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Main ideas behind Artificial Life

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Basic ideas contributing to development of Artificial Life discipline are presented, so anybody from science or humanistic field can get introduction to the field.

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Main ideas behind Artificial Life

  1. 1. Lecture I: Main ideas behind Artificial Life Krzysztof Pomorski1,2 AGH1, University of Warsaw (FUW)2 1: Department of Telecommunication Faculty of Electronics, Computer Science and Telecommunication E-mail: kdvpomorski@kt.agh.edu.pl 27.02.2018
  2. 2. Overview Main motivation Synthetic biology Humanoid robots Image processing Human machine interaction Brain in vat Robotic zoo Original Langton paper and birhs of ALife Essence of life by Langton Von Neumann’s universal constructor Comway game of life Langton loop Orgin of life by cellular cells Schr¨odinger’s ”paradox Blind watchmaker Differene between Alife and AI ALife art
  3. 3. Motivation behind new discipline Artificial Life Investigation the essence of life and the ability to construct life or life-like system Creation universal and effective model of reality (as Standard Model for elementary particles) Investigation of biological systems in inductive or deductive way Investigation of functional aspects occurring in reality (Gaia hypothesis) Need for synthesis of humanistic and scientific fields as need of building bridges between Physics, Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy, Social Science and Technology Extension of Science of Complexity and Sociology and other disciplines Origin of culture, art and language
  4. 4. Synthetic biology Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering. The subject combines disciplines from within these domains, such as biotechnology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, molecular engineering, systems biology, biophysics, electrical engineering, computer engineering, control engineering and evolutionary biology. Synthetic biology applies these disciplines to build artificial biological systems for research, engineering and medical applications.
  5. 5. Muller experiment After letting the experiment run for a week, Miller and Urey found that various types of amino acids, sugars, lipids and other organic molecules had formed. Large, complex molecules like DNA and protein were missing, but the Miller-Urey experiment showed that at least some of the building blocks for these molecules could form spontaneously from simple compounds.
  6. 6. Origin of Life on the Earth The Earth formed roughly betweem 4.54 and 5 billion years ago, and life probably began between 3.53 and 3.93 billion years ago. The Oparin-Haldane hypothesis suggests that life arose gradually from inorganic molecules, with “building blocks” like amino acids forming first and then combining to make complex polymers. The Miller-Urey experiment provided the first evidence that organic molecules needed for life could be formed from inorganic components. Some scientists support the RNA world hypothesis, which suggests that the first life was self-replicating RNA. Others favor the metabolism-first hypothesis, placing metabolic networks before DNA or RNA. Simple organic compounds might have come to early Earth on meteorites.
  7. 7. Genome manipulation
  8. 8. Humanoid robots Figure: (Left): Enon was created to be a personal assistant. It is self-guiding and has limited speech recognition and synthesis. It can also carry things. (Right): Atlas is a bipedal humanoid robot primarily developed by the American robotics company Boston Dynamics, with funding and oversight from the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The 1.8-meter (6 ft) robot is designed for a variety of search and rescue tasks, and was unveiled to the public on July 11, 2013.
  9. 9. Image processing by Google and others
  10. 10. Human machine interaction
  11. 11. [Wikipedia] In philosophy, the brain in a vat (alternately known as brain in a jar) is a scenario used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of human conceptions of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, consciousness and meaning. It is an updated version of Ren´e Descartes’ Evil Demon thought experiment originated by Gilbert Harman. Best example is given by Matrix movie. It outlines a scenario in which a mad scientist, machine, or other entity might remove a person’s brain from the body, suspend it in a vat of life-sustaining liquid, and connect its neurons by wires to a supercomputer which would provide it with electrical impulses identical to those the brain normally receives. The computer would then be simulating reality (including appropriate responses to the brain’s own output) and the ”disembodied” brain would continue to have perfectly normal conscious experiences, such as those of a person with an embodied brain, without these being related to objects or events in the real world .
  12. 12. Robotic zoo by Boston Dynamics and others All types of animals were implemented in robotics from butterfly to horse, dog, snake and human. In principle we can also implement all types of dinosaur and observe their coexistence in artifcially made exosystem.
