INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVERTISINGQUALIFYING RESEARCH WORK“MASS COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF         THE MEDIA PRES...
INTRODUCTION      The general goal of this research is to define the spare advertising capabilitiesof mass media.      The...
CHAPTER 1. AMBIVALENT POTENTIAL OF MASS                      COMMUNICATION1.1.THE MEDIUM IS THE MESSAGE        According t...
1.2. POSSIBILITIES THE COMMUNICATION CHANNEL GIVES        One-way and two-way maps of communication should be considered t...
feedback availability at the channel. In case of the informational impact it ispossible just to hope that the potential au...
CHAPTER 2. THE DOWNWARD TREND IN ADVERTISING            EFFECTIVENESS IN THE MEDIA2.1. ESTIMATION OF ADVERTISING EXPOSURE ...
So, to get the maximum of the communicative and financial efficiency for theadvertiser the media plan should seek to provi...
2.2. TENDENCY TO DECREASE THE MASS MEDIA POSITIVE EFFECT      The mass media have two main issues that decrease the advert...
a possibility of sensitivity loss and apathy relating this phenomenon to the massmedia hyper emotionality. Later their fol...
mass media provide information which often is a total lie. Usually themisinformation is provided by different sources and ...
2.3. THE MASS MEDIA PRESSURE      The second problem is the mass media saturation. The variety of advertisingcreates white...
CHAPTER 3. AN OPPORTUNITY TO OVERCOME THE              TARGET AUDIENCE RESISTANCE        Studies have shown that an advert...
On the other hand advertising infusion leads to all kinds of countermotivationand psychological resistance. Advertising di...
3.2. NONINTRUSIVE ADVERTISING. THE FREEDOM OF CHOICE       Let us suppose the consumer could choose the advertising messag...
The possibility to turn off the behavioural advertising has already become asign of good manners in the west. Yahoo has re...
3.4. UNCONVENTIONAL MEDIA      The      current   technology   development     assumes    that   several    newcommunicati...
3.5. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE BY CREATING EMOTIONAL INVOLVEMENT                                               “Ads are cave a...
This advertising campaign is mostly relevant for the coffee shops located innot popular areas far from the active centre o...
speed running the player can compare his results to the other players going throughthe same race.        “The character is...
agency for the Cibavision brand5. During the strategic planning the emotionalinvolvement of users was considered as one of...
3.6. COMMUNICATION OUTSIDE THE MEDIA ENVIRONMENT      Besides the information space where it is accustomed to consider ana...
addressee stops receiving advertising spam (mass mailing which doesn’t target theultimate recipient). The use of the chann...
This service means for the consumer:                                      •   No need to look for the price tag (they are ...
3.6.2. CREATING AUDIENCE EMOTIONAL INVOLVEMENT IN ADVERTISING COMMUNICATIONOUTSIDE THE MEDIA SPACE           Let us examin...
CONCLUSION      Currently, there is a tendency to decrease the effectiveness of advertising inthe media. The most signific...
MASS COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MEDIA PRESSURE
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MASS COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MEDIA PRESSURE

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Currently, there is a tendency to decrease the effectiveness of advertising in the media. The most significant factors are the media pressure including the advertising clutter, and reduction of the positive impact of the media. Studies have shown that an advertising which evoked a positive reaction at the first exposure can cause a negative response after multiple exposures. The negative reaction caused by multiple rotation and undermined credibility to the source (a campaign or media) do not let the advertising become that moving power with an indisputable and precise impact.
This project was undertaken to develop several tools to overcome the target audience resistance and evaluate possibilities the communication channel gives. This paper has given an account of and the reasons for the widespread use of unconventional media and communication outside the media environment. An opportunity to overcome the target audience resistance consists of a comprehensive rethinking of reserve capacities of mass communication, mass media and the process of their messages as well. For advertising, as an element of mass communication, it means reference to the secondary function of advertising, namely it means advertising as an independent product. For an information channel, feedback is the backup feature.

