Affinity group from ben 1


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  • Attempting to define “struggling reader” is like trying to nail Jell-O to a wall (David Moore).
  • (Slavin, Effective Reading Programs For The Elementary Grades, Best Evidence Encyclopedia) ?? Should I add this to the reference list?
  • (Slavin, Effective Reading Programs For The Elementary Grades, Best Evidence Encyclopedia) ?? Should I add this to the reference list?
  • Affinity group from ben 1

    1. 1. Approaches toInterventions WithStruggling Readers inGrades K-2Presented byAshley, Crystal & Kristy
    2. 2. RationaleThere are struggling readers everywhere. This is anissue every teacher will encounter in his/her teachingcareer. We chose to focus on interventions for GradesK-2, because early intervention seems to be mosteffective in improving the overall reading abilities ofstudents.We will suggest ten research-based “best practices” forstruggling readers, as well as an in-depth focus onthree specific interventions--Visual Phonics, PeerAssisted Learning Strategies, and Targeted ReadingIntervention--for use within a Tier 2, classroomintervention model.
    3. 3. What does “Tier 2” mean?“…in 2004, Congress provided educators with an optionthat just might help us to undo some of the mistakes ofthe past and close the current reading achievement gap:the Response to Intervention (RTI) initiative.”A 3-Tiered Model has become the most common form ofRTI•Tier 1: classroom reading lessons (core)•Tier 2: additional expert reading instruction typicallyoffered daily in a small group•Tier 3: one-on-one daily tutorials based on individualneeds(Allington, 2011)
    4. 4. Research That Supports OurRationale“Too often ‘what the research says’ has been ignored andineffective instructional practices continue unabated inU.S. classrooms.” (Allington, 2013)“Entrepreneurial enterprises continue to hold much moresway on daily practice than do research activities.”Reading lessons, curriculum, and assessment have beenaltered in accordance with the “research” presented viaReading First. Unfortunately, much of this “research” wasbased on entrepreneurial benefit rather than valid andreliable results. (Allington, 2013)
    5. 5. More Research That SupportsOur Rationale“Studies have shown that virtually every student could bereading on grade level by the end of 1st grade and that thecost of achieving this goal is substantially less than thecurrent system of remediation, special education, andgrade retention.” (Allington, 2011)“…good readers typically spend 500% more time readingthan struggling readers.” (Guthrie, 2004)“Children who are behind in reading at the end of the firstgrade usually continue to be behind at the fourth gradeand throughout their schooling” (Cihon, 2008)
    6. 6. Even More Research ThatSupports Our RationaleEffective reading interventions are comprised of 3 keyelements:1. Explicit instruction of the alphabetic principlegrounded in reading for meaning2. Early intervention - Kindergarten, 1st, and 2ndgrades3. Small group and/or one-on-one intensive instruction(Foorman & Moats, 2004)
    7. 7. How do we define strugglingreaders?Struggling readers are children who cannotkeep up with the reading demands placedupon them by school curriculum based onany number of factors.Adapted from
    8. 8. How can we help ourstruggling readers?
    9. 9. Worst Practices for StrugglingReaders Teaching children to read nonsense words (andassessing them using timed measures) (Allington,2013) Phonics worksheets (Allington, 2013) Computer-based reading products (Allington, 2011) Labeling children who “don’t read so good” (Morrow &Gambrell, 2011)
    10. 10. More Worst Practices forStruggling Readers “Not a single reliable study supports the use of any of thecommercial core programs…of the 153 different reading programsreviewed by the WWC, only one had ‘strong evidence’ that itimproved reading achievement! That program was ReadingRecovery…” (What Works Clearinghouse [WWC], 2007); Allingtonfurther states, “No research existed then, or exists now, tosuggest that maintaining fidelity to a core reading program willprovide effective reading lessons.” Core reading programs have 3main shortfalls: they require minimal engaged reading, they don’tpromote high-success reading, and they don’t encourage self-selected reading. (Allington, 2011)
    11. 11. General Best Practices1. Increase the amount of meaningful texts and genresstruggling readers are exposed to.When reading lessons are meaning focused, struggling readersimprove more than when lessons are skills focused. (Allington,2013)2. Use appropriately leveled texts.Struggling readers are typically asked to read texts that are too difficultfor them. They should be developing reading skills using texts that theycan read with 98% accuracy. (Allington, 2013)3. Explicitly teach decoding skills to those strugglingreaders who would benefit from it.There is substantial evidence that many children who fall behind inbeginning reading are not qualitatively different from other readers, butrather require intense, systematic decoding instruction in order to learnto read. (Pressley, 2006)