  13. 13. C. Langton paper’s entitled “Artificial Life”,1987 Artificial life is the study of man-made systems that exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural living systems. Traditionally, biology attempts to analyze (top-down approach) living organisms while artificial life attempt to synthesize (bottom-up approach) life-like behaviors within computers and other artificial media. AL can contribute with biology by exploring not only life-as-we-know-it but life-as-it-could-be
  14. 14. Braitenberg vehicles and synthetic psychology
  15. 15. Von Neumann’s Universal Constructor-cellular automata John von Neumann’s Universal Constructor is a self-replicating machine in a cellular automata (CA) environment. It was designed in the 1940s, without the use of a computer. The fundamental details of the machine were published in von Neumann’s book Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata, completed in 1966 by Arthur W. Burks after von Neumann’s death. Von Neumann’s goal was to specify an abstract machine which, when run, would replicate itself. In his design, the machine consists of three parts: a ’blueprint’ for itself, a mechanism that can read any blueprint and construct the machine (sans blueprint) specified by that blueprint, and a ’copy machine’ that can make copies of any blueprint. After the mechanism has been used to construct the machine specified by the blueprint, the copy machine is used to create a copy of that blueprint, and this copy is placed into the new machine, resulting in a working replication of the original machine. Some machines will do this backwards, copying the blueprint and then building a machine.
  16. 16. Langton loop
  17. 17. Origin of life by cellular automata [T. Ikegami, K. Suzuki / BioSystems 91, 2008] http://cmg.soton.ac.uk/research/projects/ cellular-automata-modelling-of-membrane-formation-and-prot
  18. 18. Schr¨odinger’s ”paradox [Wikipedia] In a world governed by the second law of thermodynamics, all isolated systems are expected to approach a state of maximum disorder. Since life approaches and maintains a highly ordered state, some argue that this seems to violate the aforementioned second law, implying that there is a paradox. However, since the biosphere is not an isolated system, there is no paradox. The increase of order inside an organism is more than paid for by an increase in disorder outside this organism by the loss of heat into the environment. By this mechanism, the second law is obeyed, and life maintains a highly ordered state, which it sustains by causing a net increase in disorder in the Universe. In order to increase the complexity on Earth—as life does—free energy is needed and in this case is provided by the Sun .
  19. 19. Takashi Ikegami labolatory activity Autonomous Sensor Network Web Default Mode Network Exploring Embodied Neural Mechanisms Concept of Time in Artificial Agents Artificial Life Robot A Self-sustaining Visual Feedback Machine Perceptual crossing http://sacral.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/
  20. 20. Popularity of Artificial Life [Wendy Aguilar et al., ”The past, present, and future of Aritificial Life ” , Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 2014]
  21. 21. Current status of Artificial Life The ALIFE 2018 conference will be a stimulating home for a rich and diverse research community in Artificial Life and related fields from around the world, with a special emphasis on encouraging communication and building bridges between the different research threads that make Artificial Life such an exciting field. Following in the tradition of recent artificial life conferences, the meeting will also have an overall theme that reflects the global nature of the first joint conference: Beyond AI. We believe that AI is just a side effect of ALIFE and we believe that this conference is going to be a turning point for both ALIFE and AI researchers.
  22. 22. Alife2012 programme: page 1
  23. 23. Alife2012 programme: page 2
  24. 24. Alife2012 programme: page 3
  25. 25. Alife2012 programme:page 4
  26. 26. Short history of Artificial Life [Wendy Aguilar et al., ”The past, present, and future of Aritificial Life ” , Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 2014]
  27. 27. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/ artificial-life-developers-response-deepak-chopras-article
  28. 28. Sophia is a social humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong-based company Hanson Robotics. Sophia was activated on April 19, 2015 and made her first public appearance at South by Southwest Festival (SXSW) in mid-March 2016 in Austin, Texas, United States. She is able to display more than 62 facial expressions.
  29. 29. Boston dynamics
  30. 30. http://web.cs.ucla.edu/~dt/alife.html
  31. 31. Gaia hypothesis The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet. The Gaia hypothesis states that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is kept at a dynamically steady state by the presence of life. The atmospheric composition provides the conditions that contemporary life has adapted to. All the atmospheric gases other than noble gases present in the atmosphere are either made by organisms or processed by them.
  32. 32. Figure: Self-regulating mechanism due to presence of living form on the Earth.
  33. 33. Difference between AI and ALife AI limits itself to information processing while ALife systems reproduce full functionality and are embodied in real physical world. It is like difference between few humanoid robots and computer program playing in chess. In broader sense ALIFE means ability to self-replicate with certain accuracy with maitanance of certain order.
  34. 34. Metacreation: Art and Artificial Life Alife art responds to the increasing technologization of living matter by creating works that seem to mutate, evolve, and respond with a life of their own. Pursuing a-life’s promise of emergence, these artists produce not only artworks, but generative and creative processes: here creation becomes metacreation. Whitelaw presents a-life art practice through four of its characteristic techniques and tendencies. ”Breeders” use artificial evolution to generate images and forms, in the process altering the artist’s creative agency. ”Cybernatures” form complex, interactive systems, drawing the audience into artificial ecosystems. Other artists work in ”Hardware,” adapting Rodney Brooks’s ”bottom-up” robotics to create embodied autonomous agencies. The ”Abstract Machines” of a-life art de-emphasize the biological analogy, using techniques such as cellular automata to investigate pattern, form and morphogenesis. Whitelaw surveys the theoretical discourses around a-life art, before finally examining emergence, a concept central to a-life, and key, it
  35. 35. Time Mind Machine (MTM) by Ikegami (MIT Press 2013) The autonomy of artificial life must be understood as a sort of default mode that self-organizes its baseline activity, preparing for its external inputs and its interaction with humans. I thus propose a method for creating a suitable default mode as a design principle for living technology. MTM runs continuously for 10 h per day and receives visual data from its environment using 15 video cameras. The MTM receives and edits the video inputs while it self-organizes the momentary now. Its base program is a neural network that includes chaotic dynamics inside the system and a meta-network that consists of video feedback systems. Using this system as the hardware and a default mode network as a conceptual framework, I describe the system’s autonomous behavior (potential living technology). [T.Ikegami] http://www.shift.jp.org/en/archives/2012/12/takashi_ikegami.html, https://vimeo.com/28762095
  36. 36. Human + machine ... or better (or not better??): Human + machine + biomodifications of human and biomodifications of surronding animals... Origin of emergence of culture and ideology in human and animal interaction is open issue...
  37. 37. References 0. Artificial Life conferences http://alife.org/conference/alife-2018. 1. Ikegami Lab, University of Tokyo 2. N.Ono, T.Ikegami, ”Artificial Chemistry: Computational Studies on the Emergence of Self-Reproducing Units.”:, Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Artificial Life, ECAL 2001. 3. Theo Jansen, Artificial Life Art http://www.artfutura.org/02/05jansen_en.html. 4. Ben Ramalingam et al., ” Exploring the science of complexity: Ideas and implications for development and humanitarian efforts” https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/833.pdf. 5. Synthetic biology: http://embor.embopress.org/content/embor/9/9/822/F1.large.jpg?width=800&height=600&carousel=1. 6. Artificial Life, SFI Studies in Sciences of Complexity, Langton , 1988. 7. Wendy Aguilar et al., ”The past, present, and future of Aritificial Life ” ,Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 2014. 8. Gaia hypothesis as by Wikiepdia: http://www.gaiatheory.org/overview/. 9. Whitelaw, ”Metacreation: Art and Artificial Life”, MIT Press, 2004. 10. Thomas Douglas ,”Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 2013. 11. Symbiotic future of machine and human https://medium.com/@Synced/ a-brief-introduction-to-humanistic-intelligence-the-symbiotic-future-of-machine-and-human-e79500c1af97. 12. Human machine symbiosis: https://ec.europa.eu/futurium/en/content/human-machine-symbiosis. 13. Dave Auckley, ”Lectures on Artificial Life” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJRRu4dJnTI. 14. John Byl, ”Self-Reproduction in Small Cellular Automata”, Physica D, 34, 1989. 15. Langton, Langton loops. http://www.alaricstephen.com/main-featured/2017/6/27/langtons-loops. 16. Google AI Lab https://www.re-work.co/blog/deep-learning-ilya-sutskever-google-openai. 17. Comway game of life as by Wikiepdia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway. 18. Takashi Ikegami et al., ”A Design for Living Technology: Experiments with the Mind Time Machine”, Artificial Life, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2013. 19. Richard Dawkins, ”The Blind Watchmaker”, 1996. 20. Alan Dorin, Presentation on Artificial Life http://users.monash.edu/~cema/courses/FIT3094/lecturePDFs/lecture1b_IntrodALife.pdf. 21. Valtention Braitenberg, ”Vehicles, Experiments in Synthetic Psychology”, 1984. 22. Ijaz Muhammad, presentation on ” Synthetic biology” https://www.slideshare.net/ijazm4u/synthetic-biology-56600550 . 23. T. Ikegami, K. Suzuki, ”From a homeostatic to a homeodynamic self” ,BioSystems 91, 2008. 24. apologia-podcast.net/wp/2008/06/13/artificial-life/. 25. www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/ARTL_a_00113?mi=3j6j2j&af=R&searchText=perception.

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