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MASS COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MEDIA PRESSURE

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVERTISINGQUALIFYING RESEARCH WORK“MASS COMMUNICATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MEDIA PRESSURE” BY KSENIA SAPUNOVA Moscow 2011
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The general goal of this research is to define the spare advertising capabilitiesof mass media. The task is to investigate the mass media communication problems which caninfluence product or services promotion by the means of advertising. The target ofthe research is the influence of media pressure on the perception of advertisingincluding such pressure indicators as compassion fatigue and audience burnout. The following advertising subjects may require defining the relation ofadvertising and the mass media problems such as compassion fatigue and audienceburnout: advertising generator, advertiser and advertising distributor in the area ofthe industry where the audience perception defines the product promotion. The first chapter will examine the communication subjects and objects.Further work will consider the advertising capability to enter a different qualitylevel of the two-way communication. The possibility of this is directly reliant on thecommunication channel. The task is to define different kinds of restrictions inmessage communication: noise in the media space and filters (barriers) in the non-media space. The increasing amount of literature devoted to the mass media saturationacknowledges the relevance of the research. At the moment there is a wide range ofstudies of mass media all over the world. Yet, the general researches are not preciseenough for practical application. The requirement for higher precision is partlyexplained by the mass media peculiarities in different parts of the world. So,understanding Russian mass media needs local study.
  3. 3. CHAPTER 1. AMBIVALENT POTENTIAL OF MASS COMMUNICATION1.1.THE MEDIUM IS THE MESSAGE According to Marshall McLuhan’s1 famous expression, the medium is themessage. So, the medium creates a symbiotic relation and affects the advertisingimpression. McLuhans most widely known work, “Understanding Media” (1964),is a pioneering study in media theory. McLuhan proposed that media themselvesshould be the focus of study independent of their content. The main idea is that themedium itself affects a person and the society. McLuhan states that the mediumcreates an environment by its mere presence. The Italian scholar also points that themass media industrialization changes not just the message sending and receivingconditions but the message itself that is the block of meanings the author intended tocommunicate regardless of the distribution methods.1 Herbert Marshall McLuhan, (1911 – 1980) was a Canadian educator, philosopher, a professor of English literature, aliterary critic, a rhetorician, and a communication theorist. McLuhans work is viewed as one of the cornerstones ofthe study of media theory, as well as having practical applications in the advertising and television industries.
  4. 4. 1.2. POSSIBILITIES THE COMMUNICATION CHANNEL GIVES One-way and two-way maps of communication should be considered todefine the relation of mass communication and advertising with mass media. As anexample of one-way communication we can consider the semiotic model describedby Umberto Eco2 in his book “Absent Structure. Introduction to Semiotics”. According to the one-way communication map, advertising should beunderstood as “a transfer process of an advertising message from the source ofinformation to the recipient by the means of a certain channel”. It has to bementioned that when the sender forms the message he should assume that therecipient is well familiar with the code being used. Otherwise the transfer efficiencywill be low. The main defect of such a contact is that it is impossible to check if thesignal is received and if it is received, how much the message sent differs from themessage received. Advertising as a part of mass communication is inclined to set the feedbackwith the recipient. Due to this the impact becomes targeted, it can be correctedaccording to the reaction. Without the simultaneous feedback, the mass informationsubjects have to be geared to a probable consumer and his probable characteristicsand thus to define his expectations and reaction. The TV and radio broadcasting mode suggests a passive audience behaviourwhile the Internet suggests an active interaction of the recipient with the channel.Print media contact level is in between the Internet and broadcasting media. Theinability of an individual to react sufficiently to a received message wreaks thehavoc to the advertising communication idea itself. Thus, the one-way advertising communication should be defined as“informational impact” whereas the two-way communication is determined by the2 Umberto Eco (born 5 January 1932) is an Italian scholar, philosopher, medievalist, semiotician, literary critic, andnovelist.
