Parenting Children with SpecialNeeds: A Focus on Social Skills QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Kristine Strong, Ph.D. Licensed Educational Psychologist #2314 Copyright 2012
Goals for Training: Design a Specific Plan for Your Child Using Planning Sheet Provide a Format for Collaborating with Your Teachers Focus on Two Specific Methods for Supporting your Child: Social Narratives/Social Stories Social Skills Intervention Strategies
The Importance of Social Skills Social competence or Social “Intelligence” is important to future quality of life Peer relations, friendships, and social support networks are protective factors in the face of risk factors or challenges
Who Can This Help? Children with attention and impulsivity challenges Children with an autism spectrum disorder Children with an emotional disturbance Children with learning disabilities Children with health impairments
Social Skills Overview Focus on Pro-social behaviors, these lead to positive outcomes and include: Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Self-Control
Pro-Social Behaviors Cooperation: Using free time appropriately Making transitions Assertion: QuickTime™ and a TIFF needed to see thisdecompres (Uncompressed) picture. are Giving a compliment Initiating a conversation Responsibility: Asking permission Asking for help
Pro-Social Skills Empathy: Show appreciation of others Expressing Concern QuickTime™ and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor for others are needed to see this picture. Self-Control: Controlling anger in conflict situation Responding to teasing
Desired Outcome: Positive Peer Relations, Friends QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.• The ultimate outcome or goal for increasing social skills is to lead to the development of positive peer relations and friendships.Brainstorm: What leads to friendships?
Designing a Plan: Handout Focus on one or two skills that will promote positive interactions with peers Define the skill that you want your child to learn Write out an action plan Make it a plan you can use as a part of a daily routine Collaborate with your child’s teacher/therapist
Social Narratives Social Narratives are considered to be an evidence based practice They are short stories based on real life situations and are specific to your child’s experiences They are simple, to the point, and use visual supports such as pictures or drawings
Social Narratives cont. Social Narratives can address: Positive social interactions such as greetings, compliments, positive comments Reducing repetitive or problem behaviors Frustration, conflict resolution Problem behaviors
Social Narratives: Step by Step Step one: Describe a specific social situation relevant to your child’s social experiences Step two: Define and target a specific skill or behavior-Collaborate with your teacher Step three: Write a short story based on developmental level of your child using pictures or drawings Step four: Implement - how often, when, where, who Step five: Measure progress
Example Narrative 10 year old boy Target skill: Initiate conversation with a peer at recess to increase positive social interactions Review social story before recess and each morning, evaluate how it went after recess with teacher, and at home after dinner and homework is done--develop a home routine
Narrative: Initiating a Conversation Pg 1:I am walking out to recess and see my friend Ethan. Pg 2: He likes the Giants. Pg 3: I ask him, “Did you watch the Giants last night and see Buster hit the home run?” Pg 4: I ask him, “Who do you think is the best pitcher?” Pg 5: I let him know if I agree or not. Pg 6: We walk out to the playground.
Use in Daily Routines White board in kitchen or other area where easy access, quick visual reference Ready made one page or small booklets blank or with scripted prompts Visuals such as cut out pictures, photos, or drawings
Reinforce what works Give feedback daily on what worked Evaluate and make changes to the narrative as needed Update narratives regularly according to interests, social situations, peers Encourage and use positive reinforcement, praise, social rewards
Curriculums/Programs That WorkBy: Michelle Garcia-Winner
Social Skills Intervention Based on the use of positive behavior interventions and use: Modeling Direct teaching, coaching, rehearsing Targeting specific skills, practice Social Problem Solving Using reinforcement systems, contracts Monitoring progress
Social Skills Groups Small groups of Schedule regular three to four meetings children Data collection Similar needs Work toward Similar developmental generalization levels
Modeling Choose skill you want to teach Model the skill in a “mock” situation Provide visual cues, pictures, sequence Practice the skill, have your child model the skill in a mock situation Evaluate, give feedback Role play the skill using different scenarios or situations
Rehearsal Help your child visualize a scene where he/she will use the skill. Help your child practice visualizing themselves using the skill Imagine how other people will respond. Verbal rehearsal, using visual cues, verbally talk through the social interaction. A B C
Coaching Verbal instruction, discussion, and evaluation of using a specific skill Provide “rules” for behavior Evaluate the possible outcomes of using a particular behavior
Example Lesson: Joining In an Activity Introduce and define the skill Identify key steps: Get the attention of QuickTime™ and a the leader of the TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. group Make a positive statement Ask if you can join Thank the group leader
Joining in a Group Model and role play a situation Choose different possible group situations, ie., recess, lunch table, before school socializing, in class group activities Rehearse using visual cues, visualization Set goals--ie., join in one group activity each day.
Volunteering to Help Peers Discuss noticing when Model and role a peer needs help play in volunteering Define skill and what situations it means to volunteer Ask students to Identify Steps: Brainstorm Notice someone situations needs help Ask if he/she needs Set goals--ie., to help offer to help a peer Be cooperative once daily
Problem Solving Steps Problem solving is characterized by the following: Stress that a solution is possible Remind student of previous successes Define the problem Generate potential solutions Evaluate and choose a solution Define steps to implement solution
Social Problem Solving Step 1: Define the Problem: What does it look like? When does it happen? When does this problem NOT happen? Step 2: What can we do about this problem? List 3 solutions Evaluate these solutions – will they help? Choose one of these solutions Step 3: How can this solution work? Explain how you will behave differently using a new solution to the problem. What will be different? Step 4: Practice your new strategy or solution Role play with your teacher and parent. Visualize using this strategy. Step 5: How did it go? What worked? How can you use your new strategies again? When will you need to use your new strategy?
Daily Behavior Report CardStudent: _________________ Date:__________Please rate this child’s behavior today in the areas listed below.1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = fair, 4 = poor and 5 = very poorPlease initial each row following your rating at the end of the activity being rated. Comments canbe added when needed. Please make a copy for parents and provide them with feedback asindicated in the pa rent – school communication agreement.Behavior to be rated Activity/Subject Language Math Recess/ Science Arts LunchCooperation: Getsready for next activitySocial Skills: Acceptsideas from othersConflict Resolution:Uses Problem SolvingChart, Avoids ConflictSituationsComments:
Collaborate With Educators Choose one or two specific skills to focus on for a three to four month period Discuss resources available at your child’s school Develop a plan with educational staff Evaluate progress after initial 6 weeks
Resources Gresham and Elliott: Social Skills Rating System Gresham and Elliott: Social Skills Intervention Guide National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders