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Building Energy Modeling and
Building Envelope Design
PROFESSOR ENRICO DE ANGELIS
KRISTIAN GJOKA – ENRICO SALCUNI
POLITECN...
Building description
01/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Boundary Conditions
02/40
Assumptions on adjacent zones
Month
Difference of Monthly
Average Temperature
JANUARY 0.51%
FEBRUARY 0.09%
MARCH 0.03%
APR...
Assumptions on wingwall height
04/40
Scheduling
Monday - Friday
08:00 - 18:00
05/40
 Glazing system
• Al frame with thermal break
• Ratio spandrel to glazing 1/3
• Spandrel stratigraphy: Rockwool 8 cm
2 st...
Spandrel vs. Glazing
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
1
352
703
1054
1405
1756
2107
2458
2809
31...
Optimizations:
1. Glazing System (double/triple glazing, different coatings)
2. Ratio of opaque to transparent area
3. Sha...
GLAZING
DEGREE HOURS YEARLY ENERGY DEMAND
-10000
-5000
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
Baseline
U=3.064
VT=0.690
SHGC=0.696
LowE
...
GLAZING – LOW-E
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
<5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-...
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Extremes Zone Temp...
AVERAGE DAY - AUGUST
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Ext...
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
<5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45
Temperatu...
GLAZING – SELECTIVE
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
<5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40...
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Extremes Zone Temp...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Extremes Zone Temperatur...
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
<5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45
Temperatu...
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
<5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45
Temperatu...
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
9
114
281
448
615
782
949
1116
1283
1450
1617
1770
1937
2104
2271
2438
2605
2772
2939
3106
3273
34...
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
9
114
281
448
615
782
949
1116
1283
1450
1617
1770
1937
2104
2271
2438
2605
2772
2939
3106
3273
34...
DEGREE HOURS YEARLY ENERGY DEMAND
-10000
-5000
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
Baseline 3/4
glazing
2/3 glazing Overhang 0.5
m
Ve...
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
<5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45
Temperatu...
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
<5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45
Temperatu...
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Extremes Zone Temp...
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Extremes Zone Temp...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Extremes Zone Temperatur...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Extremes Zone Temperatur...
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
9
114
281
448
615
782
949
1116
1283
1450
1617
1770
1937
2104
2271
2438
2605
2772
2939
3106
3273
34...
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
9
114
281
448
615
782
949
1116
1283
1450
1617
1770
1937
2104
2271
2438
2605
2772
2939
3106
3273
34...
MASS AND VENTILATION
DEGREE HOURS YEARLY ENERGY DEMAND
-10000
-5000
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
Baseline no
mass
High mass
sl...
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
<5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45
Temperatu...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Extremes Zone Temperatur...
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
<5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45
Temperatu...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Extremes Zone Temperatur...
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
BASELINE
Extremes Zone Temp...
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
9
114
281
448
615
782
949
1116
1283
1450
1617
1770
1937
2104
2271
2438
2605
2772
2939
3106
3273
34...
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
9
114
281
448
615
782
949
1116
1283
1450
1617
1770
1937
2104
2271
2438
2605
2772
2939
3106
3273
34...
T-T24
T24-Tcomf.
Baseline
Massive
33/40
THERMAL INERTIA VS INSULATION
MASSIVE SLAB
T-T24
T24-Tcomf.
Baseline
Ventilation
34/40
THERMAL INERTIA VS INSULATION
VENTILATION
8090 13530
2%0%
T-T24
T24-Tcomf.
Baseline
35/40
THERMAL INERTIA VS INSULATION
MASSIVE SLAB + VENTILATION
8715 5390
61%8%
MASS
+
VENT.
MASS
+
VENT.
+
SEL.
LET’S SUMMARISE!
BASELINE
GLAZING
AREA 2/3
SHADING
MASS
VENTILATION
LOW-E
SELECTIVE
VENET...
DEGREE HOURS YEARLY ENERGY DEMAND
-10000
-5000
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
Baseline Vent.10 vol/h High mass slab Mass + Vent....
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
<5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45
T...
T-T24
T24-Tcomf.
Baseline
Final
39/40
THERMAL INERTIA VS INSULATION
FINAL STRATEGY
8320 1496
89%3%
THANKS FOR YOUR
ATTENTION
KRISTIAN GJOKA – ENRICO SALCUNI
40/40
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Building Envelope Design - Kristian GJOKA, Enrico SALCUNI

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Different strategies for the optimization of the behaviour of a thermal zone in free floating, acting on the glazing and shading solutions, and thermal mass of the slabs and night time ventilation. The simulations were carried out using mainly the transient simulatons software TRNSYS.

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Building Envelope Design - Kristian GJOKA, Enrico SALCUNI

  1. 1. Building Energy Modeling and Building Envelope Design PROFESSOR ENRICO DE ANGELIS KRISTIAN GJOKA – ENRICO SALCUNI POLITECNICO DI MILANO MSC BUILDING ENGINEERING ACADEMIC YEAR 2015/2016
  2. 2. Building description 01/40
  3. 3. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  4. 4. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  5. 5. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  6. 6. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  7. 7. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  8. 8. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  9. 9. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  10. 10. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  11. 11. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  12. 12. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  13. 13. Boundary Conditions 02/40
  14. 14. Assumptions on adjacent zones Month Difference of Monthly Average Temperature JANUARY 0.51% FEBRUARY 0.09% MARCH 0.03% APRIL 0.12% MAY 0.10% JUNE 0.10% JULY 0.11% AUGUST 0.12% SEPTEMBER 0.18% OCTOBER 0.15% NOVEMBER 0.31% DECEMBER 0.33% 03/40
  15. 15. Assumptions on wingwall height 04/40
  16. 16. Scheduling Monday - Friday 08:00 - 18:00 05/40
  17. 17.  Glazing system • Al frame with thermal break • Ratio spandrel to glazing 1/3 • Spandrel stratigraphy: Rockwool 8 cm 2 steel sheets of 2 mm • Double Clear Glass 44,1 with 16mm air gap • Uf = 5,68 𝑊 𝑚2 𝐾 • Ug = 2,655 𝑊 𝑚2 𝐾 • SHGC = 0,703 • τ = 0,776  Ventilation • 1 vol/h during business hours, Ø otherwise Baseline Model  Slab mass • Massless layers, except for tiles and plasterboard • OVERALL WINDOW • Uw = 3,064 𝑾 𝒎 𝟐 𝑲 • SHGC = 0,696 • τ = 0,690 06/40
  18. 18. Spandrel vs. Glazing -2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 1 352 703 1054 1405 1756 2107 2458 2809 3160 3511 3862 4213 4564 4915 5266 5617 5968 6319 6670 7021 7372 7723 8074 8425 Combined Flow Spandrel [kW] -2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 1 352 703 1054 1405 1756 2107 2458 2809 3160 3511 3862 4213 4564 4915 5266 5617 5968 6319 6670 7021 7372 7723 8074 8425 Combined Flow Glazing [kW] 07/40
  19. 19. Optimizations: 1. Glazing System (double/triple glazing, different coatings) 2. Ratio of opaque to transparent area 3. Shading System (venetians, overhang) 4. Thermal inertia (massless/massive slabs) 5. Night time ventilation (2-5-10 vol/h) 08/40
  20. 20. GLAZING DEGREE HOURS YEARLY ENERGY DEMAND -10000 -5000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Baseline U=3.064 VT=0.690 SHGC=0.696 LowE U=2.033 VT=0.666 SHGC=0.538 Selective U=2.006 VT=0.604 SHGC=0.429 Selective + LowE U=1.988 VT=0.583 SHGC=0.420 Triple glazing U=1.478 VT=0.499 SHGC=0.363 Triple Ar U=1.337 VT=0.499 SHGC=0.357 [DegreeHours] Winter Summer -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Baseline U=3.064 VT=0.690 SHGC=0.696 LowE U=2.033 VT=0.666 SHGC=0.538 Selective U=2.006 VT=0.604 SHGC=0.429 Selective + LowE U=1.988 VT=0.583 SHGC=0.420 Triple glazing U=1.478 VT=0.499 SHGC=0.363 Triple Ar U=1.337 VT=0.499 SHGC=0.357 [kWh/m2] Heating Cooling 09/40
  21. 21. GLAZING – LOW-E 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] BASELINE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] LOW-E Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 10/40 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION
  22. 22. -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 LOW E Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 11/40 AVERAGE DAY - JANUARY GLAZING – LOW-E
  23. 23. AVERAGE DAY - AUGUST 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 LOW-E Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 12/40GLAZING – LOW-E
  24. 24. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] BASELINE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] LOW E Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 13/40 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION GLAZING – SELECTIVE
  25. 25. GLAZING – SELECTIVE 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] BASELINE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] SELECTIVE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 13/40 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION
  26. 26. -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 SELECTIVE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 14/40 AVERAGE DAY - JANUARY GLAZING – SELECTIVE
  27. 27. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 SELECTIVE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 15/40 AVERAGE DAY - AUGUST GLAZING – SELECTIVE
  28. 28. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] BASELINE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] SELECTIVE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 16/40 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION GLAZING – SELECTIVE + LOW-E
  29. 29. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] SELECTIVE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] SEL + LOW-E Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 16/40 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION GLAZING – SELECTIVE + LOW-E
  30. 30. -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 9 114 281 448 615 782 949 1116 1283 1450 1617 1770 1937 2104 2271 2438 2605 2772 2939 3106 3273 3426 3593 3760 3927 4094 4261 4428 4595 4762 4929 5082 5249 5416 5583 5750 5917 6084 6251 6418 6585 6738 6905 7072 7239 7406 7573 7740 7907 8074 8241 8346 8513 8680 BASELINE Zone Temperature [°C] Comfort Range 17/40 DEGREE HOURS GLAZING – SELECTIVE 8098 13770
  31. 31. -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 9 114 281 448 615 782 949 1116 1283 1450 1617 1770 1937 2104 2271 2438 2605 2772 2939 3106 3273 3426 3593 3760 3927 4094 4261 4428 4595 4762 4929 5082 5249 5416 5583 5750 5917 6084 6251 6418 6585 6738 6905 7072 7239 7406 7573 7740 7907 8074 8241 8346 8513 8680 SELECTIVE Zone Temperature [°C] Comfort Range 17/40 DEGREE HOURS GLAZING – SELECTIVE 8545 10411 24%5%
  32. 32. DEGREE HOURS YEARLY ENERGY DEMAND -10000 -5000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Baseline 3/4 glazing 2/3 glazing Overhang 0.5 m Venetian 15° [DegreeHours] Winter Summer -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Baseline 3/4 glazing 2/3 glazing Overhang 0.5 m Venetian 15° [kWh/m2] Heating Cooling 18/40SHADING
  33. 33. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] BASELINE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] OVERHANGS Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 19/40 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION SHADING – OVERHANGS
  34. 34. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] BASELINE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] VENETIANS Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 20/40 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION SHADING – VENETIANS
  35. 35. -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 OVERHANG Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 21/40 AVERAGE DAY - JANUARY SHADING – OVERHANGS
  36. 36. -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 VENETIANS Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 22/40 AVERAGE DAY - JANUARY SHADING – VENETIANS
  37. 37. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 OVERHANG Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 23/40 AVERAGE DAY - AUGUST SHADING – OVERHANGS
  38. 38. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 VENETIANS Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 24/40 AVERAGE DAY - AUGUST SHADING – VENETIANS
  39. 39. -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 9 114 281 448 615 782 949 1116 1283 1450 1617 1770 1937 2104 2271 2438 2605 2772 2939 3106 3273 3426 3593 3760 3927 4094 4261 4428 4595 4762 4929 5082 5249 5416 5583 5750 5917 6084 6251 6418 6585 6738 6905 7072 7239 7406 7573 7740 7907 8074 8241 8346 8513 8680 BASELINE Zone Temperature [°C] Comfort Range 25/40 DEGREE HOURS SHADING – VENETIANS
  40. 40. -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 9 114 281 448 615 782 949 1116 1283 1450 1617 1770 1937 2104 2271 2438 2605 2772 2939 3106 3273 3426 3593 3760 3927 4094 4261 4428 4595 4762 4929 5082 5249 5416 5583 5750 5917 6084 6251 6418 6585 6738 6905 7072 7239 7406 7573 7740 7907 8074 8241 8346 8513 8680 VENETIANS Zone Temperature [°C] Comfort Range 25/40 DEGREE HOURS 9938 7626 45%23% SHADING – VENETIANS
  41. 41. MASS AND VENTILATION DEGREE HOURS YEARLY ENERGY DEMAND -10000 -5000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Baseline no mass High mass slab Vent. 2 vol/h Vent. 5 vol/h Vent. 10 vol/h [DegreeHours] Winter Summer -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Baseline High mass slab Vent. 2 vol/h Vent. 5 vol/h Vent.10 vol/h [kWh/m2] Heating Cooling 26/40
  42. 42. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] BASELINE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] 10 VOL/H Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 27/40 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION VENTILATION
  43. 43. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 10 VOL/H Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 28/40 AVERAGE DAY - AUGUST VENTILATION
  44. 44. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] BASELINE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] MASSIVE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 29/40 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION MASSIVE SLAB
  45. 45. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 MASSIVE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 30/40 AVERAGE DAY - AUGUST MASSIVE SLAB
  46. 46. -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 BASELINE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 MASSIVE Extremes Zone Temperature [°C] Set Point 31/40 AVERAGE DAY - JANUARY MASSIVE SLAB
  47. 47. -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 9 114 281 448 615 782 949 1116 1283 1450 1617 1770 1937 2104 2271 2438 2605 2772 2939 3106 3273 3426 3593 3760 3927 4094 4261 4428 4595 4762 4929 5082 5249 5416 5583 5750 5917 6084 6251 6418 6585 6738 6905 7072 7239 7406 7573 7740 7907 8074 8241 8346 8513 8680 BASELINE Zone Temperature [°C] Comfort Range 32/40 DEGREE HOURS MASSIVE SLAB
  48. 48. -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 9 114 281 448 615 782 949 1116 1283 1450 1617 1770 1937 2104 2271 2438 2605 2772 2939 3106 3273 3426 3593 3760 3927 4094 4261 4428 4595 4762 4929 5082 5249 5416 5583 5750 5917 6084 6251 6418 6585 6738 6905 7072 7239 7406 7573 7740 7907 8074 8241 8346 8513 8680 MASSIVE Zone Temperature [°C] Comfort Range 32/40 DEGREE HOURS MASSIVE SLAB 8694 8227 40%7%
  49. 49. T-T24 T24-Tcomf. Baseline Massive 33/40 THERMAL INERTIA VS INSULATION MASSIVE SLAB
  50. 50. T-T24 T24-Tcomf. Baseline Ventilation 34/40 THERMAL INERTIA VS INSULATION VENTILATION 8090 13530 2%0%
  51. 51. T-T24 T24-Tcomf. Baseline 35/40 THERMAL INERTIA VS INSULATION MASSIVE SLAB + VENTILATION 8715 5390 61%8%
  52. 52. MASS + VENT. MASS + VENT. + SEL. LET’S SUMMARISE! BASELINE GLAZING AREA 2/3 SHADING MASS VENTILATION LOW-E SELECTIVE VENETIANS OVERHANGS LIGHT MASS 2 VOL/h 5 VOL/h 10 VOL/h LOW-E + SELECTIVE AREA 2/3 SELECTIVE VENETIANS MASSIVE SLAB 10 VOL/h MASS + VENT. + SEL. + VENETIANS 36/40
  53. 53. DEGREE HOURS YEARLY ENERGY DEMAND -10000 -5000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Baseline Vent.10 vol/h High mass slab Mass + Vent.10 Mass + Vent.10 + Select. Mass + Vent.10 + Select. + Shading [DegreeHours] Summer Winter -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Baseline Vent.10 vol/h High mass slab Mass + Vent.10 Mass + Vent.10 + Select. Mass + Vent.10 + Select. + Shading [kWh/m2] Cooling Heating 37/40COMBINATION STRATEGIES
  54. 54. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] BASELINE Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 <5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 >45 Temperature intervals [°C] FINAL Hours Summer Hours Winter % Summer % Winter 38/40 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION FINAL STRATEGY
  55. 55. T-T24 T24-Tcomf. Baseline Final 39/40 THERMAL INERTIA VS INSULATION FINAL STRATEGY 8320 1496 89%3%
  56. 56. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION KRISTIAN GJOKA – ENRICO SALCUNI 40/40

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