  5. 5. feedback availability at the channel. In case of the informational impact it ispossible just to hope that the potential audience will receive the message but itcannot determine its effect after the decoding. So, the message may be perceived,not perceived or perceived differently depending on the code relevance to the signsystem used by the audience or on the noise influence on the channel. Communication suggests the exchange of important information andknowledge, while the transfer only is concerned about the data sending andreceiving efficiency with just one goal – to inform the addressee. The success ofcommunication can be assumed according to the possibilities the channel gives tothe recipient. Information Recipient Media channel - The source / the sender decodes signal Message (verbal radio, television, (the person generating the (the message can and nonverbal) Internet, idea of ​message) be decrypted publications, etc. incorrectly) Noise Feed-back
  6. 6. CHAPTER 2. THE DOWNWARD TREND IN ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS IN THE MEDIA2.1. ESTIMATION OF ADVERTISING EXPOSURE EFFICIENCY WHEN SELECTING THEMEDIUM Advertising exposure efficiency in this context means a change in a person’sbehaviour after being exposed to the advertising message (he was in the room withTV showing a block of ads; he was reading or looking through a paper with theadvertising; he passed by a billboard, etc.) The advertising frequency is the next issue in selecting the mass media,especially considering the costs. In 1978 Michael Naples proposed the “efficientfrequency” concept which was based on the analysis of Collin McDonald’s researchresults obtained in early 1960-s. The concept declared that people react toadvertising only after the third exposure. The further study of this subject wascarried out by John Phillip Jones and published in 1995. It disproved the previousview on the advertising efficiency. Later during an Advertising ResearchFoundation conference Collin McDonald declared that results of Naples werealways astonishing to him and they most probably proved the conclusions of Jones. According to this, the last advertising exposure before purchase is the mostefficient for consumers, and behaviour consequences after an advertising exposurelast 1-2 days. Certainly this result can be interpreted as a necessity for theadvertising exposure to happen every 2-3 days to support the loyalty. But thisconclusion was proven to be wrong. After a short period of time during which theadvertising exposure consequences can be present consumers become insensitive tothe message (refractoriness period). During this period the audience just ignores anyadvertising of the brand.
  7. 7. So, to get the maximum of the communicative and financial efficiency for theadvertiser the media plan should seek to provide a single exposure per week withthe maximum of the brand consumers. Such studies disprove an alreadyquestionable statement that exposure repetition helps understanding. They alsoevidence that excessive rotation supports negative attitude of the majority of peopleindependent of the advertisement content. According to this, the media are turningfrom the most popular advertising sites to disadvantageous ones.
  8. 8. 2.2. TENDENCY TO DECREASE THE MASS MEDIA POSITIVE EFFECT The mass media have two main issues that decrease the advertising efficiency.The first issue is the tendency to decrease the mass media positive effect. It is veryrare that information content can combine both ethic propriety and importance.French philosopher Alain Finkielkraut declares that “the society is satiated: newscannot grab its audience outside of the everyday experience sphere and theyaccelerate tensions of the majority of awful facts every day.”HYPER EMOTIONALITY AT THE INFORMATION DELIVERY There are several factors that decrease the mass media efficiency. One of theimportant issues is the way of communication which is getting more and moreemotional. Advertising quickly evokes satiety and repulsion (ads of differentproducts neutralize each other, sometimes even they neutralize themselves by themeans of their exaggeration).COMPASSION FATIGUE PHENOMENON Journalism analysts claim that the mass media have caused a widecompassion fatigue in the society by filling papers and information shows withmisery stories. This has made the society cynical and resistant to the modernproblems. Compassion should be understood to be an emotional reaction which aperson in a society has as a result of empathy. Besides, the word ‘compassion’ hereis a synonym to the word ‘sympathy’. As early as in 1951 P. Lazarsfeld and R. Merton distinguished “thenarcotizing dysfunction” of the mass media in their studies. By this term they meant
  9. 9. a possibility of sensitivity loss and apathy relating this phenomenon to the massmedia hyper emotionality. Later their followers couched this problem as“compassion fatigue” that is constantly accompanying the modern mass media.Recognition of this phenomenon existence as an unplanned side effect of the valuesand practices which are covered by the media and which determine the news contentis to become the first important step for the media that tend to play a positive socialrole instead of a negative one. The term “compassion fatigue” was first used in the research of emotionalemptiness experienced by people professionally helping others (doctors, socialworkers). The term defined the weakening of compassion towards patients andclients in tough situations. Later on the term started to be used outside of thisprofessional context to describe a wider social phenomenon – a decrease of thesociety’s interest in social problems. Besides, the mass media play the main role in“compassion