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Integrating cross-cultural interaction through video-communication and virtual worlds in FLT programs: burden or added value?

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presentation at Eurocall 2011 by K. Jauregi

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Integrating cross-cultural interaction through video-communication and virtual worlds in FLT programs: burden or added value?

  1. 1. Integrating cross-cultural interaction through video-communication and virtual worlds in FLT programs: burden or added value? Kristi Jauregi, Rick de Graaff & Silvia Canto Utrecht University and partners Eurocall 2011
  2. 2. NIFLAR 2009-2011 Objectives: <ul><li>Enrich </li></ul><ul><li>Innovate learning processes </li></ul><ul><li>Improve </li></ul><ul><li>Make them more rewarding!! </li></ul>
  3. 3. How? Interaction Telecollaboration Learner centeredness ICC Authenticity of language learning Blended learning
  4. 4. Second Life Open Sim Video- communication Adobe connect Virtual worlds NIFLAR 2009-2011, Virtual environments:
  5. 5. Experiences NIFLAR (2009-2011) <ul><li>22 pilot experiences have been carried out in video-communication and Second Life (OS), </li></ul><ul><li>Both with secondary and tertiary learners (A1-B2 / pre-service teachers) </li></ul><ul><li>430 students have participated in cross-cultural sessions (1 to 1 / 1 to 2) (3 to 5 sessions) </li></ul><ul><li>60 interaction tasks for Dutch, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish have been developed & tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Data gathered for research </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Integrating telecollaboration, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>burden or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>added value? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. L Individual level Classroom level <ul><li>Learners current level of ICC </li></ul><ul><li>Learners’motivation & expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (tools, access) </li></ul><ul><li>General organisation of course/study </li></ul>Socioinstitutional level <ul><li>Local group dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Preexchange briefing </li></ul><ul><li>Prestige of TL & culture </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (tools, access) </li></ul><ul><li>General organisation of course/study </li></ul>Classroom level L Individual level <ul><li>Local group dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Preexchange briefing </li></ul><ul><li>Preexchange briefing </li></ul><ul><li>Prestige of TL & culture </li></ul><ul><li>Learners current level of ICC </li></ul><ul><li>Learners’motivation & expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Learner matching procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Task design (content, sequencing) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-teacher relationship: communication </li></ul>Socioinstitutional level Interaction level
  8. 8. Research issues <ul><ul><li>What are foreign language learners’ experiences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any impact on motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any indication suggesting that learners learn more if they have the opportunity to engage in networked interaction with experts according to relevant tasks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens during those cross-cultural interactions? </li></ul></ul>Is there an added value in implementing virtual interaction through video-communication & virtual worlds in language teaching curricula?
  9. 9. Data sources <ul><li>Pre-, mid- and postsurveys </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Pre & post oral tests </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded interactions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Research issues <ul><ul><li>What are foreign language learners’ experiences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any impact on motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any indication suggesting that learners learn more if they have the opportunity to engage in networked interaction with experts according to relevant tasks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens during those cross-cultural interactions? </li></ul></ul>Is there an added value in implementing virtual interaction through video-communication & virtual worlds in language teaching curricula?
  11. 11. Language learners’ experiences Environment “ Transcription of unknown (new) words or difficult words (spelling)” “ To see facial Expressions and gestures, it helps the communication” (VWC) “ Eye-contact motivates to talk more” (VWC) “ It’s more anonimous, so less nervous” (VW) X: 2,8 X: 2,6 X: 3,7 X: 3,0 X: 4,1 X: 3,6
  12. 12. Language learners’ experiences Learning outcomes 4,2 4,1 3,8 3,9 4 4,4 3,9 3,5 3,7 3,9 3,7 4
  13. 13. Foreign language learners’ experiences: positive aspects “ Step by step you learn to speak more easily in the target language without feeling any boundaries . It improves your talking skills ” “ We learned a lot of new words , known culture and lifestyle in the Netherlands. I have no fear of speaking ” “ I had an opportunity to talk with a native speaker which is not very frequent in the language course. We had also interesting tasks , so it was something different than a normal lesson” “ Personally I think that the greatest thing is that we made new friends from the Netherlands so we can keep in touch and keep improving”
  14. 14. Research issue 2 <ul><ul><li>What are foreign language learners’ experiences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any impact on motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any indication suggesting that learners learn more if they have the opportunity to engage in networked interaction with experts according to relevant tasks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens during those cross-cultural interactions? </li></ul></ul>Is it worth implementing virtual interaction through video-web communication or virtual worlds in language teaching curricula?
  15. 15. <ul><li>3 groups of Spanish (B1) at random: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental group VC (N:14) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental group SL (N:14) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control group (N: 14) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>participated in 5 interaction sessions during a 7 weeks’ course and filled in a 13 item survey every week covering: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A ttitudes towards interacting with native speakers (Willingness to Communicate: Learning goals, Linguistic self-confidence, Language anxiety). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes towards the course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes to the L2 culture </li></ul></ul>Impact on motivation
