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Earth Science - Volcanoes

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Types of volcanism and volcanic hazards.

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Earth Science - Volcanoes

  1. 1. The Fiery Earth
  2. 2. • There are 4 types of volcanism on Earth 1. Shield cones 2. Cinder cones 3. Composite cones 4. Fissure Eruptions
  3. 3. • Large volcanoes with broad bases and gently sloping sides – Lava composition is mafic – Few gases – Relatively quiet eruptions – Igneous rocks created: Basalt; some Scoria
  4. 4. Mauna Loa, Hawaii
  5. 5. Mauna Kea, Hawaii
  6. 6. • Small volcanoes with steep slopes – Lava composition is felsic, however generally low silica – Higher gas content – Explosive eruptions – Igneous rocks created: Scoria
  7. 7. Lava Butte, Oregon
  8. 8. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua
  9. 9. • Tall, steep volcanoes made of alternating layers of hardened lava flows. – Lava composition is felsic – Gases vary – Both quiet and explosive eruptions – Igneous rocks created: Pumice, Obsidian, Rhyolite
  10. 10. Mount St. Helens, Washington
  11. 11. Mount Pinatubo, Phillipines
  12. 12. • Fracture or crack from which lava erupts – Lava composition is mafic – Few gases – Quiet eruptions, repeated layers – Igneous rocks created: Basalt
  13. 13. • Tiny jagged pieces of rock and glass – After an eruption, wind can carry ash far away – Most settles on the land around the volcano
  14. 14. • Aa – jagged chunks of lava formed by rapid cooling.
  15. 15. • Pahoehoe – forms a wrinkled, ropy texture as the lava cools.
  16. 16. • A fast moving flow of mud, rocks, and debris – occurs when water from glaciers is released due to a volcanic eruption
  17. 17. • A fast-moving, dense, super-heated, poisonous gas cloud.
  18. 18. • Large clots of lava thrown out of an erupting volcano – while red-hot, spin through the air, cool, and develop a round or spindle shape.
  19. 19. Images 1. Ellen van den Berg, “The Skjaldbreiour Shield Volcano” September 2, 2009 via Flickr, Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivs License http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2422/3903567972_aab3c8429a_z.jpg 2. Dan Dzurisin, “Overlook Vent and Mauna Loa, Predawn” June 15, 2008 via Flickr, Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivs License http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3024/2582939400_e0aeeb30a2_z.jpg 3. Hector Parayuelos, “Maua Kea 1” September 5, 2009 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivs License http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7168/6620817281_b2a6079619_z.jpg 4. Tim Rawle, “Cinder Cones of Hale Pohaku” March 25, 2009 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivs License http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2436/3543949826_5540b79619_z.jpg 5. Rhiannon Boyle, “Lava Butte” August 2, 2010 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4080/4880719919_7aaa7082dd_z.jpg 6. Garrett Ziegler, “Cerro Negro, Nicaragua” May 29, 2012 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivs License http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8025/7355197970_accf1e28df_z.jpg 7. Jessica, “Mount Fuji” November 16, 2012 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8204/8230795750_7e493a8f3a_z.jpg 8. Dave Schumaker, “Mount St. Helens” August 19, 2009 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivs License http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3518/3844015809_40d284ab40_z.jpg
  20. 20. Images, continued 9. Storm Crypt, “Pinatubo’s Northeast Shore” August 16, 2008 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivs License http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3128/2927114406_0e573f4175_z.jpg?zz=1 10. Islomaniac, “New lava fountain eruption from smoldering fissure” March 2011 via Flickr, Attribution License http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5175/5536447923_01e3470e13_o.jpg 11. Finnur Malmquist, “Eruption in Eyjafjallajokull” May 7, 2010 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivs License http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4070/4588825332_58d859df97_z.jpg 12. ccarlstead, “Aa Lava Flow” January 13, 2011 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5171/5412138468_0c097402b8_z.jpg 13. Zack Jackson, “Lava” January 12, 2005 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3078/3241111818_78c08cc901_z.jpg 14. UWI Seismic Research Centre, “Lahar flow in Plymouth” May 20, 2005 via Flickr, Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivs License http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2443/3706671983_801e8f2989_z.jpg 15. gnuckx, “Italy Etna Volcano” October 27, 2008, Attribution License http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3484/3208523096_6ba9e9c115_z.jpg 16. GabeD, “Galapagos-Isabela” December 28, 2008 via Flickr, Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3261/3203163476_5d233f099b_z.jpg?zz=1

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