fatigue” development. It is often mentioned that society is increasinglytired of mass media’s merciless coverage of people’s tragedies and of the pervasiverequests to donate money to different charity funds. As a result, a mere touch topeople’s suffering by the means of mass media does not evoke society’s response tothis suffering with the same immutability as before, because an excessive liability toviolence and despair messages dims feelings and leads to building a wall ofindifference around yourself.DECREASE OF THE MASS MEDIA INFLUENCE AS A COMMUNICATION CHANNEL The next factor of the mass media efficiency decrease brought discredit tomass media as a communication channel. One of the negative impacts of massmedia is propaganda. During the many years propaganda used a big amount ofmethods to manipulate the public consciousness that are really effective and allowimpacting the society in a certain way. One of the negative impacts on theconsciousness is a method of misinformation. The idea of it is that at some moment
  10. 10. mass media provide information which often is a total lie. Usually themisinformation is provided by different sources and sinks in person’sunconsciousness, and then gets used during making an important decision. When thetruth comes out, the goal of the misinformation has already been reached. Thus, thismethod is rather effective. But the method of misinformation is frankly rude and is not used in themodern mass media too often, unlike the method of association impact. Mass mediaidentify the world of media space as a problem, and the non-media space should beisolated from this problem. This restricts the access of the audience a lot. Such acondition has been formed for decades. A big role in this process is played by thefact that modern mass media deviate more and more from the news andinformational goals towards the entertaining ones. All of this leads to decrease ofthe audience’s trust; even news media gradually stop being a reliable source ofinformation as they fill the air with trendy but informationally insignificant content.Such a situation has added excessive tension to the communication system and ledto a quality decrease in advertising perception.
  11. 11. 2.3. THE MASS MEDIA PRESSURE The second problem is the mass media saturation. The variety of advertisingcreates white noise in the consumer consciousness, and the consumer develops aresistance. The saturation phenomenon leads to the issue of low profitability. It is aneconomical category which supposes the existence of a trigger point – anyadditional messages behind it do not make the intended effect. The pressure conceptsuggested in this work states an existence of the point behind which saturation has anegative effect rather than a neutral one. Thus, when messages reach the saturationpoint, they do not just stop having any impact on the audience, they cause a negativeeffect on people. The negative effect can be measured in terms of emotions,adjusting the behaviour reactions of individuals to the advertised product.
  12. 12. CHAPTER 3. AN OPPORTUNITY TO OVERCOME THE TARGET AUDIENCE RESISTANCE Studies have shown that an advertising which evoked a positive reaction atthe first exposure can cause a negative response after multiple exposures. Thenegative reaction caused by multiple rotation and undermined credibility to thesource (a campaign or media) do not let the advertising become that moving powerwith an indisputable and precise impact.3.1. BENEFITS OF RECOURSE TO THE ADVERTISING SECONDARY FUNCTION Product demo is not convincing for the consumer, it more likely justifies thepurchase which happens either before any rational motivations, or does not liewithin their bounds. The decisive impact on the buyer is made not by the rhetoricaldiscourse and even not by the informational discourse about the product’s benefits,it is made by the fact that the consumer is being convinced and persuaded, hisactions are anticipated and rationally justified to himself. Thus, whereas for onekind of people advertising is just an emotional excuse for a purchase like a placebo3,the other part of the audience do not feel emotionally comfortable with suchjustifications and show an extremely negative reaction. Advertising claims that it is its goal to communicate the characteristics of aproduct and promote its sales. This ‘objective’ function is a primary one.Advertising has moved away from informing to infusing, then to obscure infusing(Paccard). Now the aim of advertising is controlling consumption. There have beenconcerns that this is threatening to enslave human beings and their needs totally.3 Placebo is a biologically neutral substance prescribed to psychosomatic patients. It is a frequent fact that patientsrecover with this substance which has no effective components at the same speed as with real medicines.
  13. 13. On the other hand advertising infusion leads to all kinds of countermotivationand psychological resistance. Advertising discourse dissuades the consumer asmuch as persuades him, so the consumer either obviously develops immunity to themessages or has a rather free attitude towards them. Nevertheless, while the audience is resisting to the advertising infusion theybecome more sensitive to the fact of existence of advertising as a secondaryconsumer product and as an obvious phenomenon of a certain culture. This is thepart of advertising people believe: we experience the luxury of society which isshown to us as a presenter of good and ‘surpassed’ in culture. Thus, when theaudience has the unity of significative and signified, it is easier for them to acceptadvertising. When the consumer admits the existence of advertising as a product, healso accepts the message it carries.
