THE HUDSONRIVER SCHOOL Cari C.~Alyssa W.~Alex L.
CLEARING UP MISCONCEPTIONS…• The Hudson River school is not, in fact, a school or institution (Unnecessary misnomer, we know.)• It is, in fact, artistically acceptable to keep a stash of dead hummingbirds in your basement. (see slides on Martin Heade)• All landscape artists have cool names.
SO WHAT WAS THE HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL?“The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism.”(In other words, an informal group of creepy, but like-minded and awesomely-named painters.)
Landscape In The Adirondacks, Frederic Edwin Church A Storm In The Rocky Mountains, Albert Bierstadt The Hudson River School style involved carefully detailed paintings with romantic, almost glowing lighting, sometimes called luminism. The paintings for which the movement is named depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, including the Catskill, Adirondack, and the White Mountains; eventually works by the second generation of artists associated with the school expanded to include other locales.
SO, WHY IS THE HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL IMPORTANT? Hudson River School paintings reflect three themes of America in the 19th century: discovery, exploration, and settlement. The HRS combines elements of Romanticism and Nationalism. The first Europeans who came to the New World tended to view nature either as an evil, forbidding wasteland or as a storehouse of economically valuable resources. In either case, wilderness was something to be quickly civilized, brought under human control in the name of progress… The HRS paintings depict the American landscape as a pastoral setting, where human beings and nature coexist peacefully . In general, Hudson River School artists believed that the American landscape was an ineffable manifestation of God, though the artists varied in the depth of their religious conviction. In short: The Romantics that made up the HRS provided an alternative framework through which to see and appreciate the natural world. Hudson River School artists tended to celebrate American wilderness, and they were important in helping Americans to come to see the aesthetic and spiritual value in landscapes that were relatively untouched by human hands.
SOME ARTISTS OF THE HUDSON RIVER SCHOOLThomas Cole, (Founder)Frederic Edwin Church Asher B. Durand Albert Bierstadt Martin Johnson Heade John William Casilear Thomas Moran And now, some examples of these artists…
THOMAS COLE Thomas Cole is recognized as the founder of the Hudson River School. Cole’s landscape paintings emphasized the untouched wilderness of America and his art quickly became popular. He inspired and became the leader of a group of like-minded artists including Asher Durand, Sanford Gifford, and Jasper Cropsey. Together they created the first truly “American” art style.
ALBERT BIERSTADTJanuary 7, 1830 - February 18, 1902
BIOGRAPHY•Born in Solingen, Germany.• He was only about two years old when his familymoved from Germany to New Bedford inMassachusetts.•In 1853 he returned to Germany to study inDusseldorf, where he refined his technical abilities bypainting Alpine landscapes.•Bierstadt returned to America in 1857, and joined anoverland survey expedition which allowed him totravel westward across the country.
Oregon Trail Wind River Country 1 Bierstadt was best known for his large landscapes of the AmericanWest, and was the foremost painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century.
HIS LEGACYBecause of Bierstadts interest in mountainlandscapes, Mount Bierstadt in Colorado is In 1998, the United States Postal Service issued anamed in his honor. Another Colorado mountain set of 20 commemorative stamps entitled "Fourwas originally named Mount Rosa, after Centuries of American Art", one of which featuredBierstadts wife, but it was later renamed Mount Albert Bierstadts The Last of the Buffalo.Evans after Colorado governor John Evans.
MARTIN JOHNSON HEADE August 11, 1819 – September 4, 1904
EARLY LIFE Heade was born and raised in a small house in Lumberville, Pennsylvania, along the Delaware River. Until the 1850s, his family owned Hicks, as painted by his cousin, Thomas and ran the town’s only general store, the Lumberville Store & Post Office. He received his first art training through an artist by the name of Edward Hicks, who lived in the area at the time.Heade, photographed inhis late 30’s (1840s)
HUMMINGBIRDS. EVERYWHERE.During his later years, around1860, Heade took a year-long trip to Brazil (his first ofthree), where he developed an obsession with South American Hummingbirds. Suddenly, everything hepainted was hummingbirds…
WE WARNED YOU ABOUT THE HUMMINGBIRDS.While Heade was certainly well-known for his hummingbird portraiture (thosedetails were from 23 of over 40 hummingbird paintings), he was more highly regarded for his work with landscapes.Heade painted a variety of works using the American wilderness as a subject. His landscapes include the coasts of Maine, the marshes of Florida, and the flat plains of the West. Some examples follow (no more hummingbirds, we promise)…
Evening Lake Alto (Florida)York Harbor(Coast ofMaine)
Sudden Shower(NewberryMarshes) The Great Sunset (Florida)
WORKS CITED"Albert Bierstadt - The complete works." Albert Bierstadt - The complete works. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2011. <http://www.albertbierstadt.org/>. "Hudson River School - Paintings collection." Hudson River School - Paintings collection. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2011. <http://www.hudson-river-school.org/>. "Hudson River School - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson_River_School>."Hudson River School, Part 1." Department of History . N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. <http://www.history.vt.edu/Barrow/Hist3144 "Martin Johnson Heade." Mark Hardens Artchive. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. <http://www.artchive.com/artchive/H/heade.html>."Martin Johnson Heade - The complete works." Martin Johnson Heade - The complete works. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. <http://www.martin-johnson-heade.org/>.