Loyalty – Religion and SportsReligion and sports engender a level of loyalty that is devotional,similar to Richard Oliver’s assertion above that brand loyalistsput the interests of the brand ahead of their personal interests.This view is articulated by two quotes that define the devotion,sacrifice, suffering and commitment, football in particular, butsport more generally, engenders in people:“Football isn’t a matter of life or death. It’s much morethan that” (Bill Shankley)“You can change your wife, your politics, your religion,but never, never can you change your favourite footballteam” (Eric Cantona)Why do both religion and sport create such loyalty? Theyprovide people with an organizing belief system, rituals orhabits, and places to meet in large groups for the purpose offinding meaning. Essentially, they have a social and spiritualimpact that affects our emotions. They do this in a numberof ways:• A shared language of faith, worship, ritual, suffering,commitment and celebration amongst followers• A form of entertainment: before sport became a mainstreamand primetime form of entertainment, religious ceremoniesand festivals were the major source of entertainment forpeople. Sporting events were rarely held.• A proscribed, agreed upon, ritualistic way of doing things.All religions have rituals that are adhered to. Similarly sportsfans have rituals that include wearing their favourite team’scolours and singing and celebrating.• A transformative experience that cuts through income levels,profession and nationalities. In the case of religion, it gives aPhoto Credit: berti87Photo Credit: thehutch
  19. 19. 3736Kulizathat does not match what they believed in the past and so isrejected as untrue.Strategies similar to the communications model and sensoryapproach are helpful when thinking holistically about how toapproach building brand loyalty. However, controlling emotionalthinking and thus determining buying behaviour is difficultto achieve when there are so many individual, personal andcognitive factors that influence people and their behaviours,and can undermine the best loyalty building tactics.ReferencesBill Nissim, Brand loyalty: the psychology of preference,Brand ChannelBob Sullivan,‘Fair and square pricing? That’ll never work JCPenney.We live being shafted, Red Tape Chronicles, May 25,2012Karen Freeman, Patrick Spenner, Anna Bird, What doconsumers really want?, Harvard Business Review BlogNetwork,May 1,2012Phil Ciciora,Research: Brand-conscious consumers take badnews to heart,News Bureau Illinois,August 15,2011Psychology Wiki,Brand LoyaltyRichard L. Oliver, Whence customer loyalty?, Journal ofMarketing,63 (3),33-44,1999Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, Personality and brand choice:can your favourite brands reveal your EQ?, Psychology Today,February 1,2012D. L. Wann, M. J. Melznick, G. W. Russell, D. G. Pease,Sport fans: The psychology and social impact of spectators,Routledge,2001About Diarmaid ByrneThe Evolution ofVisualStorytellingCommunitiesby Anindya KunduPhoto Credit:Lost at EMinor37A look at some of the landmarks in graphical representationsthat complement storytelling; from cave paintings tocontemporary visual arts.Storytelling has been an essential partof our social fabric since the advent ofhuman civilization. It is how the humanbrain connects dots and makes sense ofthe world around us. As people evolved,we took giant leaps in technologyand consequently the mediums forexpressing stories kept progressing.Since a story essentially involves anarrative sequence which can becompared to an alternate reality, imagesand graphical elements have alwaysbeen incorporated with storytelling tohelp the audience connect with thestory. In this article we will analyze afew such landmarks in the history ofgraphical storytelling.Sequential art played an important partin graphical storytelling and evolvedfrom series of images in cave paintingsand Egyptian friezes to the very moderndevelopment of comics, storyboards andin some ways even in film and animation.Cave PaintingsPaintings older than 40,000 years havebeen found in cave walls in Europe,Africa and Asia. These paintings mostcommonly depict hunting expeditionsand wild animals. They portray thestory of survival of the human race inthe harsh environment that prevailedthen. The stories were narrated orallyand recalled from one generation toanother with the help of cave paintingsand symbols.Egyptian ArtThe art developed in the Nile valleycivilization between 5,000 BC to 300AD was highly evolved and stylized. Thepaintings, records in papyrus, carvingson walls, sculpture and monumentshave been well preserved due to thedry climate of the region. The sequentialwall paintings and friezes recorded thePsychologist, interested in socialbehaviours and behaviour change.ChiefPeopleOfficeratKuliza.Writesoncommunities and commerce.Twitter: @diarmaidbFarmville are a great example of sunk cost fallacy. It requiresinvestment of a player’s time, and if they do not return to thegame to tend their crops, their investment (time and possiblyin-game purchases) will be lost. Many people do not continueto play Farmville for fun but to ensure that they have a returnon their investment. They keep playing to avoid feeling thepain of loss.Brand Choice and PersonalityPeopleperceivebrandsashumanswithadistinctivepersonality.Brands allow people to define and differentiate themselves ina way that was not possible one hundred years ago. JenniferAaker suggested that the perception of brands can be classifiedaccording to the 5 major personality dimensions: sincerity,excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness.Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic notes that “Related studies showedthat people’s choices are a reflection of the extent to whichtheir own personality, specifically their self-image or identity, iscongruent with the reputation of a brand.” In effect, we choosebrands that share and reflect our values, belief and self-image:if someone views themselves as a daring adventurer, they willseek out and be loyal to brands that also share this personality,possibly North Face apparel and Suunto watches.Just as people protect their ego and self-image, it has beendiscovered that they will also protect their loyalty to a brand.Tiffany Barnett White found that brands have become so highlysymbolic of a person’s self-image that loyal consumers withclose ties to brands respond to negative information about thebrand as a personal failure and a threat to their self-image.This behavior was seen in late 2011 at the University ofPennsylvania when their football coach was fired. Joe Paterno,a successful coach for over 40 years at the university, wasfired after he was implicated in covering-up allegations that hisformer assistant had sexually assaulted boys. The result waslarge rallies in support of Paterno that descended into riots. Thisis due to cognitive dissonance; people learn new information
  20. 20. 3938Kulizaand squares, these paintings narrate theday to day activities of the tribe: hunting,fishing, farming, festivals and dances.Harmony with nature is the commontheme that runs through all their worksof art. The paintings are made on themud walls of village huts using ricepaste mixed with gum.Ajanta CavesThe Ajanta caves comprise of 30 rockcut cave monuments in the Aurangabaddistrict of Maharashtra, India, whichwere built dating back to 200 BC. Theelaborate paintings on the walls of thecaves are considered masterpiecesof Buddhist religious art. They narrateJataka tales about the previous births ofLord Buddha and have intricate detailsand colours.Image credit: Howard N BarnumKatsushika Hokusai, Japanesewoodblock printing: “100 PoemsExplained by the Nurse”Bayeux Tapestry, NormandyCreated in the 1070s, the BayeuxTapestry is an embroidered cloth of 70meters in length. It depicts the Normanconquest of England sequentiallywith around 50 scenes embroideredon linen with coloured woollen yarns.The method of embroidery which usedoutline or stem stitch for outlines offigures and couching or laid work forfilling in areas with solid colours, impartsa look similar to modern cartoons.JapaneseWoodblock PrintingWood block printing developed in Chinaas early as 220 AD. Initially used to printtext, it begen to be used to create artand illustrate narrative poems or textin books. Adopted in Japan much laterduring the Edo period (1603-1867),Photo Credit: FranjuanTrajan’s Column, Romesocial structure, history and legends ofGods and Goddesses with an emphasison afterlife. There is a distinct shift frommere survival to complex social systemsand religious beliefs.Trajan’s Column, RomeBuilt in 113 AD by the Romans, this30 meters high, triumphal columncelebrates the victory of Roman EmperorTrajan’s victory in the Dacian Wars. Theunique element of this column is thespiral relief sculpture on its exterior wallswhich artistically depict the war througha series of images. The relief has about2,500 figures with intricate details ofweapons and 59 appearances of theemperor amongst his troops.Warli Tribal PaintingsThe paintings of the indigenous tribeWarlis living in Maharashtra and Gujaratborder have their tradition dating backto thousands of years. Using a simplevisual vocabulary of circles, trianglesPhoto Credit: William HaysCave paintings in Lascaux, approximately 12,000 years oldPhoto Credit:
  21. 21. 41Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 240KulizaImage Credit: Stephen FowlerWoodcut illustration of NebuchanezzarImage Credit: Nosoyunacebolla.blogspot.comThe Yellow Kid, the first newspaper comic stripit reached sublime levels of artisticmastery under artists like Hokusaiwhose prints of tsunami and MountFiji remain illustrious feats even today.Although similar to woodcut printing, thedifference lies in the use of water-basedinks in the woodblock printing opposedto oil-based inks. This gives woodblockprinting its characteristic richness andtransparency of colours. The narrativethemes evolved from initially beingrestricted to Buddhist teachings to morepersonal experiences of love, loss andenjoying the beauty of nature.Woodcut IllustrationsThe technique of woodcut printingarrived in Europe around 1400 AD,derived from the Chinese woodblockmethods via the Islamic or Byzantineregions. In this method the image iscarved into the surface of a block ofwood where non printing areas to showwhite are cut away, leaving the originalsurface to produce black outlines.These blocks could be easily usedwith the movable type and gave rise toillustrated books. Initially the illustrationsaccompanied religious text, but laterwere included in stories and novels. ThePhoto Credit: TFAHRBayeaux TapestryPhoto Credit: Street Art UtopiaMural by BLU in Berlin, Germanyexample to the right is the Latinschoolbook of Aesop’s fables printed inthe fifteenth century.Stained GlassStained glass windows with illustrativeart reached its peak in churches in theMiddle Ages. They narrated storiesfrom Bible and reached out to even theilliterate masses. As Gothic architectureflourished, the windows became largerand more elaborate in that period.Propaganda PostersPrinted posters mass produced withattractive graphics and textual contenthave been used for communication ofevents, advertisements, protests andpropaganda have been around since1870. The propaganda posters used inCommunist or Nazi movements aroundthe world wars portrayed interestingstories and powerful messages toconvince the audience. Bold colours andstrong lines and shapes were used tocreate a more vivid and deeper impact.Photo Credit: Arrested Motion(Top and below) Photographs from Slinkachu’s ‘Little People Project’
  22. 22. 43Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 242KulizaPhoto Credit: Forest GospelManga art by Katsuhiro OtomoPhoto Credit: JRPhotographs of Israelis and PalestiniansPhoto Credit: Lost at E MinorA mural by Ukrainian artist Internisi KazkiPhoto Credit: Boston Public LibraryA New York barber refusing to finish shaving acustomer after learning of his British identityVisualStorytellingPhoto Credit: Merry FarmerPhoto Credit: United States HolocaustMemorial Museum
  23. 23. 4544KulizaVisual Designer at Kuliza. Writes ondesign, art and culture.Image Credit: Fan PopCalvin and Hobbes, by Bill Watterson,on an epic time travelling missionAbout Anindya KunduCapturingPeople’s Storiesthrough DigitalMediaCommunitiesby Nehal ShahPhoto Credit:The Journal ofAwesomeIn the digital environment, devices areinteracting with users or with otherdevices; but there is always a humanintervention. Bluetooth is a greatexample – a computer transferringdata to your phone through Bluetoothtechnology. Most consumer devices donot have the AI to initiate such activitiesthemselves and need a human to tellthem what to do or set a workflow thatthe device can repeat.Through trials and rigorous testingmost devices can be manipulated andautomated to improve performance.But, the user’s experience is rarelyunderstood. If a website’s navigation isbuggy, requires too much effort, the usergets lost and has to relearn things, theuser is going to leave.Over the past few decades therehas been an impressive growthof research and research related45Digital technologies in storytelling have become moreparticipatory through a combination of texts, photos and videos.activities. Organizations deploysubstantial resources to understandmarket segments, their competitors,stakeholders, performing SWOTanalyses, amongst others. Whileimportant, it becomes crucial to studypeople who are going to consume yourproduct or service at the end – the enduser. What makes him or her tick? Howcan one use this to design a compellinguser experience? How can one leveragethis knowledge to create artifacts thatfulfill his latent needs? How can onestrategize this data to give him things hedoes not know he needs yet?This can be done by understanding hisstory. Some of the questions that youshould ask to discover his story and co-create with him are:• Where does he come from?• What does he do?• What are his life goals?• What challenges does he face?Comics and Graphic NovelsWith the advent of printing it was possibleto have text and images side by side.The speech balloon showed up in 18thcentury. The first newspaper comic stripsappeared in North America in late 19thcentury. The Yellow Kid is considered thefirst newspaper comic and appeared inNew York World from 1895. Initially mostcartoons were of social and politicalsatire, but now comics and the broadergraphic novels cover all genres of storiesfrom horror to science fiction.Contemporary Graffiti MuralsInspite of technological advances,people still graffiti. They make artmore accessible to a larger numberof people and have a broader impact.Graffiti and street art have been majorinfluences in today’s contemporarymurals. JR is a French artist who usesmassive photographs on walls to createa dialogue amongst the stories of manylives around us and the immediateenvironment, geography and history ofthe place.
  24. 24. 46 47Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 2Kuliza• What are his commitments?• How does he function in his social and professional circles ?• How does he communicate?• Who does he communicate with?• What is his community like?• Does he participate?• What influences him?• What motivates him?But, watch the interviewer in you! Take the ethnographicapproach. In order to get the truth and not mere facts, youneed to go the extra mile. Answers alone won’t help. Observe,live with him and his community. One of the main tenets ofunderstanding the user is to forge a deep empathy with them.You can do that only when you can connect with them.Interestingly, if one approaches this problem through a fact-finding lens, a large section of your end-users won’t be able toarticulate answers to your questions. It will most likely lead toa halo effect, biased answers, fiction and exaggeration.To avoid these challenges, stories have been traditionallycaptured through shadowing and ethnographies, recordingoral traditions, preserving cultural memories through text andvisual mediums, like photos and moving pictures. Dudley,Goff, Goff and Johnston used videos to capture stories ofTsunami survivors, a great illustration of how modern mediacan be used cleverly. These stories lend themselves to thedesign of more efficient solutions for and during disasters.While photo and video technology is fairly modern, theinteractivity that the internet offers today is incomparable.Forums, social and professional networking platforms, onlinemulti-player games, fan websites and similar platforms, allcreate small communities and digital natives that inhabit them.This has given rise to a new setting and new technology forunderstanding users.Here are 5 tools that can be used to do your own user researchand analysis if you are restricted by a budget:• Eye Tracking Software | GazeHawk• Mobile Research Platform | Ethos• Multi-Protocol IM Client for Ethnographic Interviews |Ethnochat• Tracking Visual Trends and Moodboarding | Pinterest• Stunning Videos for Better Storytelling | AnimotoReferenceDudley, Goff, Chague-Goff and Johnston, Capturing thenext generation of cultural memoories - the process of videointerviewing tsunami survivors, Science of Tsunami Hazards,Vol.28,No.3,page 154-170About Nehal ShahNewer ways of mediating qualitative research methods areemerging. There are netnographies, virtual ethnographies,eye-tracking and heat-mapping to see what your user islooking at on a website. Interestingly, but expectedly, newbusinesses are materializing around digital research for betteruser experience. Y Combinator backed Gazehawk has agreat, disruptive offering for this that uses just a webcam andsoftware. This is data-analytics made much more compelling.The semiotics of communication has evolved and changedperspectives for brands and businesses. The Anthropologyof YouTube is a brilliant video that captures the value ofstories through digital media, in this case, YouTube. Creatorof the video and a professor of Cultural Anthropology, MichaelWesch, maintains that YouTube is more than technology, “Itis a space where identities, values and ideas are produced,reproduced, challenged and negotiated in new ways.” It takeson the idea of community and participation and gives an insightinto people’s motivation to be part of an online community andsocial interaction design. Although a bit long (just short of anhour), this video is a must-watch. It is the perfect union of userexperience, research, storytelling and new media.The academic and practical implications of exploring andexploiting the possibilities of digital technology are mind-boggling. The potential of an electronic environment alongwith multi-media integration is considerable. It can createdialogues amongst users, stories, devices and the ecology –therefore creating new meaning, at every stage.Design researcher specializing inidentifying key user experiencesthrough qualitative research methods.Twitter: @nehalshahrPhoto Credit: The Journal of AwesomeIntel’s Museum of Me
  25. 25. 49Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 248KulizaAmbient SocialAppsCommunitiesby Kaushal SardaImage Credit:USA TodaySalientFeatures1Ambient social apps run in thebackground and combine locationinformation, social connections data,and other parameters to enable socialconnections and interactions.48Ambient social apps sense people who are in your vicinityto help establish real-world connections and interactions toavoid missing out on socializing opportunities.2Such apps use implicit socialconnections of the user to createinteresting real world connections andexperiences on the go and eradicatemissed opportunities.3These SoLoMo powered apps can alsobe very event friendly. At big shows,conferences, and festivals such appscan leverage spike in location check-insand strong social intent to become thehive of engagement.Image Credit: Medvekoma4It is uncertain whether the future of suchapps will continue to exist as standalonetools or as a feature woven into