  16. 16. <ul><li>Comparisons between experimental and control groups reached significant values for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perceived competence in the target language, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decrease of speaking anxiety. </li></ul></ul></ul>Impact on motivation. Results:
  17. 17. Start interaction sessions 5 point Likert scale Spanish
  18. 18. I get very worried if I make mistakes when interacting in the target language Start interaction sessions 5 point Likert scale Spanish
  19. 19. I feel nervous when speaking in the target language Start interaction sessions 5 point Likertscale Spanish
  20. 20. Research issue 3 <ul><ul><li>What are foreign language learners’ experiences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any impact on motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any indication suggesting that learners learn more if they have the opportunity to engage in networked interaction with experts according to relevant tasks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens during those cross-cultural interactions? </li></ul></ul>Is it worth implementing virtual interaction through video-web communication or virtual worlds in language teaching curricula?
  21. 21. <ul><li>3 groups of Spanish (B1) at random chosen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental group VC (N:14) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental group SL (N:14) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control group (N: 14) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>participated in 5 sessions during a 7 weeks’ course. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruments: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Pre- & post- oral tests were taken and recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Oral tests were assessed by 2 independent raters according to an assessment grid (CEFR: range, accuracy, fluency, coherence & adequacy) </li></ul></ul>Learning effect
  22. 22. Interaction effect between condition and pre- and post-tests was found to be significant. In other words, the difference between pre- and post- test scores depends on the specific condition (F 2, 34 = 5.01; p = .012). The results show that the difference between pre- and post- oral tests depends on the specific condition. Especially in the SL and VWC condition students show on average more progression than in the control condition. Hence, both SL and VWC have an additive effect on students’ test scores. Learning effect. Results.
  23. 23. Research issues <ul><ul><li>What are foreign language learners’ experiences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any impact on motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there any indication suggesting that learners learn more if they have the opportunity to engage in networked interaction with experts according to relevant tasks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens during those cross-cultural interactions? </li></ul></ul>Is it worth implementing virtual interaction through video-web communication or virtual worlds in language teaching curricula?
  24. 24. Interaction analysis Click to access recording
  25. 25. Interaction analysis Click to access recording
  26. 26. Interaction analysis <ul><li>Learners exposed to very rich input (i+1; pragmatic adequacy). </li></ul><ul><li>Learners use language meaningfully (output hypothesis + ICC) . </li></ul><ul><li>Varied sequences of negotiation of cultural and linguistic meaning emerge. </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity of interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive learning atmosphere. It is fun! </li></ul><ul><li>Differences VC v. SL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VC static, visual added value (gestures), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more quantity of talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SL dynamic, creative, unexpected L use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linguistic focus, more silences </li></ul></ul>EV en España no hay muchas personas que van en bici / hora / un poco por / en las grandes ciudades empiezan a construir carriles bici para// EU1 ¿carriles? EV carriles bici es la vía por donde va la bicicleta porque Valencia es una gran ciudad donde hay mucho / muchos coches / entonces ellos fabrican una pequeña vía especial solamente para bicicletas EU1 okei EV está pintada en rojo y nosotros vamos / la bicicletas / es más seguro ir por el carril bici / pero es muy nuevo / es un concepto de hace cuatro o cinco años / normalmente los españoles cogen mucho el coche EU1 okei EV es una pena EU1 en Holanda hay muchos carriles bici
  27. 27. Is it worth integrating networked interaction in FL teaching? <ul><ul><li>Yes! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign language learners’ experiences are very positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant impact on motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indications suggesting that learners learn more if they have the opportunity to engage in networked interaction with experts according to relevant tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richness of cross-cultural interactions </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. But: <ul><li>Be aware of administration and coordination overload for organizing telecollaboration projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible, develop strategies to face the challenges of synchronous interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware that technical problems may arise. </li></ul><ul><li>BE AWARE OF THE BURDEN! </li></ul><ul><li>Be enthusiastic, innovative and creative because it is worth the effort. </li></ul><ul><li>ENJOY THE ADDED VALUE! </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: it is not about environments but about effective pedagogy > adequate integration according to effective pedagogical tasks. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Would you like to know more about NIFLAR? <ul><li>niflar.ning.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.niflar.eu </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for your attention!! </li></ul><ul><li>FUTURE: Euroversity </li></ul><ul><li>http://euroversity.ning.com </li></ul>

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