    12. 12. General Best Practices4. Increase independent, engaged reading time.Because good readers typically spend 500% more time readingthan struggling readers, “Educators should attempt to increaseengaged reading time [for struggling readers] by 200%-500%.”(Morrow & Gambrell, 2011)Independent engaged reading is very important. This is knownas self-teaching. In a study of the self-teaching hypothesis onegroup of children from low-income families received 12 free,self-selected books every summer while a second group ofchildren did not receive books. The children who received thebooks gained reading achievement over the summer, while thechildren who did not receive the books experienced summerreading loss. (Allington, 2013)Struggling readers need to read more every day than their peerswho are more skilled readers. However, most tasks required ofstruggling readers require little reading. (Allington, 2013)
    13. 13. General Best Practices5. Use small teacher/student ratios, including expert teachers andpeer tutoring.Small-group (e.g., 1:3) instruction…may provide [struggling readers] withopportunities to learn the models of [literacy strategies] that enhancesunderstanding from their peers. (Vaughn et al., 2003)It is critical that expert teachers are working with struggling readers ininterventions. Many schools assign paraprofessionals to this role. (Allington,2013)6. Encourage inventive spelling.Giving children plenty of opportunities to use inventive spellingsimultaneously develops phonemic awareness and understanding ofthe alphabetic principle. It provides a natural purpose for children tolearn letter-sound relationships. (Allington, 2013)
    14. 14. General Best Practices7. Differentiate instruction for struggling readers.Effective teachers are able to teach several decodingapproaches effectively. They are able to adapt their teachinguntil they locate the best method for an individual child.(Allington, 2013)8. Use frequent assessments to determine the effectivenessof interventions.Frequent assessments are necessary to determine theeffectiveness of the intervention for a child. (Cihon, 2008)
    15. 15. General Best Practices9. Teachers should show their passion and excitement forliterature, and pass that onto their struggling readers.Most of all, the teacher must have a passion for reading himself/herself.I do not think you can instill the importance of reading within yourchildren if you do not exude it yourself. (Archer, 2004)10. School-wide targeted Professional Development withteacher coaching.Targeted professional development and classroom coaching forteachers can have a powerful effect on reading instruction. (Allington,2013)
    16. 16. An In-Depth Focus on 3Different Interventions1. Visual Phonics2. Peer Assisted Learning Strategies3. Targeted Reading Intervention
    17. 17. Visual Phonics Research supports the effectiveness of using visualphonics with students who are deaf and/or hard-of-hearing. These studies offer results for using visual phonicswith hearing children at risk of reading failure. At risk Kindergarteners were provided instruction inVisual Phonics for 10-12 minutes per day, 3 times perweek Progress in developing knowledge of letter-sound relationships wascompared to a similar at-risk peer group that did not receive theintervention
    18. 18. Visual Phonics Methods One distinct hand movement for each phoneme Hand gestures are tied to articulation and letters,making sound concrete Hand signs mimic some aspect of sound production,and sometimes provide visual or kinesthetic links toletter shapes Written symbols can be used to clarify sounds inprinted context
    19. 19. Visual Phonics Results Post-intervention gains on DIBELS and the CBM All students improved letter-sound correspondenceskills Most students had a decrease in their reading risklevel
    20. 20. Advantages of Visual Phonics Easy to learn (6 hours) Inexpensive: initial investment of $50 - 100 fortraining, no consumable materials Generic lesson plan(Cihon, 2008 and Gardner, et al., 2013)
    21. 21. Peer Assisted LearningStrategies (PALS)"The PALS activities were very easy to implement. Theyprovided intensive times of actual reading by every student, aswell as interaction with other students. It provided a valuableaddition to my regular reading instruction. I believe the PALSprogram was of benefit to low, average, and high performingstudents." (Mrs. King, Dodson Elementary School, Nashville)“PALS was a good experience for me. It helped me cooperatewith other students. For example one of my partners read a fourparagraph page very slowly. I helped him. The next day he readmuch better. That made me feel really good. Later, anotherPALS partner I had didnt like to answer the PALS question.When I showed her how, she was spectacular. I loved PALS. Ihope to do it again." (Student Response, Myers)
    22. 22. PALS Method PALS consists of two parts:1. Teacher-Led Reading Instruction Readers learn specific strategies for reading fluency,phonemic awareness and phoneme knowledge,vocabulary and comprehension2. Student-Led Reading Instruction The teacher organizes pairs of readers together, makingsure they are at different reading levels Pairs take turns reading orally together
    23. 23. PALS Results At the primary grades, students achieved better withthe standard PALS, without the addition of elaboratedhelp-giving strategies. (Fuchs et al, 1999) Results show that students participating in the PALSprogram make significant gains in their readingfluency, confirming the usefulness of the PALSprogram to reduce the gap between adequate andinadequate first grade readers. All schools with a firstgrade program should have PALS available forintervention of reading fluency. (Ary et al, 2006)
    24. 24. PALS Strengths The students lead the paired readinginstruction, thus teaching each other. The social aspect is key when students canhear and see what their peers can do. Pair groups are assigned based on ability. The PALS website has excellent trainingopportunities for teachers.