  14. 14. 3.2. NONINTRUSIVE ADVERTISING. THE FREEDOM OF CHOICE Let us suppose the consumer could choose the advertising messages he wantsor doesn’t want to receive. According to many studies in personality psychology(free will) we can state that even insignificant transformations can propitiate theaudience. By the means of providing the recipient with some even a conventionalchoice it is possible to minimize the social discontent and apprehension towardsadvertising. There is a bright example of this method’s efficiency. In order to build theusers’ loyalty to behavioural advertising the consumers were provided a possibilityto ban “smart advertising”, a service which doesn’t inspire much credit. Just one thisstep has turned the marketing segmentation means into a consumer service. The behavioural targeting is based on the suggestion that the Internet userswould prefer to see advertising and offers relevant for them. Nevertheless, thestudies proved the opposite. The respondents showed a partly keen interest inreceiving discount news and information relevant to their personal needs, but stillless than a half of the Americans desire to receive any personalised Internet content.Over than two thirds of the Annenberg and Berkly poll respondents felt they hadlost control over their personal data. Despite the rageful protests of the western human rights activists and thepersonal life privacy defenders, the behavioural advertising technologies did notpush the users away due to the possibility to switch off this function. During the first10 months since Google launched the advertising manager tool, only 2.5% of usersout of the people who visited the page totally banned the advertising. While 7.5%of users not only kept the advertising on but even corrected the information abouttheir interests.
  15. 15. The possibility to turn off the behavioural advertising has already become asign of good manners in the west. Yahoo has recently launched a similar service,while smaller banner networks have created a common portal where you can turnoff all the behaviour advertising all at a time. Nevertheless, in this case it is onlypossible to sign off personalised messages but not the rest of the advertising in theInternet. This tool is one out of just a few, but it helps to see a positive tendencytowards humane advertising in the market development. The situation with other media is more complicated. None of the otherchannels can provide a consumer with such “a magic button”, it is technicallyimpossible. The reason for the biggest discontent in the society is advertising on TV.It was stated before that the decrease of the advertising efficiency had been causedby internal problems of television. According to this position, the irritation causedby advertising is more likely to be the consequence than the source of thediscontent. Considering the media environment advertising is a kind of indicator asit firstly corresponds to the broadcast level of every certain channel and to thechannel’s own view on the audience.
  16. 16. 3.4. UNCONVENTIONAL MEDIA The current technology development assumes that several newcommunication channels are appearing. As these channels appear on the basis ofexisting media holdings and are often adjoining other media, they are hard toclassify. Frequently these channels are a result of several media channelsintegration. For instance, mobile Internet and Internet TV can be referred as aqualitatively new direction. Besides, new communication channels let us speakabout creating a comfortable media space for the audience and a considerably moreefficient one for the advertising communication. We can evaluate the tools of controlling consumer relation with advertisingby the means of the Google contextual video advertising technology mentionedabove. The user is provided with several options according to the extent andpossibility of the advertising perception. The system entitles the user to decide whatamount of advertising he is ready to watch on TV. The user can choose one of theseveral options – ban advertising totally during a film or a programme by paying $2,decrease the amount of advertising by participating in an advertiser’s poll or choosethe time and watch a lot of ads. Such an approach is more preferable for both theadvertiser and the media than a direct ban of advertising as it doesn’t constitute afinancial danger for the channel and doesn’t sacrifice the audience’s interests.