socialplatforms like Facebook or Foursquare.5The purpose of these apps is compelling,however execution and design issueslike battery drain, privacy concerns, userexperience, lack of perpetual interestingactivity, and dependency on other socialnetworks need to be resolved formass adoption.BrandEngagementScope1Brands can proactively engagecustomers in the vicinity withoutdependency on check-ins and use suchapps as a customer acquisition tool.2Brands have the opportunity to act asequals with users and move aroundevents and other locations, unlikeFacebook where all interactions arelimited to a single place.3Such ambient apps could improve realtime brand engagement with rewards orspecial offers made available for a shorttime once user enters the ‘geo-fence’around a business, encouraging a moreimmediate response / action.4Leveraging the inherent social, hyper-local aspect of the ambient apps,marketers can expand their footprintseven wider by pushing out deals, suchas a buy-one-get-one-free discounts,to users to share with friends or othercustomers in the vicinity.Image Credit: jewlogic
  26. 26. 51Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 250KulizaTop41. HighlightHighlight helps users detectother Highlight users in theirvicinity. Their profiles showsup along with mutual friendsor favorite TV shows orbands, perfect fodder for anintroductory conversation.The app also reminds usersof the name of a Highlightuser they have met before.2. GlanceeThe app tracks your locationin the background and linksto your Facebook and Twitteraccounts. It will show peoplewho are using the app inthe same area along withtheir social graph interestsas well as automaticallyuploading your Facebookprofile pictures.AmbientSocial AppsWhat we likeHighlight has a simple,intuitive, eye-pleasing UI.IssuesBattery drain; creep outfactor: strangers being ableto see my Facebook name,profile picture, interests, andexact location is creepyIssuesBattery drain; lack of a mapto show people in vicinity; nosearch option.What we likeRadar feature tells you howmany steps away a person is.About Kaushal Sarda4. BanjoThe app uses ambientlocation but it relies more onaggregating location datafrom Foursquare, Gowalla,Facebook and Twitter toprovide a map of people nearyou.3. UberlifeThis app lets you start instant“hangouts” for events youattend or places you visit.So, if you pop into a bar foran after-work beer and needsome drinking buddies, youcan start a hangout andbroadcast your request toyour network and to theUberlife user community.The app awards pointsfor conducting successfulmeetups. It also allowsposting about the event whileit is happening, creating arecord that can be revisited.Technology evangelist, serialentrepreneur, Chief Evangelistat Kuliza, advisor to Hash Cube.Writes on commerce and CRM.Twitter: @ksardaIssuesBetter positioned for makinguse of your social networks’location data rather thanfinding new people or havinga totally seamless ambientexperience.What we likeRadar feature tells you howmany steps away a person is.IssuesThe app will be of value onlyif your friends and - moreimportantly - the people youwant to be your friends arealso using the app.What we likeThis could enable brandsto proactively engageconsumers in the vicinitywithout having to wait fora check-in to respond to,making the app work as acustomer acquisition tool.ReferencesMark Sullivan, The year of ‘ambient social’ apps?, PC World,March 8,2012Jay Hawkinson, New ambient social apps enable brands toproactively connect with those nearby, Mobile Marketer, June1, 2012Molly McHugh,These are the ambient social apps competingfor SoLoMo dominance, Digital Trends, March 19, 2012
  27. 27. 53Social Technology Quarterly Vol. 2 Issue 252Rediscoveringour DIY SpiritCommunitiesby Payal ShahFor me, it all began five years ago whenwe discovered my husband was allergicto wheat. We started reading labels oneverything we bought to see whetheror not it contained wheat. Never havingchecked labels before, even for caloriecontent, I didn’t know what to make ofwhat I saw: images of ingredients andnutrition labels. These labels lookedless like ingredients I would find in mygrandmother’s kitchen and more like achemistry lesson.Was this supposed to be food? Was itsomething that we were putting insideour bodies, something that becomes apart of us?Thenceforth I began reading labelson everything we bought - food or not,and yes, there were chemicals in thosethings too. So now we were puttingchemicals in and on our bodies.52A new generation of online and offline DIY communities arerediscovering the art of making.Think about all the things we do beforewe leave for work - brushing your teeth(toothpaste), washing your face (facewash), showering (soap or body wash),washing hair (shampoo and conditioner),shave (shaving foam) moisturize (bodylotion), do up face (all types of make-up), have breakfast (cereal, bread,jam, ketchup, long life milk, vegetablesand fruits sprayed with pesticides andfertilizers, etc). In just an hour everymorning, we bombard our bodies with acocktail of at least a hundred chemicals.As this realization dawned upon me, Iresolved to reduce as many chemicalsas possible in my life. I started makingthings from scratch - Thai curry pastes(that way I could make them vegetarian),peanut butter, bread, muesli, wetwipes, kohl, compact, lip balms, vanillaextract, everything I possibly could. Iresearched the “no ‘poo” movementwhich is more to do with giving upImage Credit:FerguStuffshampoo than constipating myself. Istarted growing herbs and making myown home cleaning products out ofthings in the kitchen.At around this time I chanced uponPinterest. I was not alone. There werethousands of women (Pinterest’s largestuser database is women) who wereembracing what our grandparents didso naturally for generations before them- living frugally, using what was locallyavailable and doing things themselves.There are now people keeping beesin their back yard, composting in theirgardens, making bread from scratchin their kitchens, making condimentsfor their pantries, making furniture intheir garages, growing vegetables,keeping a chicken coop, sewing (orat least) altering their own clothes,making their own cleaning products andhome-schooling their children. A largecommunity of makers has been re-born.The whole DIY ethic finds its originspredictably in anti-consumerism andstrangelyinpunkideology.Itpromotestheideas of self-sufficiency, empowermentof individuals and communities, andusing alternative approaches whenfaced with bureaucratic or societalobstacles to achieving objectives. Itdeveloped out of rejection of the needto buy things or use existing systemsor processes that would encouragedependency on establishments. In the1970s, emerging British punk bandsbegan to record music, produce albumsand merchandise and performedin basements and homes to avoidcorporate sponsorship and have artisticfreedom. This was the beginning ofnot only DIY music, but of the DIYmovement itself.For about 60 decades, we have beenusing the term DIY synonymously withhome improvement projects that peoplechoose to complete independently andwithout expert help. In the last couple ofyears, DIY has come to include a widerange of skill sets. Having started from6th century BC in southern Italy whereItalian and Greek masons learnedto mass-produce components of abuilding, the DIY movement today hasevolved to a re-introduction of skills thatcan be used in everyday life, skills thatare influenced by post consumerism,green living, self-sustenance and plainfrugality.There are both online and offlinecommunities of makers - those that doit all quietly at home, some that do itat home and share their efforts on theinternet, some that make products andsell them on the internet, some that takemaking very seriously and organize‘faires’ every year and others who areDIY-minded, live very busy lives, butaspire to make everything someday.Kelly Coyne and Erik Knutzen, in theirbook “Making it - Radical Home Ec fora Post- Consumer World” claim theyare plotting revolution from their 1/12thacre farm in the heart of Los Angeles.It is the ultimate guidebook of restoredHome Economics to its most nobleform - one in which the household isa self-sustaining engine of productionat the centre of one’s life. They havevery detailed instructions on DIY-ing everything - your own sourdoughstarter, slaughtering chickens, wormfarming, making vinegar, beekeeping,etc. They claim that DIY is a string of on-going adventures that has shaped theirlives very fruitfully - everything startedbecause they decided to grow tomatoesin their apartment balcony and theyknew they were not buying tomatoesevery again. One project led to anotherand now the whole is greater than thesum of the parts.There are millions of people aroundthe world who are embracing thismovement. It is not always easy, thingsgo wrong, it takes some time, but isinfinitely rewarding. Try making yourown peanut butter and I guarantee youwill not look back.About Payal ShahPsychologist and child developmententhusiast. Writes about children’smedia, baby sign language andeducation.Twitter: @pobroin
  28. 28. 54KulizaKuliza designed and built a social reader for a popularIndian healthcare portal. The objective was to helpmake their content available for consumption viaFacebook with frictionless sharing. This ensuresreaders can discover more meaningful content anddramatically increase referral traffic. The app providedthe portal a way to convert their large Facebook fan-base into more active readers and advocates of theirarticles. It also increased time spent on the site.Facebook Social ReaderIndian Healthcare PortalCase StudyPhoto Credit: lkurnarskyTo ElevateCampaignsTo TransformCommerceBrand Sites / Campaign MicrositesSoapbox Facebook Contest AppTouch CataloguesSocial DealsCustom Facebook AppsCustom Mobile AppsOnline CommunitiesSocial Reader Facebook AppSocial Stories EventsE-Commerce SitesFacebook StoresShop.Pulse Social Shopping AppSocial GiftingenCount Mobile Loyalty AppCustom M-Commerce AppsTo ShapeCommunities
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