    25. 25. Targeted ReadingIntervention (TRI) One-on-one instruction Diagnostic thinking and “instructionalmatch” Rapid acceleration of decoding abilitiesand text comprehension Escalating opportunities to read Literacy coaches
    26. 26. TRI Main Points Based out of the University of NorthCarolina Designed for struggling readers inKindergarten and 1stgrade in rural low-SES communities
    27. 27. TRI Method Apply strategies using classroom teachers in one-to-one and small group instruction in 15-minutedaily diagnostic teaching sessions comprised of: Re-reading for Fluency Decoding skills: Integrates multiple reading skills in each Instruction takes place within the context of words andtexts Multi-sensory methods Teacher provides continual feedback Guided Oral Reading TRI Extensions
    28. 28. TRI Method Ongoing, collaborative professionaldevelopment model designed to helpteachers: Acquire essential knowledge of early readingdevelopment that is especially critical forstruggling readers Learn a set of assessment-based readingstrategies to match the skill level of each child Literacy coach works with teacher on aweekly basis, in person or via webcam
    29. 29. TRI Results & Strengths TRI has the potential to greatly improve thereading skills of struggling readers inKindergarten. Evidence of Kindergarteners “catching up” Didn’t prove to be as effective for the 1stgrade students inthe study - concluded to be related to low levels ofimplementation fidelity A cost-effective way to provide intensive supportto struggling readers.(Vernon-Feagans, et al., 2010)
    30. 30. Professional DevelopmentTogether, we can make a difference in our schools!
    31. 31. Approaches for EngagingColleagues1. Build a learningcommunity forstudents and staff.2. Provide directinstruction in readingstrategies of proficientreaders.3. Design ways thatstudents canindependently usecomprehension skills.4. Teach teachers how tocollect and analyzedata in order tomonitor and modifyinstruction.5. Celebrate and sharesuccesses.(Grimes, 2004)
    32. 32. Professional DevelopmentResources What Works of research on programs,products, practices, & policies ineducation Intervention Centralwww.interventioncentral.orgGreat source for interventions andprogress monitoring tools Read Write strategy guides to sharewith school colleagues on variousliteracy topics
    33. 33. Suggestions for Finding Funds Eliminate workbooks Eliminate test prep Eliminate paraprofessionalsfrom instructional roles Eliminate expenditures forcomputer-based readingprograms(Allington, 2013)
    34. 34. Research SourcesAllington, R.L. (2013). What really matters when working with struggling readers.The Reading Teacher, 66(7), 520-530.Allington, R.L. (2011). What at-risk readers need. Educational Leadership, 68(6),40-45.Archer, J. (2004). Characteristics of an effective teacher of reading in anelementary school setting. Dissertation.Ary, D., Jacobs, L., Razavieh, A., & Sorensen, C. (2006). Introduction toresearch in education. Thomson Wadsworth. Belmont, CA.Cihon, T.M. (2008). Using visual phonics as a strategic intervention to increaseliteracy behaviors for kindergarten participants at-risk for reading failure. Journalof Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 5(3), 138-155.Dunn,Foorman, B. R., & Moats, L. C. (2004). Conditions for sustaining research-basedpractices in early reading instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1),51-60.Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Kazdan, S., & Allen, S. (l999). Effects of peer-assistedlearning strategies in reading with and without training in elaborated help giving.Elementary School Journal, 99, 201-219.
    35. 35. Research SourcesGardner, R., Cihon, T. M., Morrison, D., & Paul, P. (2013). Implementing visualphonics with hearing kindergarteners at risk for reading failure. PreventingSchool Failure, 57(1), 30-42.Grimes, S. (2004). The Search for Meaning. School Library Journal, 50(5).Guthrie, J.T. (2004). Teaching for literacy engagement. Journal of LiteracyResearch, 36(1), 1-30.Morrow, L. M., Gambrell, L. B. (2011). Best Practices in Literacy Instruction,Fourth Edition. The Guilford Press. New York, NY.Pressley, M. (2006). Reading Instruction That Works: The Case for BalancedTeaching, Third Edition. The Guilford Press. New York, NY.Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., Kouzekanani, K., Bryant, D. P., Dickson, S., &Blozis, S. A. (2003). Reading Instruction Grouping for Students with ReadingDifficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 24(5), 301-315.Vernon-Feagans, L., Gallagher, K., Ginsberg, M. C., Amendum, S., Kainz, K.,Rose, J., & Burchinal, M. (2010). A diagnostic teaching intervention forclassroom teachers: Helping struggling readers in early elementary school.Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25(4), 183-193.What Works Clearinghouse. (2007). Find what works: Summarize and comparethe evidence of the effectiveness of interventions that address your school ordistrict ユ s needs. Retrieved June 16, 2013,