  17. 17. 3.5. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE BY CREATING EMOTIONAL INVOLVEMENT “Ads are cave arts of the twentieth century” Herbert Marshall McLuhan New communication channels are just becoming popular but it is alreadyobvious that they are much more tailored to the modern mass communicationfeatures than the traditional channels. The technologies provide the audience with apossibility to use the same channel for a feedback and let them control receivingboth the informational content and advertising.First example of creating emotional involvement A game or a mobile application can be a communication channel as well. Letus consider an example of such a communication using the class project about ananticrisis advertising campaign for a network business4. The project was targeted toincrease the amount of visitors to the Starbucks coffee shop chain for the “spring-summer” period.4 The project work of K. Sapunova for 2009
  18. 18. This advertising campaign is mostly relevant for the coffee shops located innot popular areas far from the active centre of the capital, for example in the Megashopping malls, the “Airport” shopping centre. The campaign was supposed to useseveral information carriers but this chapter will examine the communication viagame as a non-traditional channel. This channel is figuratively defined as a medium based on the characteristicthat the communication doesn’t leave the boundaries of the conventional gameenvironment and doesn’t have any material evidence in the real world. The “Starbucks Quest” online game is proposed as the new medium. The planis to make the game available for smartphones and mobile communicators besidesthe traditional communication channel – Internet (it will be placed on the officialStarbucks web-site, Youtube, Myvi.ru). A multi-user game corresponds to the targetaudience insight which is the desire to socialize, as the player can not onlyindividually run the game but also join the community game – in this case in thesetting he sees the characters playing simultaneously with him. During the route
  19. 19. speed running the player can compare his results to the other players going throughthe same race. “The character is travelling in a chaotic world where the setting falls apart to assemble again, where aghost town is impossible to distinguish from a real game ground, where routes are changing during runningthrough them. Coffee is the only necessary stimulant to help the character who grew weaker and 2/3 smaller toconquer the next office giant. Running on roofs, spitting at the cans, fighting the most real everyday life monsterand many other surprises are waiting for those who pass the 1 st, 2nd,3rd, etc. levels…” (from the gamedescription).Second example of creating emotional involvement It is possible to build emotional involvement with the help of other traditionalcommunication channels as well. As an example Let us study some elements ofInternet advertising communication developed by the Saatchi&Saatchi Russia
  20. 20. agency for the Cibavision brand5. During the strategic planning the emotionalinvolvement of users was considered as one of the means to build the brand loyalty.For the purpose of promoting the brand character in the Internet, in particular by themeans of social networks, an entertaining content featuring unbranded avatars andthe “Wink!” application was spread in the Vkontakte network.5 Saatchi&Saatchi 2010, creative team: K. Sapunova, N. Lee, T. Moseeva
  21. 21. 3.6. COMMUNICATION OUTSIDE THE MEDIA ENVIRONMENT Besides the information space where it is accustomed to consider anadvertising message, there is also a space belonging to the addressee himself (therecipient of the advertising message). The challenge of advertising is to become apart of this environment while physically being placed in the media space territory.The success of the advertising communication mostly depends on theinterpenetration of these two environments. Having all the new technology and the interpenetration of media advertisingwas given a chance to get into the recipient’s space. The development of such non-traditional media as mobile Internet and Internet TV provides also non-mediacommunication channels.3.6.1. AUGMENTED REALITY TECHNOLOGY AS A COMMUNICATION ELEMENT OUTSIDE THEMEDIA SPACE New advertising opportunities appear on the basis of the development of newchannels. For example, using a QR-code in the advertising message which is a partof the augmented reality technology. This is the case of the two-waycommunication. After receiving the signal (a QR-code) the next addressee’s step isto decode it which is a primary response and indicates the user’s consent with themessage form. The further using of the code is also possible and in many cases canbe fixed which will be a direct response to the message itself. Such a service provides lots of opportunities for brand promotion (mainly forthe FMCG section) by the means of mobile marketing. A consumer who decided ona competitor’s product can receive a coded reminder of the product on his mobile.Anyhow, sending such messages is based on the real preferences of every certainuser. The trust to this source is expected to be higher than to other sources as the
  22. 22. addressee stops receiving advertising spam (mass mailing which doesn’t target theultimate recipient). The use of the channel assumes an individual approach towardscommunication while keeping it targeted but yet at mass scale. As an example let us consider using a QR-code as a product promotionelement. The product in this case may be a new mobile operator tariff, may be themobile operator itself, a phone, a camera or a smartphone, a retail or any othergoods or services. For the detailed consideration we will designate the advertising campaign asa crosspromotion of a mobile operator with a QR service and an “X” retail6. Thepromotion challenge is to replace a usual bar code for the product identification withthe QR-code. Usage of this code provides an opportunity of a message transfer. The size ofthe coded data is capable to contain not only an advertising message but thepackaging information and a link to the Internet store of this chain. Thus, it is possible to position a QR-code as a shopping optimizer: in amiddle-sized retail chain shoppers are offered to use a new service which help to notjust to reduce the time spent on everyday shopping, but also to make this processmore convenient. So, the shopper can immediately get the information about theproduct he is interested in – by taking a photo of the new bar code he will beautomatically offered to the product’s page with the price, expiry date and any otherinformation. Making the purchase in two dimensions (physically at the store andadding the product in his electronic basket) the shopper knows the sum of his checkbefore he gets to the checkout.6 The project work of K. Sapunova for 2009
  23. 23. This service means for the consumer: • No need to look for the price tag (they are often missing or give the wrong price); • Understanding the amount of purchases and their total cost before paying; • Fast checkout walkthrough • A chance to save the list of purchases and create several personal lists; • A chance to receive different recipes for the relevant food products or any other additional content which will maintain the demand and stimulate the consumer. In future the service may extend: it can accept advertising for some brands,share the database for research companies, extend its interactive services (recipes,reminders of some products from an active list, store navigation, diet tips – all basedon the purchasing information). The second development direction is extendingpenetration. The QR-decoder can grow out of a retail chain and go outside into thecity offering new services and attracting different audience. The third directionassumes a more integrated coverage of Russian cities – big, middle-sized and eventowns with the technology level higher than average. The side benefit of this service is rather significant. The database of consumerdemand will be constantly updating and useful for researches. Today researching theaverage bill is in demand despite its high costs. After creating the database of theQR-codes users, information the data will become much cheaper (direct correlationof demand-supply except for the cost price). Besides, the data will be more precise:there will be a possibility to spy on the shopper in the store, examine his shoppingbasket, get the statistics of his purchases (what he buys, how often, what time ofday, etc.). The phone number becomes the consumer’s identifier. The possibilities of this technology are best demonstrated by the campaignswhich have been already implemented in the traditional media.
  24. 24. 3.6.2. CREATING AUDIENCE EMOTIONAL INVOLVEMENT IN ADVERTISING COMMUNICATIONOUTSIDE THE MEDIA SPACE Let us examine the second class project of the Starbucks advertisingcampaign7 as an example of the communication in the non-media space. It wasbased on a game demonstrating the capabilities of a non-standard medium in theprevious chapter. This project is a combined BTL-action of two brands. The firstone is the coffee shop chain mentioned above, and the second one can be a mobilecommunicator. The key element of the campaign is taking the game to the city streets. Thegame is a parkour marathon. It is a live immersion into the game which attracts thepublic eye to the action and also increases the audience involvement. The eventprogramme also includes an introduction parkour seminar. A truck crane serves asthe gear. The first step of the action is playing the “Starbucks Quest” game on thecommunicator to introduce the device. It is held in the Starbucks shops everydayduring a week before the marathon (the programme’s estimated time is an hour).Besides, the model trial will take place in the “Photo Hunt” contest during themarathon – the team coordinators will follow the tracers location by thecommunicators placed on the Starbucks tables and inform their photo hunters. In thefreeze-frame point they can upload the photos in the contest bank. The returnmechanics is also provided by the means of a lottery among the tasting participantsquestionnaires. Several of the communicators used in the action will become thewinning prizes.7 The project work of K. Sapunova for 2009
  25. 25. CONCLUSION Currently, there is a tendency to decrease the effectiveness of advertising inthe media. The most significant factors are the media pressure including theadvertising clutter, and reduction of the positive impact of the media. Studies haveshown that an advertising which evoked a positive reaction at the first exposure cancause a negative response after multiple exposures. The negative reaction caused bymultiple rotation and undermined credibility to the source (a campaign or media) donot let the advertising become that moving power with an indisputable and preciseimpact. This project was undertaken to develop several tools to overcome the targetaudience resistance and evaluate possibilities the communication channel gives.This paper has given an account of and the reasons for the widespread use ofunconventional media and communication outside the media environment. Anopportunity to overcome the target audience resistance consists of a comprehensiverethinking of reserve capacities of mass communication, mass media and theprocess of their messages as well. For advertising, as an element of masscommunication, it means reference to the secondary function of advertising, namelyit means advertising as an independent product. For an information channel,feedback is the backup feature.

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