Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)and India Kuldeep Singh December 2012
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)There are Eight Millennium Development Goals adopted by United Nation.1. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger2. To achieve universal primary education3. To promote gender equality and empower women4. To reduce child mortality5. To improve maternal health6. To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases7. To ensure environmental sustainability8. To develop a global partnership for development.
MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger• Target: Halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty (less than one dollar a day) in between 1990 and 2015.• Present status(India): India is moderately successful in reducing poverty and likely to miss target by 3.5 percentage point. The Poverty head Count Ratio is estimated to reach 18.6 % by 2015. The malnourished and underweight children’s percentage came down from 53.5 (in 1990) to 46 % (in 2005-06) and expected to reach 40 percent by 2015 (below the target of 28.6 %)• Global Information Evidence of improvement in children nutritional status Percentage of underweight children has been estimated to decline from 25% in 1990 to 16% in 2010. Stunting in children under five years of age decreased from 40% to 27%. In Asia, the number of children stunted children halved between 1990 (190 million) and 2010 (100 million)
MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education• Target: Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.• Present Status (India): On track and in some cases, ahead of target for universalizing primary education Gross enrolment rates for both girls and boys in 2006-07 crossed 100 %.• Centrally-sponsored schemes that address this MDG include: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Mid Day meal Scheme Kasturba Gandhi Balkia Vidyalaya (KGBV)
MDG 3 :Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women• Target: • Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015. • Track key element of women’s social, economic and political participation and guide the building of gender-equitable societies. • All the MDGs are interdependent and gender equality is essential to the achievement of better health.• Present Status (India): India is moderately or almost nearly on track however ‘participation of women in employment and decision making remains less and disparity is not likely to eliminate by 2015’. Country’s Gender Parity Index (GPI) for Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in primary and secondary education has risen, but achieving GPI in tertiary education still remains a challenge. The labor market openness for women in industry and service has marginally increased from 13-18 % between 1990-91 and 2004-05.• Global Information Girls still account for 55% of out of school population Maternal mortality is the number one cause of death for adolescents 15-19 years old. The ratio of female-to-male earned income is well below parity in all countries. Up to one in three women world wide will experience violence at some point in her life.
MDG 4 :Reduce Child Mortality• Target: Reduce by two-thirds the under five mortality rate by 2015.• Present Status (India): India’s under Five Mortality (U5MR) declined from 125 per 1000 live births in 1990 to 74.6 per 1000 live births in 2005-06. U5MR is expected to further decline to 70 per 1000 live births by 2015 and might fail to achieve the target that is 42 per 1000 live births by 2015• Global Information 76 lakhs children under 5 died in 2010. During 1960-1990, child mortality in developing region was halved to one child in 10 dying before age five. The aim is to further cut child mortality by two thirds from 1990 level. Reaching the MDG on reducing the child mortality will require universal coverage with key effective, affordable interventions like care for new born and mothers, Infant and young child feeding, vaccines, prevention and case management of pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria control and prevention and care of HIV/AIDS.
MDG 5 :Improve Maternal Health• Target: Reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate between 1990 and 2015 Achieve by 2015, universal access to reproductive health• Present Status(India): The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) of India was 437 per 100,000 live births in 1990-91 and the target of 2015 is 109 per 100,000 live births. The present MMR is 254 per 100,000 live birth as compared to 1990. Despite progress India is expected to fall short by 26 points by 2015 By 2015, India is expected to ensure only 62 percent of births in institutional facilities with trained personnel.• Global Information: Up to 358 000 women die each year in pregnancy and childbirth Since 1990, some countries in Asia and Northern Africa have more than halved maternal mortality. Some 21.5 crore women who would prefer to delay or avoid pregnancy still lack safe and effective contraception.
MDG 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases• Target: By 2015 halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it By 2015 halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.• Present Status(India): India made significant stride in reducing the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Much of decline can be attributed to greater awareness and increasing condom use. Malaria, both in terms of prevalence and death has declined. The diagnosis of malaria has declined from 1.74 % in 2005 to 1.52 % in 2009 India account for one-fifth of the global incidence of Tuberculosis (TB), but made progress in halting the prevalence Treatment success rate of TB has remained steady at 86-87 percent over the last five years.• Global Information: At the end of 2011, 3.42 crore people were living with HIV, 25 lakh people became newly infected and 17 lakh died of AIDS which includes 2,30,000 children. Around 300.3 crore people are at risk of contracting malaria. On an average, malaria kills a child every minute. TB is one of the biggest infectious killer disease in the world with estimated 14 lakh, deaths and 88 lakh new cases of TB in 2010.
MDG 7 :Ensure Environmental Sustainability• Target: Halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015 Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources. Achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2015.• Present Status (India): Some progress in ensuring the environment sustainability Forest cover has increased to 21% and protected areas cover to 4.83 % of country’s total land area The overall access to improved water sources increased from 68.2% in 1992-93 to 84.4% in 2007-08 The proportion of households without toilet facilities declined from 70% to 51% in between 1991-92 to 2007-08. India is on track of achieving the MDG target of sustainable access to safe drinking water. India being one of the most densely populated country and at current progress country is unlikely to achieve the target of reducing the proportion of household having no access to sanitation to 38 percent by 2015• Global Information: The percentage of world population using improved drinking water sources increased from 77% to 87% between 1990 and 2008 and on track of meeting global MDG drinking water target. In sanitation target, world is falling short and in 2008, 200.6 crore people still had no access to a hygienic toilet or safe latrine.
MDG 8 : Develop a Global Partnership for Development• Target: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications. Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable non-discriminatory trading and financial system• Present Status(India): India has emerged one of the major development partner for fostering techno- economic and intellectual assistance to countries across the world The IT software, service and Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES) sector have managed to catch up with global leaders.• Global Information: Availability of essential medicine at public health facilities is still poor In private sector, generic medicines cost average six times than their international reference High price leads to unaffordable treatment
• Population of India as per 2011 Census –121 crore Urban 31.20 % Male 51.54% Population Rural 68.80% Female 48.46% Population• Percentage of population Below Poverty Line (BPL) 2004-05 2009-10 Rural 42.0 33.8 Urban 25.5 20.9 All India 37.2 29.8 12
HumanAcceleration of India’s ResourceEconomic Growth Anti-Poverty Development Strategy Income Generation through various Poverty Alleviation Programmes
Focus of Rural Development Programmes• Creation of Employment – i) Wage Employment (MGNREGA), ii) Self Employment (NRLM)• Social Security (NSAP)• Watershed Development Programme for increasing productivity of lands (IWMP)• Housing to BPL Families (IAY)• Rural Connectivity (PMGSY)• Provision of Drinking Water (NRDWP)• Sanitation (TSC)Budget of RD Programmes in 11th Five Year Plan (2007-11) - Rs. 297683 croreAnnual Budget of RD Programmes - Rs. 60000 -70000 crore (25% of total Central Plan Budget) 14
Flagship Programmes of Govt. of India in 12th Five Year Plan (2012-17)1 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural 9 Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Employment Guarantee Act Programme (AIBP) (MGNREGA)2 Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) 10 Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)3 National Rural Livelihood Mission 11 Integrated Child Development Schemes (NRLM) (ICDS)4 Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana 12 Backward Region Grant Fund (BRGF) (PMGSY)5 National Social Assistance Programme 13 National Health Mission (NSAP)6 Mid Day Meal (MDM) Scheme 14 Restructured - Accelerated Power Development Programme (R-APDP)7 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) 15 Rajiv Gandhi Grameena Vidyuthikaran Yojana (RGGVY)8 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban 16 Rajeev Gandhi Drinking Water and Renewal Mission (JNNURM) Sanitation Mission